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Full text of "The Teacher S Hand Book For The Institute And The Class Room"

127 549 



TEACHER'S IAB-BOOX, 



FOB THE 



INSTITUTE AND THE GLASS -BOOM. 



BY 

WM, F. PHELPS, M.A., 

PRINCIPAL OF THE STATE NOEMAL SCHOOL, 
TOSTOBTA, MINN. 



NEW YORK: 
A ft U A TMSTTCS & DOMPAflT. 



Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 2874, by 

TO. P. PHELPS, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



PKEFAOE. 



Isr the preparation of this book it was no part of the 
author's aim to write merely that with which everybody 
would at once agree. In such a case there would be no 
necessity that it should be written. The world does not 
especially need to read the oft-told tale of that which it 
already believes. But free thought and free discussion 
are the soul of progress, Differences of opinion are the 
life of discussion, out of whose crucible must finally issue 
the pure gold of truth, the only Philosopher's Stone 
worthy of human seeking. If, therefore, what is here 
written shall serve to excite discussion, awaken interest, 
and quicken zeal in the great work of elevating the 
teachers of our country to that commanding position 
which they should ever be worthy to occupy in the 
public regard, its leading purpose will have been fully 
realized. 

There are two characters, one or the other of whom 
must in the future occupy a conspicuous place in public 
attention, the educator and the warrior. Either the 
ballot or the bullet, the pen or the sword, will eventually 
dominate the destinies of mankind. Which of these 



is mightier than the sword " only when used to raise up 
those whom the sword would strike down. And the 
educator will be more powerful than the soldier only 
when he rises to the fall measure of his responsibilities 
and duties. Let him prove himself worthy of his voca- 
tion, and the people will respect him for his talents, 
honor him for his wisdom, and reward him for his fidelity 
to the highest of human trusts. 

It is proper to add that the Hand-Book is not aimed at 
the graded systems of the cities as its objective. With 
a perfection of organization and a combination of advan- 
tages unknown in the country, tire problem of education 
with them is reduced to its simplest terms. It will be 
strange indeed if they do not afford us the highest ideals, 
wrought up into the best attainable actuals. But the 
cities, 'with their population, constitute only a small part 
of the republic, while they are unceasingly reinforced 
"by an influx from the rural population, the bone and 
sinew of the nation. Is not the character of those re- 
cruits a question of serious import ? 

The country schools, on the other hand, demand our 
most earnest thought and our best efforts. This humble 
contribution is especially dedicated to the promotion 
of .their interests. May it not altogether fail in its well* 
intended purpose. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 



Iff the preparation of the Second and Fifth Parts of 
the Hand-Book, the undersigned has heen kindly favored 
by the following gentlemen, of whom he begs permission 
thus publicly to express his most grateful acknowledg- 
ments : 

Hon. J. W. Simonds, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Concord, New Hampshire ; Hon. Joseph 
White, Secretary, State Board of Education, Boston, 
Massachusetts ; Hon. J, G. Baird, Assistant Secretary, 
State Board of Education, New Haven, Connecticut ; 
Hon. Neil Gilmour, State Superintendent Public Instruc- 
tion, Albany, New York; Henry Houck, Esq., Deputy 
Superintendent Common Schools, Harrisburg, Penn- 
sylvania ; Eons. T. W. Harvey, State Commissioner, and 
E. E. White, Editor "National Teacher," Columbus, 
Ohio; Hon. 'Newton Bateman of Illinois ; Hon. Edward 
Searing, .State Superintendent Public Instruction, Madi- 
sou, and President elect W. D. Parker, State Normal 
School, River Falls, Wisconsin; Hon. A. Aberaethy, 
State Superintendent Public Instruction, Des Moines, 



mal University, Normal, Illinois ; E. L Wells, and John 
Hull, Esqrs., County Superintendents respectively of 
Ogle and McLean counties, Illinois. 

WILLIAM F. PHEUPS. 

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, 

, MINNESOTA, December, 1874 



CONTENTS. 



PART I. 

CHAPTER I. 

PAOT 

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS 11 

CHAPTER II, 

EDUCATION AND STATESMANSHIP DISCUSSION OF GENERAL 
PRINCIPLES 15 

CHAPTER III. 
DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONTINUED 20 

CHAPTER IT. 
DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONTINUED 27 

CHAPTER V. 
DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINOIPLES CONCLUDED 33 



PART II. 

CHAPTER VI. 
OBJECTS OF THE TEACHERS' INSTITUTE .................. 43 

CHAPTER VII. 
ORIGIN AND BRIEF HISTORY OP INSTITUTES .............. 44 



CHAPTER VIII. 
OBJECTS OF THE INSTITUTE FURTHER CONSIDERED* ....... 56 

CHAPTER IX. 
ORGANIZATION OF INSTITUTES ........................... 60 



CHAPTER X 
ORGANIZATION CONTINUED ,.,......,,. 67 



PART III. 

CHAPTER II. 
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION , 75 

CHAPTER XII. 
CONDUCTING RECITATIONS $*j 

CHAPTER IIIL 
METHODS IN READING * 9$ 



CHAPTER XIV. 

COHTTENUED . < 



CHAPTER XV. 
METHODS IN SPELLING 103 

CHAPTER XVI 
METHODS IN DRAWING. 110 

CHAPTER XVII. 
DRAWING CONTINUED WRITING 116 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
METHODS IN ARITHMETIC 123 

CHAPTER XIX. 
PRIMARY ARITHMETIC 126 

CHAPTER XX. 
MORE ADVANCED ARITHMETIC 129 

CHAPTER XXI, 
ARITHMETIC CONTINUED 133 

CHAPTER XXII. 
SKETCHES OF LESSONS IN ADDITION AND MULTIPLICATION. 139 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
SKETCHES OF LESSONS IN SUBTRACTION AND DIVISION. ... 145 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
FRACTIONS 



CHAPTER XXV. 
ILLUSTRATION OP SEVERAL POINTS IN THE LAST ABSTRACT 136 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY ................................ 165 

CHAPTER XXVII. 
GRAMMARGENERAL OUTLINE OF THE COURSE. .... ...... 173 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

METHODS IN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR SYLLABUS OP 
TOPICS ............................................. 180 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR CONTINUED- ILLUSTRATIVE I/XIH 

185 , 

CHAPTER XXX. 
MORE ADVANCED GRAMMAR ABSTRACT .................. 180 

CHAPTER XXXI. 



THE FORMATION OF HABITR AND OKmnpMKXT ov On Ait. 
ACTER AT Scrrooft ................. * ............ **. 108 

CHAPTKR XXXll 

FOltMATrONOF llAIUTS AND DKVKIiOIMKXT (ir ClUUACTKK, 

COKTIJNOKI) ........................................ 20G 



PAfflB 

PART IV. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 
MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE 214 

CHAPTER XXXIY. 
MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE CONTINUED 218 

CHAPTER XXXV. 
PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS 226 



CHAPTER XXXVL 

PBOFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED THE STATE AND 
EDUCATION 234 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED MENTAL PHILOS- 
OPHY, &c ! 



CHAPTER XXXVIH. 

PBOFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED 260 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 
PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED 255 



PAflB 

PART V. 

CHAPTER XL, 
PROGRAMMES AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 261 

CHAPTER XLI. 
PROGRAMMES CONTINUED 387 

CHAPTER XLII. 
INSTITUTE LEGISLATION 300 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED 802 



CHAPTER XLIY. 
INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED 



CHAPTER XLY. 
INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED 311 

CHAPTER XLVL 

NORMAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES IN THEIR RELATION TO 
THE COMMON SCHOOL SYSTEM 825 



THE TEACHEE'S HAKD-BOOI, 



PA.RT I. 

OHAPTEE I. 

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. 

1. Objects stated. The primary object of tt 
following pages is to aid the teacher in his arduoi 
work. Such a result is to be accomplished, first, by a 
effort to improve one of the most important agencies fc 
his professional instruction and, second, by furnishing 
practical Hand-Book directly suited to his wants in tb 
school-room. 

This double object is rendered practicable on tl 
theory that an institute for the improvement of teachei 
should be organized and conducted, not only as a schoo 
but so far as circumstances will allow, as a model fichop 
It must be conceded that, in a general sense, near! 
everything that is essential to a well-conducted and efl 
cicnt school is equally essential to a well-conducted an 
efficient institute ; and that young teachers should then 
selves be subjected to a regime similar to that whi<* 
they would impose upon their own pupils. Loos 
organization and a slipshod management will yield ad< 
quate results in neither case. 



12 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

2. The Institute and the School. The office 
of the institute and of the school, is to teach, and to a 
great extent, both should teach the same subjects in the 
same way. So far as the institute has special objects of 
its own, it must of course diverge from the work of an 
ordinary school. The divergence, however, must relate 
to a portion of the subject-matter, rather than to the 
method of instruction. It must relate to that which is 
more strictly professional. But one of the best methods 
of teaching how to teach, is by example. Hence, the 
branches required to be taught in the common schools, 
must also be taught more or less in the institutes, and a 
Hand-Book for the institute instructor will be equally 
serviceable to the common-school teacher. 

3. Teachers should be well-informed upon 
all subjects. No profession has greater claims upon 
its members, for a high order of intelligence, than that 
of the teacher. * e The days of a driveling instruction 
are departing." Ignorance, at the head either of a school 
or a school system, presents the preposterous paradox of 
the blind attempting to lead the blind. The time has 
arrived when education, and not the absence of it, must 
guide our educational forces. The teacher must not 
only be a scholar, but he must possess a rich fund of 
general intelligence. He cannot afford to be narrow- 
minded or short-sighted. He must be especially well 
versed in everything that pertains to his profession. 
Whether he ever attends an institute or not, he should 
ko0w what it is. He should study tho history, tho 
object Sj tho methods of organization and management 
of an agency so potent as this in the promotion of - 
his professional interests. If the profession is ever to 
be respected, it must mako itself respectable. To W 
respectable, it must rise above mediocrity. To rise above 



PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. 13 

mediocrity, it must ascend the " hill of science ; " it 
must enter and occupy the temple of learning ; it must 
know its rights ; it must faithfully recognize, and hon- 
estly discharge, its high and solemn duties. 

4. A supply of educated teachers indispen- 
sable. Upon the teachers of the nation, more than 
upon any and all other classes combined, devolves the 
solution of the problem of a wise and generous education 
for the entire people, We may build grand school edi- 
fices on every quarter-section of our territory, we may 
hoard up huge school funds in every State, we may 
endow magnificent institutions with all the wealth of 
" Ormus and of Ind," and yet, without a full and con- 
stant supply of well-educated, skillful, and devoted 
teachers, our efforts for universal education will be in 
vain. School buildings, school funds, and endowments 
are but inert machinery. The power resides in the faith- 
ful teacher alone. He must breathe into these instru- 
ments, as into a perfected organism, the animating breath 
of life. The maxim " as is the teacher, so is the school," 
may be accepted as an educational axiom. The value 
of a school or of a system of schools depends entirely 
upon its quality. Vicious methods of teaching are as 
certain to produce bad citizens ,as the absence of all 
teaching. Hence, the great question is, "What shall be 
the character and qualifications of our teachers, and how 
many of the right sort is it possible to produce ? 

5. The Teacher's influence. The influence of 
the teacher should be no less potent outside of the school- 
room than within that sacred sanctuary. He should be 
able to inform and guide public sentiment in all that 
relates to education. He should be the high priest of 
his profession, thoroughly informed in its history, nature, 
means, and ends. There in no question connected with 



14 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

its principles, its methods, or its polity, which should 
not be as familiar to him as " household words." Since 
education is his business, he should 'comprehend it in all 
its bearings and relations better than any other persons 
comprehend it. His interests and his duty alike demand 
this thorough acquaintance with his specialty. The 
interests of society demand it; and until the school- 
master thus becomes master of the whole situation, he 
can neither receive the consideration due to his profes- 
sion, nor can the world experience the great benefits 
from his labors that it so sadly needs. In no one 
thing is the influence that springs from eminent attain- 
ments and high character on the part of teachers more 
necessary than in shaping the' course of educational 
legislation. The great cause is constantly embarrassed 
and retarded by unwise and inadequate legal enact- 
ments. The representatives of the people, as well as 
the people themselves, are mainly absorbed in the con- 
sideration of questions more immediately affecting their 
material interests. As a general thing, they have neither 
the information nor the disposition requisite to wise and 
progressive legislation upon a subject so foreign to their 
usual course of thought, and demanding the most pro- 
found and careful study. Like other great interests, 
therefore, education needs leaders worthy to represent 
it, and competent to command the support essential to 
the success of its measures. To whom should it be able 
to look for such leadership, if not to those who are 
especially set apart to promote and defend it ? To tke 
teachers of this country, the great duty belongs. Will 
they rise with the emergency and prove themselves equal 
to its demands ? 



EDUCATION AND STATESMANSHIP. 15 



CHAPTER II. 

EDUCATION AND STATESMANSEIP.-DISCTTSSION OF 
GENERAL PBINCIPLES. 

6. Dangers of the Nation. Intelligence and vir- 
tue are the foundation and the corner stone of the Ameri- 
can Republic. Hence, it follows that ignorance . and 
wrong are its most formidable foes. Its theory is that, 
every citizen must be intelligent enough clearly to com- 
prehend, and virtuous enough faithfully to discharge his 
duties. Accordingly, as far as any citizen or any num- 
ber of citizens may fall short of this standard of qualifi- 
cations, so far the practice of the republic contradicts 
its theory, and so far it must suffer the innumerable and 
costly evils flowing from the operation of forces utterly 
and irreconcilably hostile to its interests, its prosperity, 
its perpetuity. While "thinking bayonets," may be 
' important in great emergencies, thinking ballots are 
immeasurably more important in ALL emergencies. If 
the republic should perish, the calamity would arise 
from internal weakness rather than from external vio- 
lence. Ignorance generates poverty, pauperism, and 
crime among the masses, while demagogues, corruption- 
ists, and traitors feed and fatten upon its ignoble spoils. 
An intelligent, virtuous, and vigilant people can neither 
be deceived, corrupted, nor betrayed. But illiteracy is 
an insidious disease, preying upon the vitals of the body 
politic ; and unchecked, it can lead only to a fatal ter- 
mination. 

lu the light of our fundamental theory, let us see how 



16 THE TBACHEE'S HAOTKBOOK. 

the account of the great Republic now stands in this 
regard. 

By the census of 1870, the total population of the 
United States and its territories, exclusive of children 
under ten years of age, and omitting Chinese and 
Indians, was 29,686,864. With the same exclusions and 
omissions, the number of illiterates, or persons unable to 
road and write, was 5,643,534. The meaning of those 
figures is that nearly one-fifth of the population of this 
country, above the age of ten years, is illiterate. But 
since the ability to read and write indifferently does not 
constitute intelligence, since in the absence of the 
restraining virtues those slender attainments are turned 
to bad account, and since, in short, there are many 
grades of ignorance above the "reading and writing 
stage," the number of illiterates as given above must be 
largely ( increased, to represent the iictual state of the 
case. It is to be remarked further, that as a rule, the 
child that roaches the age of ten years an illiterate, 
must remain so, since the great majority of the children 
in our public schools leave them at that age. If they 
havu never been admitted prior to that period, they are 
not likely to be, subsequent to it. The indications twu 
to bo, moreover, that so far are we from making any 
headway against this fearful array of ignorance, it is 
actually on the increase. Certain it is, that with nil 
our boasted educational activity, we arc able to do no 
more than to hold it in check. With the most favorable 
interpretation that wo can give to these facts, the aspect 
is appalling and well calculated to excite in the thought- 
ful mind the most lively apprehensions 

Who can reflect without alarm upon the loss of 
mental and moral power, the waste of material resources, 
and the general deterioration of society, growing out of 



EDUCATION AND STATESMANSHIP. 17 

the presence of so much ignorance" in the very heart 
of the republic ? In view of its existence with all that 
the fact implies, how easy to account for the poverty, 
pauperism, crime, corruption, and other disorders that 
afflict the nation. 

And what shall be* said of the statesmanship that 
either ignores the stern facts of the situation or contents 
itself with the most inadequate measures of relief and 
protection ? Contrast the policy of the United States, 
a republic, with that of United Germany, a monarchy, 
in. respect to the education of the whole people, and you 
have a grand truth in a nut-shell : The real strength and 
glory of a nation are to be sought and found in its 'uni- 
versally educated citizens. Not that we 'w ant the power 
of education to consolidate despotism, but we do want 
it to conserve and promote the highest welfare and hap- 
piness of a free people. As we want no criminals, we 
must have no idlers. As we would have no idlers, we 
must tolerate no illiterates. A true statesmanship looks 
to causes and not alone to palliatives. . The surest 
method of repressing the bad tendencies of human nature 
is to develop the good ones. "An ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure." When will American states- 
manship recognize these palpable truths? Says Aris- 
totle, "That the education of youth ought to form the 
principal part of the legislator's attention cannot be a 
doubt, since education first moulds and afterwards sus- 
tains the various modes of government. The better and 
more perfect the systems of education, the better and 
more perfect the plan of government it is intended to 
introduce and uphold." 

7. The Needs of the Nation. It is legitimate 
to infer from what has already been stated, that what 
the nation needs more than all things else is universal 



18 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

education. It needs this in fact as well as in form, in ' 
practice as well as in theory. It needs not only that 
stark ignorance should be totally exterminated, but that 
every- child, of whatever sex, condition, or nationality, 
should be thoroughly taught and trained It needs that 
its " popular sovereigns," one and all, should be made 
intelligent enough to comprehend their rights, and vir- 
tuous enough to discharge their duties. It needs that 
every person who casts a ballot should be made compe- 
tent so to wield Ms own reason, judgment, and conscience 
as to cast it intelligently, honestly, fearlessly. It needs 
that the masses of the people, " the great conservative 
element," should free themselves from leading strings ; 
that they should be able wisely to discriminate between 
sense and sound, truth and error, wisdom and folly in 
the conduct of public affairs as well as of their own 
affairs. It needs above all, that the ultimate source of 
its power should be pure enough, wise enough, and cou- 
rageous enough rightly to select and rigorously to scruti- 
nize the instruments of its power its public officers of 
every name and grade. When the people, and the whole 
people, are made capable of discerning and choosing 
between the patriot and the partisan, the statesman and 
the demagogue, then indeed will the nation be redeemed, 
regenerated, and disenthralled, and the great republic 
will be invincible in the might of its intelligence and in 
the rectitude of its intentions. 

There may be many who will pronounce such results 
impossible of attainment, and who will assort that the 
great mass of the people cannot thus bo elevated to this 
high piano of intellectual and moral discernment Such 
persons claim that what we need is a highly educated 
class to lead the masses, and guide the affairs of state to 
wise and just conclusions. But such reasoning is sub- 



EDUCATION AND STATESMANSHIP. 19 

versive of the doctrine upon which the republic is based, 
and, followed to its legitimate results, would lead inevit- * 
ably to the alternative that " a government of the peo- 
ple, for the people, and by the people must perish 
forever from the earth." Nevertheless, it cannot have 
escaped the memories of such, that in our greatest 
emergencies, the men for the occasion have been* the 
men of the people and from the people. Many of the 
most illustrious characters in our history have been 
those who have sprung from the bosom of the masses, 
and who, until the occasion called them forth, were to 
" fortune and to fame unknown." Nor should the fact, 
be ignored that whatever may be the issue, whether it 
is to be decided by the ballot or the bullet, the people, 
either as citizens or as citizen soldiers, are the ultimate 
arbiters of the national destiny. Is it then of little im- 
portance that they be made capable of clearly discern- 
ing the merits of public questions and of acting in 
accordance with well-defined and just convictions of 
public duty ? This reasoning, it is needless to add, has 
not for its object the disparagement of a liberally edu- 
cated class. On the contrary, we can never be in danger 
from a surplus of such. It is not that we need highly 
cultured classes less, but well-taught and thoroughly 
trained masses more. No intelligent person needs to be 
reminded that the precise difference between civilization 
with its manifold blessings, and barbarism with its man- 
ifold curses, is that which a wise and generous culture 
creates. Wealth is not so much the product of muscle 
and machinery as of mind. It .is the result of labor 
generated and guided by intelligence. Where there is 
no intelligence, there is no wealth-producing labor. 
Hence, wealth is a child of the cultivated human brain. 
And so, too, the arts that adorn, the philosophies that 



20 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

dignify, the humanities that ennoble, and the institutions 
that bless a civilized society, all await the advent of 
that high order of intelligence which a wise and gener- 
ous education alone can create. In a word, culture is 
the wealth-producing, comfort-promoting, refinement- 
inducing power of the world. Abandon it, and civiliza- 
tion must speedily relapse into barbarism, wealth into 
poverty, and refinement into brutality and degradation. 
Increase its quantity and improve its quality among 
the masses, and you as certainly multiply the sources 
of wealth, and advance the degree of civilization and 
refinement as causes are sure to produce their legitimate 
effects. This, briefly, is the nation's greatest want. It 
needs vastly to increase the source of its power and 
utterly to exterminate the cause of its weakness. 



CHAPTER III 
DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES (CONTINUED), 

8. The kind of Culture needed. The more 
ability to retid and write is not education. It may not 
be even the beginning of true culture. Whether it is 
or is not, depends upon the quality of the teaching 
and consequently upon the quality of the result. When 
words arc habitually read or written in ignorance of 
their import and use, they are instruments of weakness 
rather than of power. They are dead wt'ighttt upon the 
memory rather than lamps to the reason and lights to 
the understanding. The education of ninny a child has 
been forever spoiled by bad methods in the beginning. 



DISCUSSION 07 GBNEEAL PBINCIPLES. 21 

The mechanical use of language not only evolves no 
power but actually stifles development and unfits the 
mind for rational culture. " Ideas before words, things 
before books," is the iirdt principle of primary instruc- 
tion. The thought once developed, the desire for its 
expression creates a longing and a necessity for language. 
In a natural method of teaching, the appetite for lan- 
guage is as irresistible as the appetite for ideas or the 
craving for food. If the teacher be master of his busi- 
ness, he will take the words of his pupils as the measure 
of their thought and the test of its accuracy at every 
step. Their language thus become the index of their 
intellectual states and affords tolhe teacher the certain 
data for correcting all errors and supplying all deficien- 
cies in the working of the mental mechanism. 

A neglect carefully to cultivate the perceptive pow- 
ers during the golden opportunity of early childhood, 
renders accurate observation impossible, beclouds the 
mind with half-formedj distorted conceptions, weakens 
the judgment, paralyzes the reason, corrupts the imagi- 
nation, and saps the very foundation of a virtuous and 
useful life. The impressions received and the habits 
acquired during the first ten years of human existence 
are more decisive either for good or evil, success or fail- 
ure, happiness or misery, than all the influences of the 
after period. And yet these fearful truths seem scarcely 
to have dawned upon the consciousness of mankind. In 
this connection the following impressive words of one 
of our most esteemed American savans,* will be read 
with interest : , 

" The future character of a child, and that of the man 
also, is in most cases formed probably before the age 
of seven years. Previously to this time, impressions 
* Professor Joseph Honry. 



22 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

have been made which shall survive amid all the vicissi- 
tudes of life amid all the influences to which the indi- 
vidual may be subjected, and which will outcrop as it 
were in the last stage af his earthly existence, when the 
additions to his character made in later years have been 
entirely swept away. I may mention one idea which 
has occurred to me, and which I have never seen 
advanced ; but which, if true, invests the subject of early 
impressions with a fearful interest. The science of 
statistics shows that certain crimes which arc common 
in seasons of youth disappear comparatively with 
advancing age, and re-appear again toward the close 
of life ; or, in other words, that the tendencies to indul- 
gencies in disorders of the imagination, and habits which 
were acquired in the early life of a vicious youth, or one 
exposed to evil associations, though they may be masked 
and kept in subjection by the judgment and the influ- 
ences of position and reputation during early manhood, 
middle life, and first decline, resume their sway and 
close the career of the man who has perhaps for years 
sustained a spotless reputation, with ignominy and 
shame." 

It may be safely asserted that multitudes of children 
leave our common schools for the scenes of active life 
every year with their perceptive and observing powers 
thus undeveloped, their intellectual appetencies dormant, 
their sensibilities untouched by ennobling influences, 
their habits misshapen, and the very foundations of their 
success and happiness in the career of existence unset- 
tied if not utterly destroyed. This is especially true in 
many of the rural districts, where the schools are small > 
improperly classified, and meagrely supplied with the 
material aids to instruction ; where the teacher* are 
yonng, inexperienced, untrained, poorly paid and inade- 



DISCUSSION OF GENEBAL PRINCIPLES. 23 

quately supported by an active and healthful public 
sentiment. The schools for our rural population present 
the knottiest problem connected with the entire work of 
universal education, and they demand vastly more 
attention than they have yet received from the states- 
man, the educator, and the people. Deprived, as the 
inhabitants of the country districts are to a great extent, 
of the immediate influence of a High-toned daily press, 
popular lectures, libraries, museums, and other means of 
instruction accorded to the residents of cities, it becomes 
even more important that their schools should be thor- 
oughly taught and wisely managed. They are the prin- 
cipal sources of . the intellectual and . moral life of the 
community. They have to do with the child during the 
most critical because the most susceptible period of his 
existence, and when, if ever, he needs the guiding hand 
of a far-reaching intelligence and a matchless skill to 
secure him from the disasters of false steps and per- 
verted faculties in the beginning. Without exaggera- 
tion, this is the most supremely important question with 
which the statesman and the educator have to deal. 
" The child is father of the man." What the man is to 
be, the child, in all the elements of character, must first 
become. What the child is to become, must be determined 
by the quality of the teaching and the training he is to 
receive. There is no accident, no chance connected with 
the question. It is a question of cause and effect It is 
a question between a far-sighted, whole-souled, compre- 
hensive system of thorough education and its opposite. 
The statesmanship which cannot discern the relations 
between the illiteracy, the bad teaching, the malforming 
methods and influences of poor schools on the one hand, 
and the failures, the social inharmonies, the crimes and 
other disorders of society on the other, is scarcely equal 
to the needs of a free people. 



24 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

The bearing of a thorough and comprehensive system 
of teaching upon so much of the labor question as per- 
tains to the cultivation of the soil, deserves the most 
careful consideration also. Wealth- producing industry 
is simply another name for labor inspired and controlled 
by the intellectual and moral power that Iks behind it. 
Vacant minds and exhausted soils, dilapidated- machin- 
ery and careless, slothful habits, are almost correlative 
terms. But minds untrained to think, faculties unac- 
customed to feel and yield obedience to the power of 
truth, or to look beyond the demands of the present 
hour, can possess neither the energy, the skill, nor the 
disposition to conserve or increase the capacity of the 
earth for bringing forth its kindly fruits. Science has 
demonstrated, the press" has reiterated, and the voice 
of history echoing through the ages has confirmed the 
truth that constant cropping, in the abttnce of appro* 
priate restorative measures, devitalises the soil and 'ulti- 
mately impoverishes both its owners and the voiunnotity 
at large. Vast fertile areas, the former granaries of 
great empires, have, in this manner, been smitten with 
physical decrepitude. " Whole provinces, once cele- 
brated for the wealth and social advancement of their 
inhabitants, have either been deserted by eiviliml man 
and surrendered to hopeless desolation, or groat ly 
reduced in both productiveness and population,' 1 ' * ami 
still, oven in our own favored land, the work of deple- 
tion goes steadily on. If we seek for an explanation of 
these and many other unwelcome facts, we shall timl it, 
mainly, in the total inadequacy of our present means 
and methods of education to the work of rwWit// *//> the 
whole people to a proper ajiprwiiftwti t*j* thvir true 
interests and a comprehensive knowledge of their rights 
* George P. llarah, m " Man and Nature/' 



DISCUSSION- OF GENBEAL PRINCIPLES. 25 

and duties as individuals and as citizens. " Good com- 
mon schools," said Edward Everett, when Governor of 
Massachusetts, " are the basis of every wise system of 
education." But to a vast majority of the American 
people they are not only the basis, but the superstruc- 
ture and the apex of the only system within their grasp, ' 
More than nineteen-twentieths of our children derive 
their sole educational advantages in the common schools, 
and these privileges, such as they may be, are limited 
principally to the school period below the age of ten or 
twelve years. This is especially true of our rural popu- 
lation, who compose the great mass of the people. 
When to these facts it is added. that the country schools 
do not perhaps continue in session on an average of 
more than six months in. a year, and that multitudes 
of the children fail to reap such slender advantages as 
may be. afforded, for more than three or four months 
annually, w.e shall have some of the more prominent 
elements of the difficult problem clearly before us. 

What then do we need ? What ought to be done ? 
What can be done ? These are questions of vast import. 
They demand the most thoughtful consideration. They 
ought to be ever present to the minds of our statesmen 
and educators } for they will always be in order, and 
will constantly demand a satisfactory answer. The 
kind of culture required for the masses of the people 
has "already been indicated in the discussion of that 
which we now give to too" many of them. They need, 
in the few years allotted to their early education, the 
blessings of a thorough system of culture conforming to 
nature. The perceptive and observing powers should be 
developed by a rational application of appropriate 
means, instead of being stifled by false, mechanical 
methods. The imagination should be filled with pure 
2 



26 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

and beautiful images. The attention, the memory, and 
the power of association should "be distinctly recognized 
and assiduously cultivated in all the exercises of the 
school. The wayward tendencies of childhood should 
be held in check by the restraints of a wholesome and 
efficient discipline. Plabits of order, neatness, prompti- 
tude, obedience, industry, and self-respect should be 
inculcated and enforce^ at every step, until they become 
a part of the daily life of the future citizen. Reason, 
judgment and conscience should be made to assert their 
sway over the instincts and the passions, guiding and 
controlling every outward act and inward emotion. In 
a word, the discipline of the school should prepare the 
child, so fair as human agency can do it, for the disci- 
pline of life. It should inspire him with the love of 
knowledge, giving him the power to acquire and the 
disposition to use it in the intelligent and faithful dis- 
charge of every duty incumbent upon him. as an indi- 
vidual and as a member of society. 

"I call a complete and generous education that 
which fits a man to perform justly, skillfully, and mag- 
nanimously a.11 the offices, both public and private, of 

peace and war inflamed with a study, of learning 

and the admiration of virtue, stirred up with high hopes 
of living to be brave men, and worthy patriots, dear to 
God and famous to all ages." * 

* John Milton. 



DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PEINCIPLES. 27 

CHAPTER IY. 

DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES (CONTINUED). 

9. The duty of the Nation. It is manifestly 
the duty of the nation to plant the common school in 
every neighborhood, and within reach of every citizen 
whom its soil maintains. The possession of rational 
faculties implies an inalienable right to the means for 
their cultivation. Since educated mind is the source of 
all our wealth, education is clearly entitled to so much 
of our material resources as may be necessary for the 
extension of its blessings to' all who are entitled to 
receive them. Since thfc inalienable right to life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness is best secured by educating 
the whole people, since the safety of life and property is 
the best assured where there is culture, refinement, 
industry, and respect for law, it is no less the interest 
than the duty of the nation thoroughly to educate itself. 
The common school, with its associated institutions and 
agencies, is the ordained instrument through which this 
universal education of the people alone is possible. To 
encourage, perfect, and extend it until it reaches every 
home and performs its functions wisely and fully,- is ,the 
great problem of all others that should engage the 
attention, and command tfee, warmest! * jmpathies and the 
best efforts .of American statesmanship. To neglect this 
duty is to disregard the first instinct of national self- 
preservation and progress. 

No greater mistake can be committed than the 
adoption of measures characterized by false notions of 



28 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

economy in this direction. The great question is not, 
How little can we get along with, and exist ? but, How 
much can we judiciously and wisely expend in the edu- 
cation of the people ? No investments are so certain to 
yield an adequate return as those which are carefully 
made for the increase of intellectual and moral power ; 
for the rescue of the young from ignorance, degrada- 
tion, and crime. With all the faults that we so justly 
attribute to our systems of education in this country, it 
must be confessed that we get about all we are entitled 
to, because all we pay for. The way to obtain adequate 
results is to make adequate investments for education. 
We venture the bold suggestion that when we judi- 
ciously expend ten times the amount now annually 
expended for school purposes, we shall be better satisfied 
than we now are both with the returns and the invest- 
ments. The statesmanship which measures the value of 
an educational institution or system by the paucity of 
its expenditures rather than by the quality and quantity 
of the fruits which it brings forth, is totally incompe- 
tent to shape the destinies of a great nation. The ques- 
tion should be, How much can be profitably applied to 
the extinction of ignorance and the exaltation of intelli- 
gence and virtue ? When this policy prevails, we shall 
have little occasion to deplore the inadequacy of our 
means or the poverty of our results in national education. 
This is no pica for extravagance or unnecessary expen- 
ditures. No investment can be extravagant which is 
necessary. But so long as education is the creator of 
'wealth, it is- necessary that wealth Khouid be liberally 
and wisely employed to advance education and extin- 
guish ignorance, the source of poverty. So long as 
civilization is tho product of culture, civilization must 
pay the price necessary to render culture universal 



DISCUSSION OP GENERAL PRINCIPLES. $9 

through the extension and perfection of our system of 
education. There can be no surer, sign of , national 
degeneration and ;decay than a policy of retrenchment 
here. The words of "William Penn are full of truth and 
wisdom. " That which makes a good constitution, must 
keep it, namely, men of wisdom and virtue ^qualities 
that, because they descend not with worldly inheritance, 
must be carefully propagated by a virtuous education 
of youth, for which spare no cost ; for by suck parsi- 
mony all that is saved is lost." 

But what, is implied by the word nation as used in 
this connection" -i* ;'Not,the general government alone.; 
not the state and; municipal governments merely, but 
both the governments and the people: the collective 
intelligence and power of the people as'represented in 
and by the governments. 
. Says Horace Mann :-.,' 
" In our country and in our times, no man is worthy 
the honored name of a statesman who does not include 
the highest practicable education of the people in all his 
plans of administration. . ' . ' 

"He may have eloquence, he may have a knowledge 
of all history, diplomacy, jurisprudence, and by these he 
may claim in other countries the elevated rank of a 
statesman ; but unless be speaks, plans, labors at all 
times and in all places for the culture and edification ' 
of the iohok people, he is not, he cannot be an American 
statesman." ' " ..'_'.', 

. And again, one of our highest authorities in economic 
science, John Stuart Mill, justifies beyond dispute the in- 
terference of government in the promotion of education,* 

* Mr. Mill remarks that " The uncultivated cannot be judges 
of cultivation. Those who need most to be made wiser and bet' 
ter, usually desire it least, and if they desired it, would be incapa- 



30 THE TEACHER^ IUXP-3KKJK. 

Our national government, then, should not only rec- 
ognize its obligation to preserve the fuiindniitin u]<n 
which it rests, but it should t'xert itself actively atui 
vigorously to extend the blessing* of a wise ami i>iivr> 
ous education to the whole people. Xo p]*ei*ioti,4 pro 
texts of a \vaut of power should interfere with this plain 

ble of finding their way to it hythviruwn light*. It wiUnni* 
tj'aually hft]>prn on the voluntary fyrti'iii, tlmt. I!IP i-nd *>t Mngf 
desired, the means will not be provided at all, or that thr prrvonM 
requiring improvement having an imperfrrt or allotfrihiT *'ff 
neons conception of what they want, thr nuj.ply ralhtl forth ly 
tho demand of tho market will I anything hut wbal in 
required. Now any wt'll-intrntinned and lU'Thly 
government may think without prwmmptUm, thut it iWi or 
to ix>SHees a decree of cultivntion abov** thr nvmifeif thv w>w. 
munity which it ruien, and that it ahmihl tlierrfnit? U* rapibta of 
offering better rducation and better inclrurlion t Ihir p*o|>Sr titan 
tho ^rvalcr numlier t>f thvm would H|irnitanrounly wli?ct. 

"Education, therefore, to one of the** thing* which it I* ml 
missibltj in principle that the government nhould provide for ih 
people. The case is one to watch the retMOi of the non*lnierfcr 
ence principle do not neceestrily or universally extend* 

" With regard to elementary education, the exwpUon to ordi* 
nary rules may, 1 conceitre.be carried still farther. Them are 
certam primary eleraenta and meann of knowledge whJeh it li IB 
tho highest tlcgreo dcairablo that all human being* born into the 
community thoM aegvire during th&thwl If thrir jjuri-ntu, or 
tjioso on whom tlicy drp^nd, Imvc the powrr of uhiAininjr for 
th<uu this inntrurlinn and fnil to do it, thry t.u>mii a itut) 
breach of duty: toward tht child rm thr*ttiiH*1vf*it t aml fritl the 
mcmlM'ra of the comnjunity ^nnemUjr, win* arc all liable lowlier 
wjriwisly from the ronnvqui'timi of iirnonuin* and want of eduea- 
tion In thoir fellow -Htixciui, It i<* thrn*fore an alburabb eter* 
dae oigorernmnnt to inijuwc- on pirfnt* the legal obUgallofi of 
giving elementary instruction torhUdn-n, Thla however aumot 
fairly Up dona without taking meMure to taiuj* ihai ioeb Iwum^ 
tion abab always be accetBiblo to them eliber fimHoi^y or d 

iaiug expenee." 



DISCUSSION 0V GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 31 

duty. A government without the power to save and 
strengthen itself by the surest, cheapest, and best meth- 
ods, is a delusion and a snare. A government without 
the authority to elevate and promote the happiness of 
the people whose servant it is, by the use of the most 
certain and effective means, has no object worthy of its 
existence, and should speedily give way to a worthier 
and better. 

When in ISC'? our government established a Depart- 
ment of Education, it took a step in the rigbt direction. 
Had it supplemented this action by wise measures for 
enlarging the scope of its powers and duties, until they 
became coequal with those of the other departments, 
it would have afforded additional proof of its advancing 
statesmanship, and commended itself to the confidence 
and approval of all right-minded citizens, if not to short- 
sighted and selfish politicians. But when in 1869, it 
reduced this Department to a Bureau, and consigned it 
to the comparative seclusion of another department 
already surcharged with the burden of duty, it performed, 
an act unworthy of its dignity and discreditable to its 
intelligence. It should hasten to correct the mistake, 
dud spare no effort of statesmanship, until it recognizes 
the interests of education as at least equal to those of 
Its foreign relations, its finances, its postal service, and 
its enginery for the destruction of human life as repre- 
sented by Its army and navy. Nothing could have a 
stronger tendency to nationalise eduGatioia *md giv$ & 
that prominence In the micas of the great mass of the 
people, than this fidl recognition of its claims by that 
which represents the interests and the power of the na- 
tion* If despotism needs & ministry of public instruc- 
tion to secure the universal education of the people, 
much more does freedom require it to aid in preserving 



32 THE TEACHER'S HAND-HOOK. 

and perfecting its beneficent institutions. The 
to elevate and bless tho people should neither 1e fmretl, 
nor should it be restricted to Stale lilies. It will rnjiiire 
all the available power of the nation, the State, ami the 
municipality, successfully to grapple with the t'>mtnu>l 
evils resulting from ignorance and had teat-hint: \t hieh 
press so sorely upon . There are appropriate au'itur* 
in which not only may each legitimately excreta* its own 
proper influence, without hind mare rr harm to the 
others, but. by mutual cooperation all may laW uith 
immeasurable advantage to tho people. If then* In* any 
Huch thing as distinctively "American Menu" tin* rum- 
mon Kehool is certainly one of them, and tin- mn*i im- 
portant one, and if the propagation of lliew Mean lie a 
part of our mission, Hitrely we nhouhl he in a position to 
discharge this function of our " Manifest Destiny." 



CHAPTER V, 



DISCtTSSIOtf OP GENERAL PRlNTIPf 4 ES (ft),\Tr*UngDX 

10. The Teacher the leading Factor in tfe* 
work of reform, It remain* to hr Mat"! that in alt 
nuMiKuivM fur tho exteu^ion of eilueniton lu ilt^iiuur loeni* 
iticni, or for tho. improvement of it* quality wherever it 
may be needed, the Teaeher nml hin iiiiprovement mimt 
be tho central thought. For, wherever any portion f the 
raoe is to be rat^l from the <lcgralnii>n of ignorance it 
must bo done through the />fW <f tnW twhing */iir- 
ing tk<> }>criod of Mklhood ami youth, ) len<-e, we mutt 
provide trudicrH adcMjiiato in immberH, iu learning, itt 



DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 33 

capacity, and in skill, to the magnitude of the work to 
bo performed. Wo must bear in mind that if " the uncul- 
tivated cannot be the judges of cultivation," they can- 
not surely be leaders of it. They cannot bring intelli- 
gence out of ignorance. Teachers of high intellectual, 
moral, and professional attainments, only, are equal to 
the emergency. Properly to conduct and control the 
humblest school, demands more wisdom than to rule a 
Btate. It is manifest therefore, that to build school- 
liouses, supply books and apparatus, and provide funds, 
alone, will not accomplish what is needed. JEtvery school 
muni be bkmed with the .presence and inspiration of a 
teacher worthy of the high vocation of instructing the 
imvpk. To stop short of this, is to neglect the one con- 
dition of all others the most necessary to the successful 
solution" of the problem* This is the testimony of the 
best thinkers and ablest writers upon education in all 
parts of the world. It is the testimony of experience 
everywhere. 

Said that profound statesman, M. Guizot, after por- 
traying the character of a true teacher : 

** T rear maaters approaching to such a model, u a 
difficult to&, and yet we mwt succeed in it t or else we have 
done NOTHING for elementary instruction" 

The popular estimate of the requisite qualifications 
of teachers is best attested by the starvation prices 
which in multitudes of cases are paid for their services. 
Bat their attainments and capabilities fre too often as 
meagre aa their compensation. TM most attenuated 
acquisitions and the utter absence either of special train- 
ing or experience, seems to form no bar to their employ- 
ment by the people, simply because they are cheap ! 
The consequence is, that the schools of the rural districts 
especially are to a great extent in the hands of young 
2* 



34 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

masters and misses who are just in their "teens " and 
who have no clear conception of the nature of education, 
or of the means and appliances whereby the most impor- 
tant work of the most critical period in human existence 
is to be worthily performed. Slaves to the text-book, 
entangled in the harness of dull routine, strangers to the 
power and the pleasures of true knowledge, unskilled to 
teach, uninspired with a love for their special work, they 
can scarcely be trusted to guide the footsteps of confiding 
childhood into the ways of pleasantness and the paths of 
peace. Looking a little farther on, we shall discover 
that this vast army of professional incompetency and 
inexperience actually disbands on an average of about 
once in each four or five years, and is succeeded by an- 
other multitude of undisciplined recruits who can only 
repeat the mistakes of their immediate predecessors and 
teachers. And thus error, inexperience and iucompe- 
tency, are reproduced and propagated from year to year, 
and from decade to decade. While there is progress in 
the cities, there seems to be comparative fixedness, if not 
actual retrogression in the quality of the teaching in 
many of the rural districts. In the higher walks of 
education too, the best minds are being constantly allured 
from the service through the superior inducements 
offered by the other professions, calling*, and industries 
of life, where talent readily commands an adequate re- 
ward, and where it is freed from the officious dictation 
and the narrow-minded intermeddling of mediocrity 
clothed in the habiliments of "a little brief authority.'* 
The flippant use of the words " pedagoguv," "school- 
master," and the like, as terms of reproach even among 
many of the more cultivated classes, indicates a lament- 
able lack of appreciation of the real dignity and impor- 
tance of the office of a teacher, by those who should ever 



DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PEINCIP1ES. 35 

regard it with reverence and respect. Were the anxiety 
that each child of the republic should be properly edu- 
cated, as great and as general as that each man should 
vote and pay his share of the taxes, there would be no 
want of this true appreciation or of the means to extend 
and improve education to the utmost limit of the public 
necessity. 

It is not asserted, let it be understood, in this connec- 
tion, that these deplorable facts are universal. But cer- 
tain and undeniable it is, that they are by far too com- 
mon. We have too many poor schools, poor teachers, 
incompetent school officers, and indifferent citizens. It 
is indeed safe to affirm that we have a vast majority of 
such, and that the decadence of education, even in some 
of the older States, is a truth attested by official figures. 
When superadded to such a state of facts it is discovered 
that, over extensive areas of thickly inhabited territory, 
, there are absolutely no means of instruction for the 
masses, either good, bad, or indifferent, the aspect 
becomes startling, and it should arouse the intelligence 
and patriotism of the nation -to a consideration of its 
dangers and its duties. 

11. The special preparation of teachers 
an urgent necessity. It is preposterous to suppose 
that a great people can be created or sustained through 
the agency of poor schools, and an inadequate, faulty edu- 
cation. Only good schools, conducted by able teachers, 
can train up the successive generations of children to 
be worthy citizens, the strength and glory of a free 
commonwealth. All experience shows that we cannot 
obtain a supply of competent teachers unless we create 
special agencies for their preparation. If, therefore, we 
are to have State schools for the education of the chil- 
dren, it is equally important that we should provide State 



36 THE TEA GEEK'S HAND-BOOK. 

schools for the preparation of their teachers. The money 
expended to pay incompetent instructors is as surely 
wasted as if used to pay unskilled mechanics who know 
just enough to waste their material and spoil their work. 
To build. and furnish school-houses, and pay persons as 
teachers who are unfitted for their duties, is a species of 
prodigality that would be submitted to in none of the 
material concerns of life. 

The question as to what shall be taught iu our com- 
mon schools is yet to receive a definite solution. Next 
in importance to right methods of teaching, ranks the 
subject-matter of teaching. " What knowledge is of most 
worth ? What branches are the most useful, first, for dis- 
cipline, and second, for use or particular application?" 
Upon this subject we have no settled policy. AH a conse- 
quence, many things inferior usurp the place of those 
of superior worth. The dry details of so-called geogra- 
phy, the abstract definitions, rules, and formulas of gram- 
mar, the comparatively valueless signs and symbols of 
algebraic notation, consume a vast amount of the time 
that should be devoted to the study of the earth, its climate 
and productions in their relations to man, and the course 
of human history ; of the English language as a means 
of communication, and of the living sciences which lie at 
the basis of all the arts and industries of life. But it is 
futile to attempt a revolution in subject-matter while 
teachers, their attainments, and methods of work, are so 
inadequate to the public needs. It is idle to talk of the 
necessity of the elements of Physics and Chemistry, Bot- 
any and Physiology, Natural History and Agriculture, so 
long as we have neither the knowledge nor the skill requi- 
site to their proper treatment. Of what value would theatj 
sciences be to the people when mechanically mcmorim! 
from the printed page, as are must of the subjects m*w 



DISCUSSION" OP GENERAL PEINCIPLES. 37 

in our common school curriculum ? To be of use either 
for discipline or application, they must be properly taught 
"by observation, experiment, and demonstration. In 
short, their objects must be seen, handled, analyzed, com- 
pared, and classified. These practical sciences must be 
investigated by methods and processes analogous to 
those by which they have been themselves developed, 
aud thus far perfected. Can our children be expected 
to grope their way to these natural processes in spite of 
their teachers ? or, must the latter first be made capable 
of leading the way, inspiring the young by the fulness 
of their learning and the skill of their methods ? Until 
our children and youth learn the right use of their own 
powers, it is in vain to expect that they can master the 
powers of nature or accomplish any other important 
result. The "new education," therefore, so far as it 
" refers to our elementary schools, must begin its work 
by revolutionizing the teacher and his methods in order 
that the way may be opened for effective instruction in 
the sciences related to the arts of life. This question of 
learning, skill, and personal power in the teacher is really 
" that before which all others pale," and when it is fully 
settled, the "knowledge which is of most worth" will 
find its way into the schools- and the minds of the people 
as easily and naturally as the sunlight finds its way into 
every nook of the broad landscape. 

12. Normal Schools. Wherever, therefore, com- 
mon schools are planted, Teachers' Seminaries must be 
established, liberally supported, and efficiently con- 
ducted. Not only an intelligent forethought, but a 
true economy demands that this should be done, Viewed 
from a just stand-point, they constitute the foundation 
of an efficient system of common schools, because it is 
" the master that makes the school," .and it is the careful, 



38 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 

special training that makes the master. A very small 
percentage of the amount expended upon a system of 
common schools, will support a system of Training 
schools, and thus secure to the people an adequate 
return for the investments made in behalf of their 
children, .The organization' of such institutions should 
be broad in its scope, and far-reaching in its aims. They 
should strive to establish a high standard of scholarship 
and professional attainments, to the end that they may 
send forth men and women fitted to become leaders in 
the great work of educational reform. The best talent 
in the community should be encouraged to seek the 
advantages they afford, in order that it may be drawn 
into the service of public instruction. Special induce- 
ments should be held out to young persons of character 
and ability to enter upon a course of preparation here. 
When necessary, pecuniary aid should be extended to 
those who need and deserve it. The State should recog- 
nize the eminent fitness of those who graduate from these 
courses, by constituting their diplomas perpetual certifi- 
cates of qualification, and it should do all that an enlight- 
ened commonwealth can do, to elevate the profession to 
the highest rank in the public esteem. By such a policy, 
it is perpetually elevating its own rank, renewing its 
intellectual and moral energies, and increasing its influ- 
ence and power in every direction. 

The vital relations which Normal schools and Teach- 
ers' Institutes sustain to the Common school system, will 
be considered in the closing chapter of this volume, and 
we conclude the present discussion with a brief reference 
to the particular agency which it is a prominent object 
of the Hand Book to improve. 

13, Teachers' Institutes. In the present condi- 
tion of education, the great mass of teachers who 



DISCUSSION" OF GESTEKAL PEINCIPLES. 39 

most need instruction cannot be reached by the Nor- 
mal schools. Until these permanent institutions shall 
become more generally established, graded, and local- 
ized, than now, their direct advantages will be enjoyed 
by only a small proportion of the teachers, although, 
indirectly, their influence will be felt more or less every- 
where. But by means of the Teachers' Institute, a tem- 
porary and "peripatetic" agency, capable of universal 
application, much may be done for the diffusion of pro- 
fessional knowledge among the thousands of inexpe- 
rienced persons who from year to year are employed in 
the common schools. A brief sketch of the rise and 
progress of institutes is given in a subsequent part of 
this work. Wherever they have been established and 
efficiently conducted, they have done much to improve 
the qualifications of teachers, and to awaken in the com- 
munity a deeper sense of the importance of education. 
That which is now most needed is their general adop- 
tion, a more thorough and effective organisation of their 
work, and a better supply of instructors capable of bring- 
ing out of them the highest practical results.' Like the 
common schools, they fail in many cases from the lack 
of wise leaders and able teachers who can make the most 
of the brief opportunities afforded for thorough instruc- 
tion. But the influence of rightly conducted Normal 
schools, aided by a high-toned educational literature, 
will gradually supply these deficiencies, and the Institute 
will become one of the most powerful instrumentalities 
in the elevation of the teacher and the advancement of 
popular education. As it is purely an " American idea," 
an outgrowth of the necessities of the American com- 
mon school, it is becoming that as a people, we should 
afford it an opportuntty for the most ample, develop- 
ment, until the needs of our system for qualified in- 
structors shall be fully supplied. 



40 THE TEAOHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 



SUMMARY TO PART FIRST. 



CHAPTER I. 

(1) Objects stated, to aid the teacher; (3) The Institute and 
the School, the office of both to teach ; (3) Teachers should be 
well informed upon all subjects; a few reasons given; (4) A sup- 
ply of educated teachers indispensable ; school funds and school- 
houses cannot accomplish all; they are but the instruments; 
the teacher the power; (5) The teacher's influence should bo 
potent without, as well as within the school-room ; he should 
be a leader in educational reform. 

CHAPTBE II. 

BELATIONS OF EDUCATION AND STATESMANSHIP CONSIDERED, 
AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES DISCUSBRD. 

(6) Dangers of the nation ; intelligence and virtue the corner- 
stone of the Republic ; ignorance and wrong its most formidable 
enemies ; its dangers from internal weakness rather than from 
external violence ; lessons from the census ; deficiencies in our 
Statesmanship; (7) The needs of the nation ; universal education 
of a high order ; illiteracy should be exterminated and every child 
should be taught and trained ; masses of the people should be 
able to judge wisely of public, as of private affairs ; well educated 
masses as well as highly educated classes necessary. 

CHAPTER III. 

DISCUSSION OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONTlNtTSP. 

(8) Kind of culture needed ; ability to read and writo not 
education ; the value of education dependent upon its quality, 
mechanical use of language stifles intolfoctuul development ; teach- 
ing should conform to nature ; importance of early imprwswmtm; 
remarks of Prof. Henry ; defects of country schools and toachwa; 
influence of education upon the labor question ; vacant minds, and 
exhausted soils correlative terms j remarks of Geo, P, Marati and 



. SUMMAET TO PAJST FIRST. 41 

Edward Everett ; thorough teaching and careful discipline neces- 
sary ; Milton's definition of education. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DISCHTSSIOSr OF GHITERAL PKEFrCIPLBS -CONTJUN UED. 

(9) Duty of the nation, it should plant the common school in 
every neighborhood ; the possession of rational faculties implies 
an inalienable right to the means for their cultivation ; educated 
mind the source of all wealth ; the right to life, liberty, and the 
pursuit of happiness best secured by educating the whole people ; 
fatal mistake of false notions of economy ; faulty statesmanship 
again ; ideas of William Penn and Horace Mann, remarks of John 
Stuart Mill ; a national department of education necessary ; propa- 
gation of " American ideas." 

CHAPTER V. 
DISCUSSION OF GHKTBRAIi PBrN"OIPLBS^-OOKrOLTIDBD. 

(10) The teacher the leading factor in the work of reform ; the 
race to be raised from ignorance by the power of teaching ; re- 
marks of M. Guizot ; low popular estimate of a teacher's qualifi- 
cations; meagre attainments and poor compensation the result; 
qualifications of district school teachers ; decadence of education 
in some States; (11) Special preparation of teachers an urgent 
necessity ; poor schools can neither create nor sustain a great 
nation ; a supply of competent teachers secured only by special 
agencies for their preparation ; waste of public funds on incom- 
petent instructors ; the demands of the " new education ; " (12) 
Normal Schools must be generally established, liberally sup- 
ported, and efficiently conducted ; the true policy of States in this 
regard; (13) Teachers' Institutes should be extended and per- 
fected ; must reach the great mass of teachers ; their history 
referred to, their effective organization emphasized. 



42 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 



PART II. 

CHAPTER VI. 

OBJECTS OF THE TEACHERS' INSTITUTE. 

1. Definition. A Teachers' Institute is a tempo- 
rary assemblage of teachers for special drill ami mutual 
Improvement in all that relates to their profession. When 
the sessions are continued for several weeks, these bod- 
ies are sometimes denominated Normal Institutes, and 
in some instances they have been called, with doubtful 
propriety, Training Schools. 

2. A difference to be observed. An Institute 
differs from an association or convention both in its 
objects and in the methods by which those objects are 
to be realised. An Institute is, or should be, a <*<//<><>/, 
and in its organization and management it should corre- 
spond with the latter, so far as its special objects and 
the circumstances under which it assembles* will allow. 

3. Objects of the Association and Conven- 
tion. The Association and the Convention art\ more 
strictly speaking, voluntary Milwrtttiw Mte* 9 nmi must 
therefore bo conducted according to the rules of purlia- 
mentary law. Their objects arc of a more general nature 
than those of the institute. Their aim is to discuss those 
principles, and questions of policy which relate* to the 
organization and administration of ffo 4 #yst*m <j/' -fic/w- 
cation. 

4. Objects of the Institute. The objects of 



OBJECTS OF THE TBA.CHBE's EfBTITTrTE. 43 

the institute, on the other hand, are more specific and 
detailed in their character. In many States the Teach- 
ers' institute is recognized by law as a factor in the pub- 
lic school system. In some cases it is aided, and in 
others it is entirely supported by legislative appropri- 
ations, and is placed under the supervision and control' 
of school officers. Occasionally, attendance upon its 
sessions by teachers is made compulsory, and its oper- 
ations are in various ways regulated by statutory pro- 
visions. 

5. Its aims more specifically stated. Its 
specific aim is the improvement of t7ie teacher in every- 
thing that pertains to the discharge of his professional 
duties, whether within the school room or outside of it* 
It seeks, or should seek, to increase his scholarship by 
the presentation and illustration of higher standards of 
attainment in the several branches of study. It should 
especially labor to inspire him with a clearer and more 
elevated conception of the nature and objects of educa- 
tion, and to acquaint him with those principles and meth- 
ods of teaching and management which lie at the basis 
of all real success in his important work. 

6. Importance of this distinction. This dis- 
tinction between the institute and a deliberative body 
should be carefully observed, since the former has many 
times proved to be a disastrous failure, in consequence 
of having assumed the organization and methods of man* 
agement, which more properly belong to the latter. 



THE TEACHBE'S HAND-BOOK. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ORIGIN AND BBIEF HISTORY OP INSTITUTES. 

The first convocations of this kind of which we seem 
to have any reliable record, were held at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, in the years 1839 and 1 840. They were organ- 
ized and conducted under the direction of lion. Henry 
Barnard, then Secretary of the State Board of iSchool 
Commissioners. In the autumn of 1889 a class of twenty 
six young men, and in the spring of the succeeding year 
another class of sixteen young women, wore brought 
together, and were enabled without expense to themselves, 
to review and continue their studies under the recita- 
tions and practical lectures of experienced teachers, and 
to witness, in the public and private schools of the city, 
other modes of school arrangement, instruction, mid man- 
agement than those to which they had been accustomed. 
Every member of these classes was subsequently om- 
ployed in the common schools. It is but just to state 
here, that these classes were not denominated Teachers' 
Institutes, although in reality they were such. The ex- 
penses of the efforts thus made were mot by private 
contributions, 

7. In the State of New York. The first meet- 
ing of teachers for special drill, in the State of New York, 
was held at Ithaca, Toinpkins County, in the spring of 
1843. The second, assembled at Auburn in the autumn 
of the same year.* Both of these meetings were held 

* The following extract from a letter of IWciwnr Jonim R. 
Thomson of Now York to the author, will be of intend in thin 
connection. 

"You ure right in your suggestion tliat I was * a worker iu 



OBIGIN AND BEIBF HISTOEY OF INSTITUTES. 45 

under the auspices of the County Superintendents of 
Schools, for their respective counties. It was at this time 
that they first received the designation by which they 

the first Institute held in this country/' After the autumn of 1843, 
till 1855, 1 spent about six weeks every spring, and from ten to 
twelve weeks every fall, in attending Teachers' Institutes. During 
this period I attended more or legs in nearly every Northern and 
Western State from Maine to the Mississippi River. Bub in answer 
to your inquiry respecting a Report or History of the earlier Insti- 
tutes, I am sorry to say that I know of no such report or publica- 
tion. A faithful history of these earlier efforts for the improve- 
ment of our public schools would be an invaluable contribution 
to the great cause of Education ". . . . " The honor of their intro- 
duction into the Empire State is due to Mr, J. 8. Denman, County 
S iiperintendent of Tompkins County, New York. He held the first 
at Ithaca, in the spring of 1848. The second was held at Auburn 
under the direction of B. GK Storke, Esq., County Superintendent 
of Cayuga. It commenced about the first of Oct. 1843, and con- 
tinued its sessions about two weeks. It was my privilege to have 
the charge of Arithmetic and Algebra on that occasion. 

" This Institute drew together more than two hundred teachers, 
some of whom, to my certain knowledge, walked over twenty miles 
to enjoy its advantages. It was a decided success. A report of it 
through the press, was circulated throughout the State, and no 
doubt did much to give the ball started by Mr. Denman an iiia 
pulse which soon sent the Institution throughout this and other 
States. 

" The third was held at Ithaca, Tompkins Co., commencing abou 
the close of the one in Auburn. This I also had the pleasure of 
attending, and cheerfully bear testimony to the earnestness and 
scholarly enthusiasm of the teachers of both sexes who were in 
attendance. 

" The next year (1844) the number of Institutes in this State was 
largely increased. I cannot give the exact number, but my impres- 
sion is in the neighborhood of twenty. They soon found their 
way into New England, and were very popular. As early as 184C 
I think, I attended one in the city of Providence, R. I, under 
the auspices of Hon. Henry Barnard, who was the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction in that State. This Institute numbered 



46 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

have since "been known Teachers' Institutes. The num- 
ber in attendance at these two pioneer institutes was quite 
large, there being over two hundred at the latter, some 
of whom are stated to have walked more than twenty 
miles in order to enjoy its advantages. In some cases, 
not less than five hundred teachers have been known to 
attend a single institute in the Empire State, which 
claims the credit of having originated this valuable edu- 
cational agency. 

8. The moving cause. These early efforts to 
improve the professional character of teachers were 
a result of the devoted zeal and industry of school offi- 
cers. The system of county supervision had previously 
been adopted, and the officers acting under it were pass- 
ing from school to school, and from town to town, dis- 
covering the deplorable defects prevalent in the schools. 
They were exerting their official influence to quicken the 
energies of teachers and pupils, and to arouse the people 
from their apathetic indifference toward the vital inter- 
ests of education. The visitations thus made, rewleretl 
it obvious to the Superintendents that the principal need 
of the schools was competent teachers, and that, until this 
want could be supplied, all other efforts would be of lit- 
tle avail. 

9. Normal Schools then in their infancy . 
At the period referred to, no Normal wlionl* had bwn 
established in this country, excepting in the Stato of Mas- 
sachusetts. The institutes, therefore, wcmiHl to offer for 
the time being, the only available meant* for improving 
the qualifications of the teacher. They were, thiw, 

between threo and four hundred members, and wan continued ono 
wook. About this time they were introduced into Ohio and other 
Western States. But you are doubtless more fam!Har with their 
history in that region than I am." 



OEKOT" AND BEIEJ 1 HISTOBY OF INSTITUTES. 47 

clearly the outgrowth of a partially-awakened and grad- 
wily-advancing public sentiment, and of the necessities 
of a school system in a state of progress. For some 
years they were purely voluntary, and were mainly sup- 
ported by contributions, or by fees levied upon the 
teachers in attendance. 

10. Legal Recognition. By act of the legisla- 
ture of STew York, passed in 1847, institutes were recog- 
nized in the school code of that State, and appropria- 
tions were made for their support. By a strange inconsist- 
ency, however, the same day witnessed the abolition of 
the office of County Superintendent of Common Schools. 
Thus, much of the good which might otherwise have 
been derived from this legal recognition of the i-nstitutes 
was prevented, by striking down the very agency that 
had nursed them into being. But their establishment as 
a factor in the public school system of the State was a 



11. Institutes in other States. Massachu- 
setts. The first teachers' institute in Massachusetts, 
as distinguished from county and district conventions, 
was held in 1845. At the next session of the legislature, 
on the recommendation of the Governor, an appropriation 
of $2500 was made for the maintainance of institutes, 
the expense of each not to exceed the sum of $200. From 
that time till the present, they have been held by the 
Secretary of the Board, and supported by annual appro- 
priations, which for many years were 83,000, with autho- 
rity to expend $350 on a single institute. They have 
been held in the towns that have asked for them, and 
given those attending them their board. In 1873 the an- 
nual appropriation for institutes was increased to $4,000. 
One week of five days, beginning on Monday at noon 
and closing on Friday night, is the time allotted to each. 



48 

12. In New Hampshire. The first institutes 
'were organized here in 1846. They are recognized by the 
school laws of the State, and liberal appropriations are 
made for their support. They are in fact, wholly main- 
tained by the State, and are under the direct supervision 
of the superintendent of Public Instruction, who pre- 
scribes the order of exercises and takes an active part in 
the instruction. Elsewhere, on page 74 will be found 
two programmes used in different counties in the year 
1873. They will repay an attentive examination. 

13. In Connecticut. Institutes were established 
in Connecticut in 1 847. These are now supported wholly 
by the State. "In 1847 a resolution was passed direct- 
ing the Superintendent of Common Schools to employ 
four or more suitable persons to hold schools of teachers 
for the purpose of instruction in the best modes of gov- 
erning and teaching common schools, between the 15th 
of September and 31st of October of that year. In 1848 
this provision was slightly changed and made per- 
manent." The Secretary of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, in his report for 1874, thus remarks: * 6 They ^ arc 
now regarded as an essential agency by the most ex- 
perienced educators of the country, and are organized 
in every State that maintains a good system of public 
schools." 

In the same connection, the secretary thus quotes 
from Hon. Henry Barnard : " During nearly a quarter 
of a century's study and observation of school*, school 
systems, and agencies, in different States and count rie, 
I have tried, soon, or read of nothing so universally 
applicable or so efficient in awakening anil directing 
rightly both professional and parental interest in tho 
broad iield of popular education, as a icdl-attcHtM and 
wisely-conducted Teachers' Institute. 



OEIGIN AND BBIBF HISTOBT OF INSTITUTES. 49 

After an observation of twenty years in different 
States of our country, and an extended tour in Europe, 
Secretary Northrop says : " The plans and methods thus 
observed in America, with others learned abroad, have 
contributed to the efficiency of our institutes at home. 
These observations discover mistakes to be avoided as 
well as excellences to be copied. The theories and 
experiments fully tried and failing elsewhere should 
give warning and wisdom to us." He then quotes and 
indorses the following sentimeuts of ex-School Com- 
missioner White of Ohio, a gentleman of much experience 
in institute work, who gives his " testimony against the 
foolish idea that the work of an institute should be done 
by its members. An institute thus conducted is just 
about as efficient as a school in which the pupils succes- 
sively act the teacher. An institute should bring to 
experienced teachers the ripest experience, the best 
methods, and the soundest views of the profession." 

14! In Ohio. The first Teachers' Institute held in 
Ohio was conducted at Sandusky, in September, 1845, by 
Hon. Salem Town of New York, M. F. Cowdery, and Dr, 
A. D. Lord. Another was held during the same autumn 
at Ohardon. In 1846 nine institutes were held, chiefly 
in the northern part of the State. They aro now recog- 
nized under the school laws, although no appropriations 
are made either by the State or county authorities for 
their maintenance. They are sustained entirely by the 
examination fees paid by teachers, supplemented by tui- 
tion charges when necessary. The majority of the county 
institutes in Ohio continue only five days, while a few- 
remain in session two weeks, and fewer still three weeks. 
The private Normal Institutes generally continue from 
four to five weeks. These agencies are usually managed 
by a committee, by whom the programme of exercises for 



50 THE TEACHER'S 

each session is arranged. The programme varies each 
day, and the same work is rarely attempted to In? dona 
in any two counties. It is not usual, according to the 
State Commissioner, Hon. T, W. Harvey, h*pr*i*rt:iUHl 
print beforehand any dihtilfd jwyntuUH? ttftfa ifur* to 
fo done. It is the judgment of the commia&mvr that 
the institutes are doing a good work, Inrt Uwy m / *#* 
tematlzinff; and he trusts that mvann will en* long he 
furnished to tho Department of Common School's by the 
judicious use of which these agencies may In? made 
more effective. 

15. In Illinois. -The first inatitutea were held in 
1854. While they are recognized by the present ftchmd 
laws of the State as an clement in the common school 
system, no appropriations are made by the legislature 
for their support. County Boards an, howiviT, author- 
ized to make provision for their mamU'iiann\ nud a large 
number are held annually. The counwuif inM ruction 
heretofore adopted in some of the mont Kiiccc^fui insti- 
tutes are presented, as a matter of information and com* 
parison, in another part of this manual See jmge 
For several years a series of very ucce*sfl Stale Teach- 
ers' Institutes has been held at tho Normal ITni vanity 
near Bloomington, under the direction of the faculty of 
that institution. The first sc&tion wa* hvUl in 1H63, 
comnu'ticing on the 14th of Septcmbi*r and cotititmitig 
nearly four weeks, 

316, In I*eimsylvaala, iVfjHylvmiia reports the 
cstablishmi'iit of "Teai'hm* Af^octatiunMnvt*tifigi of 
several days duration," in diflVrvnt partu of the Sute M 
early as 1B54, with the *taU*mt'iit, lliai ** a four m*y have 
been held before that time," The office of County Buper* 
intendent was eatablbhed in that year, and *oon aher 
carao the <( Teaoher f AMOciatione, 11 Since 1867 they 



OBIGIST AND BRIE* 1 HISTORY OF INSTITUTES, 51 

have been recognized under the school laws. JEoery 
county must hold an Xnstititte of not less than five days. 
An appropriation not exceeding two hundred dollars 
annually, is allowed, the precise amount depends, upon 
the attendance of teachers, 

17. In Wisconsin. Wisconsin occupies a promi- 
nent position in the liberal provision made for the sup- 
port of institutes. The first ever held in the State were 
organized in 1850. There is probably no State in the 
Union where this work is so thoroughly organized, or 
where it is more efficiently conducted. The institutes 
are under the supervision and general management 
of the BoaYd of Normal School llegents. They are 
supported by appropriations from the income of the 
Normal School fund, the principal of which amounts 
to more than a million dollars. Thus the Normal 
Schook and the Institutes are 'under one harmonious 
system of management and they mutually aid and sup- 
port each other. There are two classes of institutes, 
some continuing but one or two weeks, and others from 
four to six weeks. The instruction is largely imparted 
by the Professors of the Normal Schools, and the benefits 
of those institutions are in this manner widely diffused 
among the great mass of teachers throughout the State. 
The advantages of a comprehensive plan like this are 
obvious* A syllabus of the course of instruction) with 
some of the details -of management, will be found else*. 
where in this volume* 

18. In Minnesota. Minnesota was admitted into 
the Union in 1858. The first institute was organized lit 
Winona, in 1800, as a preliminary step to the opening of 
her first State Normal School The second was held in 
Saint Paul, in October 1864, continuing one week* Lib- 
eral provisions are now made for annnal sessions through* 



52 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK* 

out the State. They are recognized umler the school 
laws, and generous appropriations arc made for their 
support by the legislature. The annual allowance for 
this purpose varies somewhat, but is usually front three 
to four thousand dollars. The length of the sessions 
also varies from one to four weeks. More than one 
thousand teachers, or about one-third of Iho whole 
number employed in the schools, were reached by this 
agency during the year 1873. 

19, In Iowa. Teachers' Institutes were appointed 
by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and held in 
twenty different counties in Iowa, in the* year I85B, un* 
der a law passed by the legislature on the lth of 
March of that year, authorizing their establishment, 
and appropriating t ]000 per annum from the State treas- 
ury to defray the expenses of teacher* and leetnrers in 
the same. The law required the application of not U*a 
than twenty teachers, through the county miperinteml- 
ont, to secure the appointment nnd the state appropri- 
ation. The number of applications increased from >tar 
to year until 1873, when eighty-five were heltt From 
January 1, 1870, to December 31, 1871, one hundred 
and fifty-two institutes were held, upon which more 
than twelve thousand teachers were, in attendance, 
Many of the ablest men from the eollegcm and tho State 
University were teachers and lecturer* before thewi 
bodies, mid in some SnKtaiice* dbtitigufcheil eiluraiors 
from abroad took part in the exereine*. in 1HT4, by 
legislative jirovwton, tho Normal lnMiuitrs n -placed 
the others. They have awakened grant cttlui*inwi 
among the teadtert*, arid, to quote tho word* of the 
State superintendent, "have given a grand impel a 
to school work in the State," Under tho new law, the 
term of a Normal Institute may be lengthened to four 



ORIGIN ASTD BRIEF HTSTOUY OF INSTITUTES. 58 

or six weeks. The fund for their support is derived 
chiefly from a fee of one dollar charged for each certifi- 
cate issued by county superintendents to teachers, and 
a registration fee of the same amount assessed upon 
each person attending the Normal Institute. An appro- 
priation of fifty dollars to each county is made by the 
State, in aid of the Normal Institutes. This may be 
secured on application to the State superintendent, 
according to the forms prescribed in the school code. 
The county boards of supervisors may also appropriate 
such additional sum as may by them be deemed neces- 
sary for the further support of such institutes. A sylla- 
bus of the course of study to be pursued, and a pro- 
gramme of exercises, are prepared by the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction, and issued for the guidance of 
county superintendents and institute conductors. It 
is similar in character and scope to that used in Wiscon- 
sin, which will be found elsewhere. This practice of 
proving beforehand a cwefdly. considered, detailed 
plan, embracing the course of study and order of 
yxercteeSy is one which cannot be too Mgldy commended, 
It gives point and definiteness to the work, and prevents 
a waste of time and effort on worthless hobbies. It is 
next in importance to the employment of able and 
accomplished instructors. 

20. Early methods of conducting Institutes. 
The teachers, having been called together by the usual 
methods of notification, were generally organized as a sin* 
gle class, or arbitrarily divided into two or more classes, 
according to the accommodations and the number of 
instructors. In many cases, the first day was almost en- 
tirely consumed in the election of Presidents, Vice-Presi- 
dents, Secretaries, Treasurers, Councillors, and Commit- 
tees, and in profitless wrangling over unimportant matters 



54 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

connected with this inefficient and complicated machin- 
ery. The result was that the whole session was given over 
to divided councils and useless discussions upon ques- 
tions of little moment. Where the County Superintend- 
ency existed, and the office was filled by an educated and 
efficient man, he generally assumed the direction of affairs, 
and, assisted by the ablest instructors at his command, 
conducted the exercises somewhat in the style of the best 
schools of the period. The topics discussed, in addition 
to the usual common school studies, were those relating 
to methods of teaching, governing, and management. 
The relations of parents and teachers, improvements in 
the school law, and school architecture, received a reason- 
able share of attention, particularly during the evening 
sessions. Too often, however, mere arithmetical puzzles 
and the hobbies of impracticable schemers, engrossed a 
large share of the time and attention of the teachers. 
Experience was required to correct these defects and 
impart the skill and tact necessary to direct the energies 
of the members into the right channels. 

21. Length of the session. In the early history 
of institutes they were usually continued in session but 
two weeks. In rare instances they were prolonged to 
four and even six weeks, the interest being fully sustained 
to the end. Where no Normal Schools exist, these long 
sessions, when conducted by able instructors, are especially 
desirable, since they afford an opportunity for a com- 
prehensive review of the best methods of teaching the 
common branches, and a discussion of the principles of 
school management, not allowable during a brief period 
of one or two weeks. 

22. The true test. But it was soon found to bo 
advisable in no case to prolong the session beyond the 
time to which it is possible to sustain <m active interest in 



ORIGIN AND BRIEF HISTORY OF INSTITUTES. 55 

the exercises. It is safe to affirm that more evil than good 
will result from a contrary policy. When the interest 
ceases, the profit ceases, and the institute degenerates, and 
finally dies out, bringing reproach upon the cause it is so 
well calculated to subserve. 

23. What experience has taught, The plan 
upon which the better class of institutes was conducted 
does not materially differ from the best methods now in 
operation. Experience has taught us many improvements 
in details. The progress of education, too, has led to an 
increase in the studies brought under review, and to a 
widening of the scope of professional work attempted. 
It cannot be too often observed, perhaps, that the chief 
object of the institute is to arouse a professional spirit 
and promote professional skill, in the assembled teach- 
ers. This truth should be the key to its organization 
and management, and give tone to all its exercises. The 
esprit de corps of a body of teachers once awakened, 
they will be stimulated by it to labor earnestly for a 
higher grade of scholarship, and the attainment of what- 
ever maybe necessary to a thorough and careful prepara- 
tion for their work. 

24. Limits of Institute work. It should not be 
assumed that these temporary agencies are all that are 
needed for the proper preparation of teachers. To do so 
is practically to affirm that education is less important 
than the most ordinary mechanical pursuits. " There is 
nothing on earth so precious," says Dr. Channing, " as 
the mind, soul, and character of a child." As a corollary 
to this proposition, it may be safely asserted that there is 
no calling or profession so important as that which under- 
takes to form that character. The knowledge and skill 
requisite for this work, cannot be acquired in a few 
brief sessions of an institute, however ably conducted, 



56 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

Such attainments can be the result only of years devoted 
to special preparation in permanent seminaries organ- 
ized and conducted with reference to this particular 
object. The occupation of the teacher must not only 
eventually take rank with the so-called learned profes- 
sions, but those who embrace it must possess a pro- 
found conviction of its importance, and le inspired 
with an ardent love for its duties. 



OHAPTEE Till. 

OBJECTS OF THE INSTITUTE FURTHER CONSIDERED. 

25. Its primary purpose. The leading object 
of this agency, then, is to afford the best attainable profes- 
sional advantages to those who are unable, from various 
causes, to partake of the benefits of the more permanent 
agencies like the Normal schools. And since, in the pres- 
ent condition of education this class constitutes a great 
majority of the teachers employed in the common schools, 
the institutes must form, for some time to conic, the chief 
reliance for such special preparation as it is practicable 
to give them. 

26. A needful caution. It is not wise to assume, 
however, that it is no part of the object of an institute 
to give instruction in the elemonts of the sciences. It 
is the simple truth to assert that thousands of teachers 
throughout our country are nearly as deficient in a 
knowledge of the branches to be taught us of the art 
of teaching, of school organization ami government, 
and of the principles which underlie this art. A care- 



THE INSTITUTE FURTHER CONSIDERED. 57 

ful investigation will show that their knowledge of the 
most simple subjects is inaccurate, 'vague, and discon- 
nected. It will prove that they have groped their way 
among words instead of communing with vitalizing 
truths which alone have power to invigorate and inspire 
the mind. It will be seen further, that they have formed 
no true habits of study, that they have never learned to 
think, or to embody clear thought in concise and expres- 
sive language. Tinder such a state of facts it is clear 
that there is no solid foundation for that superstructure 
of professional knowledge so necessary to the successful 
management of a school. 

27, Improvement in Scholarship. It is indis- 
pensable, then, that something should be done at the insti- 
tute, to inspire a higher ideal of scholarship and create a 
longing for greater proficiency in the branches to be 
taught. When able scholars are employed to give 
instruction, and especially where the sessions are ex- 
tended to several weeks, much may be done in this 
direction. Example is contagious. There can scarcely 
be a more powerful incentive to study than the presence 
and labors of a scholarly and accomplished instructor. 

28. Elevation of public sentiment. No great 
public undertaking can long prosper in this country 
without the sympathy and support of the people. The 
cause of education is preeminently their cause. It is 
the life and glory of the republic. It ministers directly 
to the welfare of every citizen. Hence, the citizen as 
well as the government, has a vital interest in the 
success of all measures necessary to its promotion. 
Without competent tfeachers, no system of education 
can subserve its purpose. In the absence of Normal 
schools, institutes, and similar agencies for professional 
training;, it is impossible to create and maintain a supply 

3* 



58 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK, 

of "'able masters worthy of the high vocation of instruct- 
ing the people." Hence, it follows that the PEOPLE 
must be existed in the work Upon them devolves the 
ultimate decision of the question of an adequate support of 
all necessary educational measures. They are the princi- 
pal parties interested. The children of the people are the 
persons to be educated. Therefore the people must be 
informed as to the condition and wants of the cause 
so emphatically their own. The institute affords one 
of the best means of presenting to them the claims 
which education should ever possess upon their attention 
and their earnest efforts. The evening sessions ought to 
be liberally devoted to the consideration of questions 
which more immediately concern the people in their 
relations to this important work. 

29. Professional and social intercourse. 
The last object which will be named in this connection 
is the advantage which the institute presents to the 
teachers for professional and social intercourse. It 
enables them to form agreeable acquaintances, to 
compare views, and give to each other the benefit of 
their individual experiences in school work. It serves 
to unite them in the ties of a common interest and a 
fraternal sympathy. It leacls to that harmony of purpose 
and unity of action which enable them as a class tho 
more powerfully to influence public sentiment and con- 
centrate it upon those measures of reform and progress 
which are a standing need of a system of public educa- 
tion. The ultimate result of this organisation of influence 
and effort must bo that our entire educational policy will 
be guided and controlled, as it over should be, by those 
who are tho most conversant with its actual condition 
and wants, instead of being left to the tender me roles of 
selfish and unscrupulous politicians. No occupation is 



THIS INSTITUTE FUETHEB COK"SIDEE.EI) 59 

entitled to the rank of a profession, unles's it can thus 
guide that course of public action upon which its final 
success so preeminently depends. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS VI., VIL, AND VIII. 

The aim of the preceding discussion is to show ; (1) What is the 
true idea of a Teachers' Institute ; (2) To explain the difference 
between such an organization and a voluntary deliberative body 
like an association or convention ; (3) To define the general objects 
of an Association ; (4) To state the general objects of an institute ; 
(5) To point out more specifically its true aims ; (6) To urge the 
importance of the distinction. 

In tracing out the origin of the Institute, reference has been 
made to the meetings of teachers which were held at Hartford, 
Connecticut, in the years 1839 and 1840, with objects similar to 
those of the institute, although they did not take its distinctive 
name. (7) The history of the organization in the State of New 
York has been narrated briefly. (8) Its moving cause has been 
shown, with a brief reference to, (9) The infancy of Normal Schools, 
and, (10) To the legal recognition of institutes as a factor in the 
common school system. We have next considered the history of 
institutes (11) In Massachusetts; (12) In New Hampshire; (13) 
In Connecticut; (14) In Ohio; (15) In Illinois; (16) In Pennsyl- 
vania; (17) In Wisconsin; (18) In Minnesota} (19) In Iowa. 
(20) The early methods of conducting the institutes have been 
referred to; (31) The length of the sessions is discussed; (22) The 
true test as to this matter is stated ; (23) The lessons of experience, 
as taught by history; (24) The limits of institute work pointed 
out ; (25) The primary purpose, emphasized ; (26) A needful cau- 
tion given ; (27) Improvement in scholarship reaffirmed as a legit- 
imate object, and the reasons stated; (28) Elevation of public 
sentiment another and important object the doctrine enforced; 
(29) Professional and social intercourse promoted as a final object. 



60 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

CHAPTER IX. 
ORGANIZATION OF INSTITUTES. 

1. General Remarks. By some persons, many of 
the detailed suggestions embodied in the following para- 
graphs may "be deemed superfluous. It may be thought 
that they will readily occur even to those who arc 
inexperienced in the work of an ' institute. But the 
observation of the author has confirmed the belief that 
in many cases there has been a great lack of previous 
preparation, and of proper organization even where 
experience should have brought wisdom. An undertak- 
ing well organized is well begun, and " a work well 
begun is half done." A little time judiciously spent 
in getting ready will generally prove to "be time and 
laoor saved. Many an institute has been spoiled by 
a bad beginning. Since this agency is being rapidly 
extended to localities where it has heretofore boon 
unknown, it is believed that these details will not be 
unacceptable. And since it is becoming common to 
lengthen the sessions from four to six weeks, it is felt 
that a careful attention to all the needful details of 
preparation and organization will lead to better results 
in tho work, and at the same time serve as a suggestive 
lesson to young teachers in opening their own schools. 
We begin by considering the preliminary uteps. 

2. When 'should the institute be held? 
This question deserves some deliberation. The time 
may vary somewhat in different sections of the country. 
That which will suit tho convenience of the greater 



ORGANIZATION- OF INSTITUTES. 61 

.* 

number is the "best. The few weeks immediately pre- 
ceding the opening of the schools in the spring and fall 
are probably the most favorable for effective work. The 
thoughts of teachers are then very naturally turned 
toward their approaching school duties. . They are thus 
in a frame of mind to profit by the instructions of an 
institute, and they will participate in its exercises with a 
zest which will promise the best results. At its close, 
they will enter their schools with faculties sharpened, 
and views expanded by the thorough, drill to which they 
have been subjected. It is to be presumed, also, that 
they will in this manner, receive an impulse toward 
professional improvement which will stimulate them still 
further to pursue the subjects that have engaged their 
attention at the institute. 

3. Where should it be held? Since it is one 
of the objects of -the institute to awaken the people to a 
sense of t7ieir duties to the cause of education, it is desir- 
able that the sessions should be held at a different point 
each year. The localities should of course be selected 
somewhat with reference to accessibility, to the accom- 
modations they may be able to afford the teachers, and the 
educational needs of the surrounding country. The cities 
and larger villages are not necessarily the most desirable 
places for gatherings of this kind. Their opportunities 
for public lectures and other entertainments are so fre- 
quent, that the people are less likely to become inter- 
ested in the practicalVork of an institute. It may be 
added that the excitements of a city are Unfavorable also 
for securing that devotion to duty, on the part of teach- 
ers, so indispensable to complete success. 

4. An active local committee to be selected. 
The question of time and place being settled, it is impor- 
tant that there should be one or two persons selected at 



62 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

the chosen spot to make thorough local preparations for 
the proposed meeting. To them should be assigned the 
duty of awakening such a degree of interest in the com- 
munity as will secure for the members of the institute a 
pleasant and hospitable reception. 

5. Public Notice. Thorough and judicious adver- 
tising in the public press is indispensable. There are but 
few persons of any degree of intelligence who do not take 
and read a newspaper. Hence, let advertisements and 
notices in the editorial columns of the county papers be 
freely employed to give the necessary information. Care- 
fully-prepared circulars addressed to individuals will 
sometimes effect more than the newspapers. These lat- 
ter should give full and precise information upon all im- 
portant points and should be addressed to every teacher 
and prominent citizen in the county. Much will depend 
upon the character of these public appeals. They should 
be vigorous in style, and as full as possible in the com- 
munication of details. They may justly urge the attend- 
ance of teachers as a debt due to their profession which 
they cannot without discredit refuse to discharge. 

6. Personal solicitation and direct corre- 
spondence. The most effective method of scouring a 
full attendance is, doubtless, personal SOLICITATIOX. Tho 
visitations of the schools by the superintendents will 
afford the best opportunity for the exercise of this influ- 
ence, and they should not fail to exert it to the fullest 
extent. Whenever this is impracticable, direct com- 
spondence may be freely employed. It will bo effectual 
with those who occupy influential positions, whi'ther in 
the profession or outside of it Special invitations thus 
addressed, will secure the presence of many who may 
overlook or disregard the public notices. 

7. Promises and performances. Whatever in- 



ORGANIZATION OP INSTITUTES. 63 

ducements may be held out to secure the prompt and gen- 
eral attendance of teachers and people, should be strictly 
fulfilled in the actual performance of the institute. The 
circulars and other means employed to give information, 
should be so worded as to create the impression that a 
full measure of practical work is to be done, and if the 
promise thus made can be equaled in the performance, 
the greater will be the assurance of success in all similar 
efforts in the future. 

8. Instructors and Lecturers. Only persons of 
experience, ability, and scholarship should be employed 
to impart instruction. Whatever is stale and common- 
place, whether in matter or manner, should be avoided. 
Teachers of skill and of high attainments will be able to 
invest the plainest truths with a freshness and interest 
that will command both attention and respect. If local 
talent be available, let it be secured. There are few 
communities without persons possessing special gifts in 
one direction or another. Whenever the services of 
such promise to be valuable, let them be secured aud 
made available in the work of the session. This course 
will encourage the worthy and the gifted to persevere in 
the special field of study to which they may have been 
attracted, and make them the more useful in future 
efforts. 

9. Special inducements to attend. It is some 
times the custom of superintendents to appoint the last 
day of the session for the examination of teachers. This 
.practice may be made the means of inducing many to 
be present who would otherwise remain at home. If the 
general rule could be adopted of making this the exclu- 
sive occasion for granting certificates, it would do much 
toward compelling a general attendance of the teachers 
in the county. Prompt and regular attendance during 



64 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

the entire session might indeed be made one of the condi- 
tions for granting licenses to teach. Exceptions, under 
carefully guarded conditions, might sometimes be neces- 
sary. But such a gentle and just compulsory regulation, 
if faithfully and wisely enforced, would soon fill the in- 
stitutes, and its beneficial effect would be plainly evident 
in the improvement of the schools. 

10. Personal attention to details. Nothing 
can compensate for any neglect of the superintendent, or 
other official in charge, to look carefully after all the d&- 
tails of this preliminary work. He should be absolutely 
certain that all the preparations are complete, and that 
everything needful has been done to ensure success. To 
this end, a visit to the place of meeting should be made 
just prior to the organization. Let it made certain that 
suitable rooms have been engaged ; that blackboards, 
maps, globes, and other useful apparatus have been pro- 
vided. Let it be seen that arrangements have been fully 
perfected for the care of the rooms ; for boarding the 
members ; for music during the session ; for the evening 
meetings ; and for the attendance of the people. It should 
be remembered that these preparations cainwt make 
tJwmselveS) and that those only who take a deep personal 
interest in the matter will be likely to effect them. They 
arc small things in themselves, and yet, it \* safe to 
affirm that more failures have occured from a lack in the 
preliminary preparations than from the real indifference 
of teachers to the claims of their profession. 

11. Committee of reception. At the opening 
of the institute the local committee should perform the 
duty of receiving the teachers, and assigning them to their 
respective boarding places for the RGHHIOII. Some, care 
should be exercised in distributing the members among 
the families whoso hospitalities they are to receive. There 



OF HSTSTITUTES* 65 

is such a thing as an adaptation of tastes and of social 
qualities between the parties thus to be brought together, 
which should not be overlooked. It is of much impor- 
tance that the people of the vicinity and the members of 
the institute should be mutually pleased and profited in 
their intercourse with each other. Hence the exercise of 
a little tact and good sense in these social adjustments 
will be a judicious and profitable investment. 

,12. Competent instructors. Allusion has al- 
ready been made to the necessity of able and skillful 
teachers and lecturers for the institute. The remarks 
made will bear emphasizing, even at the risk of some 
repetition. Nothing can compensate for a failure here. 
Let it not be supposed that either the teachers or the 
people who may attend will be satisfied with the husks 
of knowledge. They need, and have a right to expect, 
accurate, useful information, presented in a concise and 
attractive form. The maxim, " as is the teacher so is 
the school," applies in all its force to the institute. 

13. Introductory Exercises. The first regular 
business looking to the organization on the first day, 
will be a brief address by the conductor, welcoming the 
teachers and setting forth the objects of the meeting 
and the nature of the work to be accomplished, with 
a cordial invitation for all to enter heartily upon their 
duties. Immediately thereafter, two or three competent 
persons may be selected to act as secretaries during the 
session, since it is desirable that a continuous and accur- 
ate record of the proceedings should be kept for future use. 

14. Enrollment of members. The next stop is 
the careful enrollment of the members. The name and 
post-ofiice address should be neatly written in a suitable 
book, so arranged that it may serve as a record of daily 
attendance for each of the three sessions. The age of 



66 TEE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

each person and the number of months he has tanght, 
will, if recorded, prove useful to the superintendent in 
making up his estimate of qualifications. To facilitate 
this work, a form properly ruled and appropriately 
headed should be prepared in advance. 

15. Classification. If the number in attendance, 
the number of instructors, and the accommodations be 
such as to warrant a division of the institute into classes, 
that step will now be in order. It is scarcely to be ex- 
pected that the classification will be based upon any 
accurate estimate of the scholarship or abilities of the 
members. If the session is to be extended to four or 
six weeks something of th'is kind might be attempted. 
A. day spent in a preliminary examination with this 
object in view might prove to be time saved in the end. 
But if one or two weeks only are to be occupied, the 
utility of an examination for such a purpose is doubtful. 
The chief object of the classification should bo to indi- 
vidualize the instruction by diminishing thenwnlw in 
the classes and dividing t?w labors of the instructors in 
order to secure the highest degree of efficiency. In a 
small institute, convened for a brief period, a division 
into classes may not be desirable. There is said to be 
a magic in numbers, and the number in each class 
ought to be sufficiently great to aflbrd all the stimulus 
necessary for profitable work. In some States, as Illi- 
nois, where the higher branches are required in the 
common schools, provision must be made for instruction 
in these departments at the institutes. In such cases 
a classification, based upon a predetermination of attain- 
ments, and previous studies, would bo necessary, for obvi- 
ous reasons. 



ORGANIZATION OF INSTITUTES. 67 

- CEAPTEKX. 

ORGANIZATION CONTINUED. 

16. Roll Call. So far as possible an institute for 
teachers should be a model school to every person in 
attendance. It should, therefore, be systematically or- 
ganized and conducted, and the system thus illustrated 
in its operations should be so clearly marked as to impress 
itself upon the mind of every teacher present. Otherwise, 
the most valuable lessons which it is capable of giving, 
will be lost. A loosely administered system is no better 
than downright disorder, so far as its influence upon the 
teachers is concerned. Hence, to be effective, it must 
be precise, and, to a certain extent, exacting. It must 
secure prompt obedience, which is but another name for 
self-denial. As a majority of the persons attending the 
institute are young teachers, the examples of wise organ- 
ization and effective discipline which it may present, will 
be of inestimable value, and should not be omitted. In no 
respects are our schools more deficient than in those, and 
it is our duty to do everything in our power to reform 
them. The roll should be called precisely at the time 
appointed for each of the three daily sessions. It should 
be done by the same individual, if convenient, through- 
out the entire period of the institute in order to secure 
that promptness and accuracy which result from famil- 
iarity with a duty. The following method has been 
found convenient. 

17. A plan suggested. Let each member, at the 
time of enrollment, or if the institute be classified, at 



68 THE TEACHER'S HASTD-BOOK. 

the time of classification, be assigned a number by 
which he shall be known daring the session, both at 
roll call and in the class exercises. As the names of so 
many strangers cannot be readily learned by the instruc- 
tors, this or some similar arrangement will be found of 
great convenience. At the hour appointed, the u roll 
master" commands, "Attention to roll call. Class A." 
The members of that class, iu rapid succession, announce 
their numbers. If there be absentees, their numbers arc 
called by the roll master in the regular order and au 
appropriate mark to denote tardiness is entered in each 
case. This mark may be changed, when necessary, to 
denote absence. As soon as one class has completed its 
work, the roll master instantly commences the next class; 
as, "Class B," and so on through the list. The plan 
here indicated is a good one for Iarg3 schools. It saves 
time. It secures attention and inspires prompt habits. 
If adopted and faithfully carried out at the institute, 
it will be imitated by the teachers in their schools. 

18. Basis of classification. Unless it is deemed 
best to classify the members according to tht'ir attain- 
ments, as heretofore suggested, they may be arbitrarily 
separated into groups on the basis of a- continuous series 
of numbers assigned during the enrollment, so that the 
same individual would be known by the same number 
both at roll call and in class exercises, and no two per- 
sons would receive the same number. To illustrate ; in 
an institute of one hundred members and four instructors, 
the first, or "A" class would embrace the firat twenty- 
five persons, the second, or "B" class all those from 
twenty-six to fifty inclusive, <fcc. This plan, InwidcH 
being a saving of time, tends to promote animation in 
the exercises, enabling the instructor to put hi questioiw 
in rapid succession anil stimulating the pupils to give 



ORGANIZATION OF INSTITUTES. 69 

the closest attention. In class exercises the members 
should be seated in the order of their numbers so that 
the teachers may be able to detect at a glance, any ten- 
dency to shrink from duty by " dodging his questions." 
No detail of organization ought to be omitted which may 
be necessary to make the most of the brief period allotted 
to the work of the session. 

19. Subjects to be taught and discussed. 
This must depend somewhat upon the locality to be bene- 
fited. In the newer States, where education is less ad- 
vanced,, where the schools are more backward, and where, 
perhaps, the people are less interested, it is obvious that 
the subjects to be considered must be of a more elemen- 
tary character and the discussions less recondite than 
in the more advanced communities. In the latter, insti- 
tutes, conventions, and associations are of long standing, 
and the schools have had sufficient time to bring forth 
the ripe fruits of culture among the inhabitants. In such 
places, some of the higher studies may be in order. 

20. The " Common branches." Nevertheless, it 
is safe to say that the discussion of the elementary 
studies, their underlying principles, and the best methods 
of teaching them, together with the subjects of school 
organization and management, and kindred topics, should 
form the chief staple of institute work everywhere. In 
the older communities, subjects of a more advanced 
grade may be introduced according to the demands of 
the schools. As it is the function of the common schools 
to lay the foundation, and of the institute to improve 
the common schools, it is surely the part of wisdom to 
confine the former chiefly to the treatment of the elemen- 
tary and the simpler professional subjects. If our com- 
mon schools as a whole can ever be raised to such a 
degree of efficiency as to teach their appropriate subjects 



VO THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

accurately and thoroughly to all our children and youth, 
they will accomplish all that can be reasonably expected 
of them, and more than they ever yet have done. There 
is a tendency to allow them to spread over too much 
surface, to attempt mo-re than, they can do well. Would 
it not be wise to place some limitation upon their work, 
and then insist that it shall he thoroughly done? The 
institutes, under good management, may do much to 
disseminate correct views upon, this subject. Nor should 
it be forgotten that the most difficult problems in educa- 
tion are those connected with its elementary stages. 
The primary and intermediate schools demand more skill 
and ingenuity in their management than the high schools 
and colleges, because the advanced student is much bet- 
ter able to help himself than the little child. 

21. Programme of daily exercises. No im- 
portant work of any description can be successfully pro- 
secuted without a well-conceived and well-executed plan. 
Hence, an institute and a school must be wisely planned. 
The work proposed must be clearly mapped out before- 
hand. Nothing should be left to chance or the impulse 
of the moment. So far as possible, all contingencies 
should be foreseen and provided for. This result is best 
accomplished by means of a Programme of Dalit/ Exer- 
cises. In the case of an institute, whose daily work must 
vary to some extent, the programme should embrace the 
details of the proceedings of each day with all their 
modifications. It will be wett, too, if this scheme can fa 
printed and distributed in advance, as it will mdfatte to 
tJ\A teachers the direction which their prejxtrat tons fthoM 
take. If the programme be an attractive one, it will aid 
in securing a large attendance. The plan which follows, 
.s designed for a session of five days. It may be re* 
, yarded as, in a certain sense, a model for study and com- 



ORGANIZATION OB 1 INSTITUTES. 71 

parison. It shows the various topics to be considered, 
and the precise time allotted to each. For a session of 
two or more weeks, it will only he necessary to extend 
the scope of the subjects here indicated sufficiently to 
occupy the addtional time assigned. Or if it be deemed 
advisable to add some of the higher studies, it can be 
easily done. If any of the periods in the time-table are 
either too long or too short, they can be changed to suit 
differing views and circumstances. The programme 
submitted has been subjected to actual trial with perfect 
success. To afford an opportunity for examination and 
comparison, several programmes of institute work in 
different States, kindly furnished by school officers, are 
presented in another part of this work. 

22. Importance of Programmes. These 
schemes of work should be prepared with much care, 
and in view of the special needs of the teachers to be 
affected by them. They may be modified from year 
to year, to correspond with the progressive improve- 
ments of the schools. A programme once adopted 
should, as a general rule, be faithfully adhered to. Each 
exercise should be closed promptly at the expiration of 
the time appointed. To enable the instructors to termi- 
nate the lessons in a proper manner, some member of the 
institute may be designated each day to take charge 
of the time-table and give some suitable signal for 
closing the exercises. The use of a programme clock 
for such purposes is to be commended. This ingenious 
time-piece is so contrived that it can be set to strike 
to the time of any programme, however irregular its 
periods. Faithful attention to these little details will 
add greatly to the efficiency of the institute, and at the 
same time afford valuable hints to the assembled teach- 
ers in the management of their own schools. Let it be 



72 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

again repeated, that as far as possible^ the institute should 
be made a model schoolm all respects. 

23. Topical reviews. Sub-Lectures. Every 
reasonable effort should be made to develop the power of 
clear and concise expression in teachers. A teacher who 
cannot talk readily and to the point is radically deficient 
in his qualifications, and has mistaken his calling unless 
the defect be speedily remedied. The poicer of ready 
expression can be attained only ly patient and persist- 
ent practice. Precept and example alone will not suf- 
fice. Occasional drill exercises in expression may be 
resorted to, either at the institute or in the school, by 
assigning topics beforehand to some of the more intelli- 
gent members at first, and then setting apart a time 
when, in the presence of the whole body, the results of 
the previous preparation may be given in the form of 
Sub-Lectures of five or ten minutes each. The lectures 
may be followed by such encouraging criticisms and 
suggestions as the occasion may require*. During all 
the exercises, every effort should be made to secure 
accuracy and precision in the use of language. To 
speak and write with ease, the pupil must be tnrlt 
we langmge as the nwfawiof his ideas, 
chanically, in connection with every study Iw 
from the "beginning to the end of his eourw. Every 
lesson should, to a certain extent, be a language lesson* 
Since the power of a teacher depends greatly upon the 
skillful use of words, he should neglect no opportunity to 
perfect himself in that department of culture. 



ORGANIZATION- OF INSTITUTES. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS IX. AND X. 

(1) General remarks previous preparation and thorough 
organization, indispensable. (2) When should the institute be 
held ? Previous to opening of the schools in spring or fall. (3) 
Where should they be held ? Generally at different points in 
successive years; reasons stated. (4) Necessity of an active 
local committee. (5) Public Notices, use of public press, edito- 
rial notices ; Circulars carefully prepared ; (6) Personal solicita- 
tion and direct correspondence the most useful in certain cases ; 
(7) Promises and their performances the former should be lib- 
eral and the latter faithful ; (8) Instructors and lecturers should 
be skillful and scholarly ; (9) What special inducements may 
be offered examinations and certificates a gentle compulsory 
provision ; (10) , Necessity of personal attention to details prep- 
arations cannot make themselves. (11) The committee of arrange- 
ments to act as committee of reception; importance of proper 
social adjustments. (12) Necessity -of competent instructors 
emphasized a failure here, a failure altogether ; (13) Introduc- 
tory exercises a brief address recommended, appointment of 
secretaries ; (14) Enrollment of members, collection of certain sta- 
tistics ; (15) Classification, when desirable and how to be effected. 
(16) Roll call the institutes as far as possible to be a model. 
How to call the roll rapidly at the precise time ; (17) A plan 
suggested and recommended. (18) Basis of classification ; another 
suggestion ; (19) Subjects to be taught and discussed principally 
elementary and professional; (20) The common branches the 
most important ; they are fundamental ; (21) Necessity of a 
Programme of daily exercises no successful work without a 
wise plan the school no exception; (22) Importance of a pro- 
gramme should be carefully adhered to ; (28) Topical reviews 
and Sub-lectures; Cultivation of language. (24) A programme 
submitted for study and comparison. 
4 



THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



PROGRAMME OF EXERCISES FOB A COUNTY 
Commencing Monday, April 13, 187 . Sessions will oegin promptly on 



MORNING SESSION. 


MONDAY. 


TUESDAY. 


9 to 9:02 Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


9:03 to 9:10 Devotional Ex- 


Devotional Exer- 


Devotional Ezor- 


ercises. 


cises. 


ciftes. 


9:10 to 9:16 
9:15 to 9:40 


Singing. 
Opening Remarks 


Reading of Minnti'p. 
Lewoi^-Ackool Or- 




and Organization. 


ganization. 


9:40 to 9:55 


" Aims and Duties 


Number Lesson. 




of the Teacher/' 




9:55 to 10:25 Method Lessons. 
10:35 to 10:40 Method Lessons. 


School Organizat'n. 
Illustrative "The 


Arithmetic. 
Primary Reading. 




Least Common 






Multiple." 




10:40 to 10:45 Essays 


it U MtlJCt 11 

system. 


"Habits of the 






Teacher." 


10-45 to 10:55 Recess. 


Recess. 


Recess. 


10:55 to 11:80 Method Lessons. 


Physical Culture. 


Elocution. 


11:30 to 11:35 


The School Laws. 


Tin* Order of Mental 


11:35 to 12 


School Officers'Mect 


Development. 
Methods m History. 


AFTERNOON SESSION. 


ing. 




2 to 2:02 Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


2-02 to 2:05 Singing.- 


Sinking. 


Sinjjinji. 


3:05 to 2:10 Reading Minutes. 
3:10 to 2:35 Method Lemons. 


Reading of Minutes. 
Theory and Practice. 


Reading of Minute*. 


8:85 to 3:50 Methods, etc. 


In Composition. 


Obji'ctH. " 


2:50 to 3:30 Method Lessons. 


Penmanship. 


PonmaiiHhip. 


3:20 to 3:25 Essays. 


" Punctuality " 


"lVadmi the Al- 
phabet 17 


3:25 to 8:85 Recess. 


ROCO&H. 


Recent*. 


3:85 to 4:05 Method Logons. 


Language. 




4:03 to 4:30 Methods, etc. 


l Criticism." 


Reading of Notes 






Drawn by Lot. 


4:130 to 4:25 


Calisthenics. 


Calisthenics. 


4:25 to 4:55 Methods, etc. 


Methods in Spelling 


Thoryan*l Irttctic' 






of Touching. 


4:55 to 5 


Query Bos, 


Qiu-ry Hos. 


EVENING SESSION. 






7:30to7:!}2 Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


R<U Call. 


7:33 to 7:.W Reading Minutes. 
7:36 to 7:45 Music. 


Koudint: of Minute*. 
Quartette. 


Ki'tiiUiigufMlnnttii. 


7:45 to 7:55 


Esaay, 


Seli'Ctctl llradin^. 


7:55 to 8 Munlr, 


Solo** Laiuruhl 


Sih> "TtitwAti"! 1 ! 




SlHllJlMT. 1 ' 


Vit < itaiif*t *" " 




" 5>ELlP CULTrHE. 11 




Music. 


Jubilee, Chora*. 


Churun. 



School Officers, Parents, and all who art* intw st<ni In the cauw of Educa- 
April 18, May 2d. and 28tl, at the School Houw in A . 



PROGRAMME OF EXERCISES. 



TEACHERS' INSTITUTE, OF ONE WEEK. 

time ; twenty minute? notice will be given by the ringing of the tea. 



WEDNESDAY. 


THURSDAY, 


FRIDAY. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Devotional Exercises, 


Devotional Exercises. 


Devotional Exercises. 


Reading of Minutes. 
Lesson School Organi- 
zation. 


Reading of Minutes. 
Lesson School Organi- 
zation. 


Reading of Minutes. 
Lesaoii School Organi- 
zation. 


Illustrative Lesson 


Number Lesson. 


Number Lesson. 


"The Greatest Com- 






mon Divisor." 




Arithmetic. 


Arithmetic. 


Arithmetic. 


Discuts'n "Our School* 


Primary Reading. 


Primary Reading. 


at the Centennial Ex- 






position." 


" Map Drawing." 


"Composition Writing." 


" Studying a Lesson."' 


Becess. 


Recess. 


Recess. 


The Natural Sciences. 


Elocution. 


Elocution. 


The Order of Mental De- 


Methods in Drawing. 


Methods in Drawing. 


velopment. 






Methods in Higher Ma- 
thematics. 


Methods in U. S. History 
and Constitution. 


Methods in Physiology 
and Hygiene. 


Eoll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Singing. 


Singing. 


Singing. 


Reading of Minutes. 


Reading of Minutes. 


Reading of Minutes. 


Geogniphy. * 
Illustrative Mathema- 


Map Drawing. 
Illustrative-"The Verb." 


Physical Geography. 
Discussion K How lo 


tical Geography. 




conduct Recitations.'' 


Penmanship, 
" Lessons." 


Penmanship. 
"The Example of the 


Penmanship. 
"Ability to Govern." 




Teacher." 




Recess. 


Recess. 


Recess. 


Language. 


Language 


Language. 


Form. 


Methods in Music. 


Essay "The Model 






School-room." 


Gymnastic Song. 


Essay" Valne of Expe- 


Calisthenics. 




rience." 




Theory and Practice of 


Criticism and Discus'n 


Review. 


Teaching. 
Object Lesson "The 


'Correct'n of Lang'e." 
Query Box. 


Closing Exercises. 


Knife." 






Boll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Roll Call. 


Reading of Minutes. 
Duett-?' Beware." 


Reading of Minntes. 
Duet " Footsteps on 


Reading of Minutes. 
Solo lp Disowned." 




the Stairs." 




Essay "The Faculties 


Address- "A School- 


Address "Our Schools 


of the Mind." 
Solo-'- Little Sweet- 
heart." 


room Fifty Years Ago.' ' 
Solo. 


Seen by a Foreigner.' 1 
Song. 


Addresses County Su- 


1 * ELOCUTION IN THE 


Address-" Effective 


perintendents. 


SCHOOLS." 


Work." 


Quartette. 


Trio. 


Chorus. 



tion, are invited to be present at all the sessions. Teachers 1 Examinations, 
, Covnty Superintendent, 



76 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK, 



PART III. 

OHAPTEE XI. 

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. 

1. Preliminary Observations. The programme 
at the close of Part Second, details an order of Exercises 
for an institute of one week. The subjects presented in 
this order, embrace a wide range of topics both general 
and professional. The scheme has been practically tested 
under circumstances of no little difficulty. It is, in fact, 
a word picture of the work accomplished at the first in- 
stitute hold in a frontier county of one of our frontier 
States. In some of its details it may not be suitable for 
other places, yet it will be useful as a suggestive guide 
everywhere. No plan can be proposed which in all par- 
ticulars will meet the wants of every locality. But with 
minor modifications as to time, subject-matter, and order 
of arrangement, it is believed that the programme re-" 
fcrred to will servo a good purpose in any institute for 
the promotion of elementary instruction. So far as the 
division of time, the subject-matter, and order of the vari- 
ous exorcises, are concerned, the plan needs iw elucida- 
tion. It explains itself. Our next stop, therefore, will 
be to present an analysis of -some of the leading subject* 
embraced in the programme, with sketches of a few 
typical lessons, as suggestions of the best methods of 
treating them before a class. 



COTJESE OF INSTRUCTION-, 77 

2. School organization. It will be observed that 
this is the first important topic embraced in the order 
of exercises, and that it occupies its place during each 
day of the session. Its importance cannot be easily ex- 
aggerated. A radical defect that embarrasses a great 
proportion of our district schools, especially those taught 
by young teachers, is found to be their lack of thorough 
organization. Few of this class of teachers, and they 
constitute a vast majority, seem to have any well-defined 
ideas upon the subject. For this reason, we see them 
menaced with failure in the very outset of their profes- 
sional career. Their schools are but little better than 
]uvenile mass meetings, without a definite plan or pur- 
pose. They do not seem to know that without organi- 
zation there can be no really successful work in the 
school-room. Whereas, they should be taught as a first 
lesson, that to secure victory on any field it must be 
organized. The subject should therefore receive system- 
atic and careful attention wherever teachers are trained 
for their high vocation, at the institute and the Normal 
school. When it is remembered that probably nine- 
tenths or more of our common-school teachers are young 
and inexperienced, with very vague conceptions of the 
real nature of their duties, the necessity of increased 
attention to this subject will be readily apparent. 

The subjoined analysis must necessarilly be brief 
and somewhat imperfect. . But it will enable the thought- 
ful teacher to gather useful hints respecting the steps 
essential to the organization of a country school and its 
preparation for effective work. At an institute these 
suggestions thus summarily presented may be taken 
up successively, accompanied with such explanations and 
comments as the circumstances may demand. 

3. Analysis and definition of the term. 



78 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

Etymology of the word Organization ; What is an or- 
gan ? Illustrate the meaning by several examples ; 
What is implied by the organization of a public meet- 
ing? Of an insurance company? Of a church? Of 
an army ? Apply these principles to the organization 
of a school. 

4. Importance of Organization. Give illus- 
trations in the case of an army ; of a government ; of a 
railway company. Show that disaster must follow the 
absence of it in any great undertaking ; No valuable 
results to be achieved in any direction without organi- 
zation ; Kesults usually commensurate with perfection 
of organization ; It is the instrumentality through which 
power is successfully applied ; The school, no exception 
to the rule \ Emphasize this point. 

5. Work preliminary to organization of 
school. (fl) Selecting or "engaging" a school; The 
young teacher to consider well his adaptation to a par- 
ticular school before engaging it; He should know 
something of its peculiar difficulties, then weigh the 
question of his fitness to cope with them ; An omission 
to do this a fatal mistake with many ; " Fools rush in 
where angels fear to tread." Success in thejirst ftftt>/ij>t 
a primary consideration with young teachers ; Pecuni- 
ary reward a secondary matter ; Avoid difficult schools 
in the first trials. 

School officers should also carefnlty 8tn1y the* adap- 
tation of -the teacher to their special wants before 
employing him ; This the groat question; The teacher 
a failure, the school a failure* and the money t 
Avarico not to supplant common KWIKC and 
principles in this connection; Cheap teachers not the 
summumlommi ; A poor teacher dear at any price; A 
good one cheap at any price ; With an unwise selection, 



COTTESB OF OTTRUCTIOff. 79 

failure is courted in advance. The study of fitness and 
adaptation a mutual duty with teachers and school 
officers. 

(b) The teacher should make known his views and 
plans of teaching and management to school officers 
while negotiating. The acquiescence of the latter to be 
a condition in the contract; The contract should 
always be in writing j It should bind the officers to the 
support of the teacher in all just measures ; Should be 
signed in duplicate ; Teacher should visit district and 
make acquaintances of parents before opening of school. 
Why? 

6. The first day of school. School officers 
should be present and introduce teacher the first day ; 
Eeasons for this; Gives appearance of moral support to 
teacher; Produces salutary effect upon pupils; A lesson 
in official courtesy; Teacher should make brief, familiar, 
and appropriate address to pupils; Should explain his 
relations to them, and theirs to him ; He must strive 
to make ihefirst impressions pleasant. Why ? Special 
preparation for first day indispensable ; Go to work with 
a carefully prepared plan. Leave nothing to the impulse 
of the moment. 

7. Second step. General Exercise sug- 
gested. To dispel embarrassment and secure confi- 
dence of children, introduce some appropriate and pleas- 
ant general exercise. This may be a familiar song; 
some vocal exercise, or a responsive reading of the 
Scriptures; If the first effort fails, try again with 
encouraging words ; Be sure and select some exercise 
in which all can be induced to join ; This breaks the 
ice. Careful forethought and preparation needful here, 
too. 

8. Temporary classification. Third step. 



80 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

Confidence having been secured, the teacher may next 
proceed to ascertain the former classification of the 
school ; He may enroll the pupils ; May adopt, tempora- 
rily, classification of predecessor, if deemed advisable; But 
reserve the right to modify it, if necessary ; Should avoid 
sudden and radical changes which may arouse prejudice 
and excite opposition; May change gradually as experi- 
ence renders it necessary ; Register names and ages of 
pupils according to classification ; May assign lessons 
under old classification; Make recitations the means 
of carefully scrutinizing the attainments and abilities 
of pupils; Make careful record of the results of this 
indirect examination of- each pupil ; Pursue this plan 
until familiar with the standing of each pupil ; Modify 
classification gradually according to these results ; 
Be sure you are right, then go ahead. 

9. Direct preliminary examination. Third 
step continued. Bat if circumstances arc favorable, 
the foregoing 'indirect method may be omitted, and a 
direct, thorough examination, preliminary to classifica- 
tion, may at once be entered upon. Value of written ex- 
amination, when practicable; Oral examinations should 
supplement the former ; Questions should be dear and 
comprehensive ; No leading or direct questions ; Should 
be adapted to ago of pupils. 

10. Formation of classes. Fourth step. 
Standing or grade of pupils carefully determine J, on tho 
basis of the foregoing examination ; Xumbcr of classes 
or grades not to exceed three or four ; P>y exercise of 
tact and skill, teacher can limit the number to the above ; 
Multiplication of classes a groat evil; Studies pursued 
to bo determined by attainment of classes ; Avoid too 
many studies ; Should not exceed three or four ; Allow- 
no overlapping of grades ; Make each distinct in the 



COURSE Off INSTRUCTION. 81 

studies pursued ; The great problem to reduce the num- 
ber of recitations to minimum limits ; A few things well 
done better than many things poorly done ; Mental and 
physical capacity, and not attainments only, an element 
in gradation ; Classification should conform to laws of 
mental evolution and true order of studies. 

11. Assigning lessons. Fifth step. After 
classification, lessons to be assigned ; Avoid too long les- 
sons j Measure carefully the abilities of pupils; "Not 
how much but how well," the true aim; Make allow- 
ance for general exercises ; Provide for interruptions ; 
Devotional exercises ; Yocal music ; Physical training ; 
Recesses. 

12. Programme of daily work. Sixth step. 
System or order a law of intellectual and moral, as well 
as material progress ; Hence it should be made a habit of 
the mind and of the daily life ; In preparing a programme, 
consider that there must be a time for everything, and 
that everything must be limited to its time ; Teacher must 
look over the whole field of school duty and embrace his 
entire work in arrangement of programme ; Provide for 
study hours as well as for recitations of each class ; As- 
sign to each duty its proper share of time and attention. 

13. Principles to be regarded. (a) Classes in 
lower grades require less time for each recitation, but 
greater frequency ; (b) Primary classes to be attended 
to once in each of the two daily sessions in each study, 
if time permit ; (c) Recitations in Grammar and Geog- 
raphy require more time than Beading, Spelling, and 
Arithmatic, generally ; Why ? (d) Primary classes to 
be attended to in early part of session; Why? (e) 
Classes in more advanced studies may, if necessary, be 
heard only on alternate days. 

14. Flan of study and recitation* In arran- 

4* 



82 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

ging daily programme, provide study hours and specify 
the subjects to be studied throughout the day. This pro- 
motes methodical habits. It aids in the preservation of 
order, by providing constant and useful occupation to 
the pupils. 

15. School Regulations. Make but few regula- 
tions, and only as occasion requires ; Once made, let them 
be faithfully executed ; Pupils should be seated accord- 
ing to classification, as far as practicable, each class by 
itself; Teacher should control this matter, and all 
others of a similar nature, in his school ; Class movements 
to be made regularly, quietly, and with precision ; Xo 
disorder to be allowed, either in class or mass movements, 
under any circumstances ; Recesses and intermissions 
no exception to the rule; Prompt and cheerful obedi- 
ence the first lesson of life ; Disorder in school, the pre- 
cursor of violated law in the State ; Thorough discipline 
indispensable ; Extremes to be avoided. 

16, School Registers. Registers of attendance 
should be carefully kept; Make regular and accurate 
reports to parents concerning attendance, deportment, 
etc. ; When practicable, publish monthly reports in local 
paper; Superintendents should require monthly reports 
of teachers according to prescribed forms ; Class records, 
especially in large schools with large classes, not advis- 
able; They involve too much labor, and detract from 
efficiency of recitation ; They dissipate the power of 
teacher ; Monthly written examinations bettor tests of 
progress than impromptu markings at recitations ; Ito- 
conls to bo in permanent form ; To l>o transmitted to 
successor in office ; They form basis of official reports 
of most important statistics ; vShouM be uniform M/Y,w///t- 
ou$ the fionntry ; Should bo timumtefy and neatly kept / 
No excuse for carelessness hero. 



CONDUCTING EECPTATIONS. 83 

17. Visitation of Parents. Teachers should 
not neglect this duty; Such visits promote good under- 
standing and mutual co-operation ; They cultivate agree- 
able social relations and increase the teacher's influence ; 
'They tend to educate parents to an appreciation of their 
duties and responsibilities in the education of their chil- 
dren ; Visitation of parents the best method of stimula- 
ting the visitation of the school. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTER XI. 

(1) Preliminary Observations ; The Programme ; (2) School 
Organization; (3) Analysis and definition of the term; illustra- 
tions of meaning; a public meeting ; an insurance company, etc ; 
(4) Importance of organization ; (5) Work preliminary to organi- 
zation ; conditions of success ; (6) First day of school ; (7) Gen- 
eral exercises recommended; (8) Temporary classification, how- 
effected; (9) Direct preliminary examination; (10) The forma- 
tion of classes based upon examination ; (11) Assigning lessons ; 
a caution ; (12) Programme of daily exercises ; (13) Principles to 
be regarded ; (14) Plan of study and recitation ; (15) School regu- 
lations; (16) School Registers; (17) Visitation of Parents. 



CHAPTER XII. 

CONDUCTING RECITATIONS. 

1. General Remarks. This subject is one of 
great importance, and should receive careful attention, 
both at the institute and the Normal school. The work 
of the school may be said to concentrate chiefly in the 
recitation. Its manifold influences commingle here in 



84 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

their greatest intensity. It is, so to speak, the focal 
point of the teacher's labors: he should, therefore, study 
to comprehend its objects and strive earnestly so to pre- 
pare himself as to be able fully to realize those objects. 

2. A failure here, a failure altogether. Is 
the teacher " apt to teach ? " Is he a ready, accurate, 
and thorough scholar? lias he a large heart, broad 
sympathies, noble impulses, and a loving disposition ? 
Or is he ignorant of his duties, ill-informed in his 
studies, cold-hearted and unfeeling, or passionate and 
severe ? Then here, if anywhere, and more than else- 
where, will his true character be revealed to observing 
eyes and carried home to susceptible hearts. 

On the other hand, a full and ready mind will always 
challenge the respect ; a generous and kindly heart will 
inspire the lovo of pupils for their teacher. And again, 
ignorance, incapacity, an unfeeling disposition and a 
bad temper, can never fail to dishearten and disgust 
the child, and make a most unfavorably impression upon 
his character, which the flight of years will be scarcely 
able to obliterate. 

3. Spirit of the school. Moral uses of the 
Recitation. The spirit of the school, as n whole, will 
ever be largely determined by the spirit that is infused 
into its pupils in the sharp encounter of the class-room. 
The ability of the teacher to do and to bear, as well as 
forbear, is here brought to the decisive test, and hift 
power to shape tho character of his precious charge will 
bo made so manifest that each shall ae.o and feel it either 
to hia lasting benefit or irreparable injury. That the 
recitation has thus it* uwrnl tut irrll rt# itttt tftffwtl tw# 9 is 
a truth which every teacher should lay well to heart. 
That it is not to bo regarded and treated as a mere 
mechanical routine, a repetition of words without 



CONDUCTING BECITATIONS. 85 

import, memorized from a text-book, but that it has 
definite and rational aims to be carefully sought and 
earnestly pursued, is a proposition too evident to require 
demonstration. In presenting a brief outline of the 
subject, therefore, it may be assumed that the highest 
success at the recitation must presuppose on the part 
of the instructor a knowledge of its true theory, with the 
intelligence, skill, and industry to realize it in practice. 

SYLLABUS. 

I. The objects of the Recitation. These are 
dependent upon the objects of education, which are : 
1, The development of the faculties / 2, The acquisition 
of knowledge; 3, Its wise application to the uses of life. 

The recitation must embrace these objects. Hence, 
the ends of the recitation may be summarily stated 
to be: (a) To develop the power of quick and accurate 
perception, of close observation, and generally, of clear 
and exact thought. 

This object would lead to the consideration of the 
following topics having a direct bearing upon it : For- 
mative "state of the mind in early childhood ; Crudeness 
of its perceptions ; Necessity of guiding its activities ; 
Must be taught how to use its powers; Must be led to 
form right habits of thought, study, and expression; 
Early instruction should be mainly oral : Why ? The 
nature and order of studies for children; The transition 
to text-books ; How made, and under what guidance ; 
Mechanical habits to be carefully avoided ; The power 
of association to be carefully cultivated; The teacher 
a fashioner of habits of thought, feeling, and to a cer- 
tain extent of action ; The recitation the place to direct 
and correct errors in modes of activity, (b) Another 



86 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

object of the Recitation, is to cultivate the jioicer of con- 
cise and ready expression. 

The power of expression the decisive test of know- 
ing; No subject properly mastered that cannot be well 
expressed or communicated ; Clear language the best 
test of clear thought ; Accurate expression should go 
hand in hand with acquisition, from the primary stages, 
onward; The power of expressing thought the best 
standard of mental admeasurement; It teaches the 
pupil to know when he knows, and to know when he 
is ignorant ; It generates a modest self-reliance and 
intellectual independence. 

(c) A third object of the Recitation is to determine 
the extent and accuracy of the learner's attainments. 

Each recitation should afford some proof of new at- 
tainments, clearer conceptions ; In the absence of this, the 
recitation a failure; All true progress necessarily slow ; 
Neither royal road nor railroad to temple of learning ; 
But definite results should be aimed at in each recitation. 

(d) Another oiycct of the JRecitati<m t to i/ienaum the 
attainments of the class, to add to the knowledge that its 
members have acquired in their study hours. 

The teacher, whose knowledge is limited to the text, 
books he uses, will fail at the Recitation. A good toucher 
must know much more than he is expected to tench ; 
Why? Inspiration imparted by a scholarly teacher 
more valuable to the pupils than the studying they <lo ; 
Why ? The teacher's high attainments, the pupil's great- 
est incentive; Thorough preparation, both general anl 
special, the first duty. 

(?) An object of the Rwttatfan, to determine thejiit- 
pik* halitts and tMtlnxh of titutlt/, <nul to correct what" 
ever is faulty either m winner or Mtuttw* 

Man is a " bundle of habits; * Education the forma- 



CONDUCTING RECITATIONS. 87 

tion of habits and the development of character ; The 
pupil to be taught how to study how to think and act ; 
To correct errors in methods of using the faculties the 
best way to prevent errors in mental acquisition ; To 
secure precision and accuracy in exercise and acquisition 
is of prime importance. 

(/) The moral objects of the Recitation are to culti- 
vate sentiments of justice, kindness, forbearance, and 
courtesy. 

The sharp rivalries and keen competition that arise, 
call for the exerci se of the highest moral virtues. Let gen- 
erosity, charity, and love, be the ruling spirit ; The ex- 
ample of the teacher here almost supreme ; His manners 
should be winning, his temper even, his judgment cool, 
and his decisions prompt and just ; His influence thus 
rendered controlling, and the recitation a moral as well 
as intellectual power. 

II. The preparations necessary for the Reci- 
tation. 1. By the Teacher. Preparations of two kinds, 
general and special ; General preparation implies a thor- 
ough knowledge of subject-matter. The lawyer must 
know the law ; the physician the science upon which his 
profession is baaed ; both must superadd general intelli- 
gence to their attainments. So, the Preacher and the 
Teacher; Tbe teacher should be more learned than other 
professional men ; Why ? 

Special preparation. In the lawyer, the careful study 
of each case in the light of the legal principles involved ; 
In the physician, a thorough diagnosis of the disease of 
each patient as a basis of successful treatment ; In the 
teacher, a knowledge of his classes, of each individual, 
and the principles and methods of teaching most appli- 
cable to each case. 

A knowledge of education as a science, and of its 



88 THE TEACHER'S HAJSTD-BOOK. 

methods as an art, essential A knowledge of human 
nature and especially of the child's nature, iu dispensable. 
Principles the foundation of all true methods ; Methods 
changeable, principles eternal ; A thorough knowledge 
of principles will suggest methods best adapted to cir- 
cumstances of time, place, etc., 

A general and special preparation for each recitation 
necessary to the highest success ; A fresh examination of 
subject-matter and a well-digested plan for each recita- 
tion ; Teacher should strive to put himself in the place 
of his pupils ; Should anticipate their difficulties ; Should 
be prepared to guide them through ; This duty too gen- 
erally neglected ; Failure its legitimate result-. Careful 
special preparation by each teacher would revolutionize 
and vitalize the schools of the country. 

2. Preparation of the pupil. The pupil an important 
factor in the work of the school ; Ho must be taught 
how to us&htsfaeultiesJiowtoHtutfy; Oral training tho 
first stop in the process; Use of perceptive and observ- 
ing powers the foundation ; The "expressive faculties ; n 
Association, understanding, memory, imagination, reason, 
etc. The right use and tho abuse of text-books. The mas- 
tery of ideas rather than words ; As a guide to tbe 
pupils, the teacher should occupy a portion of the recita- 
tion period, when necessary, in a general, survey of the 
succeeding lesson ; Anticipating its diilieiiUiej*, he should 
indicate to the pupils how they may surmount thorn ; 
Teacher not to remove difficulties, HO ranch as to teach 
and encourage l\\$ pujtifa to M/> thrmitrtw* ; No excel- 
lenoo without labor; No great ex c.ellewe. without wvero 
labor ; The teacher's help to be bttfiwf f Self-reliance 
and perseverance to be iwulcaicu! at every Htej> ; Tho 
lessons of to-day to l>o wweitthtl with thorn* previously 
given ; Evils of fragmentary teaching ; Association and 



CONDUCTING RECITATIONS. 89 

attention the basis of good memory ; Discourage mere 
verbal memorizing ; The habit almost universal ; Its rem- 
edy with the teacher, to be effected mainly by a proper 
supervision of the preparatory work of each pupil, and 
by a rational plan of conducting the exercises of the 
class-room ; In going over a new lesson in advance, the 
teacher should question his classes, draw out the lead- 
ing ideas, and thus assist their private study by an intel- 
ligent preliminary survey. Pupils trained to appear 
at the recitation in a docile spirit ; Egotism and for- 
wardness to be discouraged, if need be, rebuked; Mod- 
esty the crowning excellence of the true scholar. 

III. Management of the Recitation. Move- 
ments of classes ; Signals ; The arrangement of classes ; 
When to be seated; When to be standing; Arrange- 
ment and methods of management must vary somewhat 
with ages and grades of pupils ; Length of recitations ; 
variations as above noted ; Exercises of younger pupils 
to be short, the children to stand ; In advanced grades 
the recitations to be longer, the pupils to sit, but to stand 
while speaking ; Attention and order indispensable; 
Preliminary preparations ; Brief review of preceding 
lesson ; Critical examination of regular lesson ; Give 
each pupil a chance ; Individualize the teaching ; Ride 
no hobbies ; Avoid wandering ; Do not talk too much ; 
Speak on medium key ; Let your pupils do the work ; 
Beware of leading and direct questions; Be cheerful, 
prompt, active ; Be critical, and encourage your pupils 
to be so ; Keep the objects of the lesson before you ; En- 
courage your pupils; Thoroughly master your subject ; 
Avoid leaning on the text-book ; Cultivate in your pupils 
the right use of language ; Permit no inaccurate expres- 
sion to pass uncorrected ; Beware of indistinct and in- 
accurate pronunciation ; Encourage natural expression ; 



90 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

No unnatural tones Topical reviews ; Written abstracts 
and summaries; Practical applications; Apt illustra- 
tions ; Use apparatus and other material aids ; The 
blackboard. Assignment of new lessons; Good judg- 
ment necessary here ; Weigh well the capacities of your 
pupils ; Provide for an adequate preparation of the suc- 
ceeding lesson. Prompt closing of recitations ; Dismiss 
classes in perfect order. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTER XII. 

1. General Remarks. The recitation the focal point of the 
teacher's work. 2. A failure at the recitation equivalent to a 
total failure; value of scholarship and professional skill. 3. 
Spirit of the school Moral uses of the recitation. 

Objects of the Recitation Specified dependent upon the objects 
of education. These are : 1. The development of the faculties* 
2. The acquisition of knowledge ; 3. Its wise application. 

The Objects of the Mecitotion.~- r fo development of thought ; 
Its expression in clear language ; To test extent and accuracy of 
the pupils* attainments ; To increase these attainments ; To form 
right habits of study in the pupil, and to cultivate his moral 
powers. 

The Preparation for the Recitation. 1. By tlio teacher; 3. 
By the pupil . The first of two kinds, general and special. Both 
defined and illustrated. The preparations of the pupil par- 
ticularized. 

The Management />/ the Recitation. Indicated in doUU j Move- 
ments of classes. Ami ngement, when seated, and when standing; 
Use of signals ; Length of recitations ; Whim varied ; Attention; 
and order indispensable ; Brief review ; Critical examination of 
subjects , Individualizing instruction ; Pupi) to do the work j 
Wrong questioning to be avoided; Objects of the lesson to be 
kept in view ; Thorough mastery of the subject necessary ; Abuse 
of text-books; Distinct enunciation; Natural expreealon; He* 
views, use of apparatus, etc. 



METHODS IN HEADING. 91 

CHAPTEE XIII. 

METHODS IN READING. 

1. Importance of the Subject. Reading is the 

most important subject taught at school. It is espe- 
cially important that it be thoroughly taught in the 
primary classes. It is first in the order of time. It tends 
quite as much as any other branch to awaken the young 
mind and give to its powers their earliest impulse in the 
pathway of knowledge and in their career of progres- 
sive development. 

No subject can afford a child more pleasure and pro- 
fit than this, if rightly taught, with an intelligent appre- 
ciation by the pupil of all that he reads. There must be 
no mere machine-work in the process. This is especially 
true in this " age of reading," when almost every child 
of five years or more is furnished witii a " Children's 
Paper " or magazine, to say nothing of the multitude 
of juvenile books issued from the American press, 

2. A stronger reason. But there is a still 
stronger reason why the best methods of teaching read- 
ing should be practiced in the primary school. A large 
majority of the children of this country obtain all the 
instruction they ever receive at school, in the primary 
grade. Statistics prove that nineteen-twentieths of our 
juvenile population leave the schools prior to the age of 
ten or eleven years. It is therefore a most serious ques- 
tion with every conscientious teacher : " How can I do 
the most for these citizens in embryo, during the brief 
period allotted to their school training ? " 



92 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

3. Ideas from the beginning. Every effort 
ought to be directed from the outset to shaping the 
mind of the child, so that, when no longer under the 
teacher's care, he may b& able to help himself. He 
should be assisted and encouraged to become an inter- 
ested and self-reliant worker, instead of a mere mechan- 
ical imitator. Thus, in the end, he will possess an 
awakened and disciplined mind. 

4. Development and discipline. The work of 
the primary teacher is especially to draw out, tofomi^ 
and strengthen^ and not merely to impart. Let every les- 
son in reading given to a primary class be such as to in- 
terest the children, exercise their perceptive faculties, and 
form mental pictures of the subjects presented. In this way 
the lesson will be rendered both pleasing and profitable. 

5. Special Preparation. Years are usually spent 
in teaching reading, to little purpose, simply because no 
thought and interest are awakened in the subject. Every 
lesson should bo carefully considered and prepared be- 
forehand by the teacher. It matters not how simple 
the lesson may i>e, previous preparation is indispensable. 
This will add new power, and generate better methods 
by means of which success will be assured. The teacher 
will become independent, self-reliant, and a law unto 
himself. 

6. Different systems noticed. There are four 
different methods of teaching reading that have received 
a distinct recognition ; the Alphabetic, the Word, the 
Phonic, and the Sentence method. The latter IB riot 
generally known. It will be more particularly noticed 
hereafter. Neither of the four, when taken by itself,can 
be said to form a perfect system. Each has its apociai 
office to perform. Each may be said to constitute a 
part of a complete plan, by means of winch pupils in a 



METHODS IN READING. 93 

brief period may be taught to read with fluency, ease, 
and correct expression. 

The drudgery of the Alphabetic method, 'by which 
the children of a past generation, standing at the teach- 
er's knee, slowly and mechanically memorized the twenty- 
six letters, and as slowly conquered the difficulties of a~b, 
ab, and b~a, ba, is partially superseded by the pleasanter 
and more profitable "Word method which is coming into 
general use in the better class of schools. But however 
satisfactory this system may be for beginners, in a short 
time the need of something more is felt. The teacher 
cannot always stand at the side of a child, to present 
objects and illustrate quality and action words. Some 
means must be devised by which the pupil may become 
independent of the teacher, and made able to help him- 
self. The Phonic method affords a key to the solution 
of the difficulty. If used exclusively at first, it is a mere 
jargon of unmeaning sounds, conveying but little signifi- 
cance to the child's mind. When employed, however, 
in conjunction with the word method, it gives to the 
pupil the aid he needs in learning new words for him- 
self. The Phonic method thus enlarges the field which 
is opened to the learner by the Word method. 

7. The Word Method explained. For begin- 
ners the teacher should select words that are the names 
of objects familiar to the pupils, as cat, dog, cow, etc. 
" Quality words " may also be employed, as white, black, 
large, small, etc. 

Let the teacher talk to the class about some familiar 
object, as a cat. Show the picture of a cat. Ask ques- 
tions to draw out what the children know of the object. 
Tell a short story about the cat. Having in this manner 
excited an interest, show the class the word cat, requir- 
ing the children to pronounce it several times, separately 



94 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

and in concert. Call for volunteers to tell something 
that a cat can do, and to name some part of its body. 
Next point to the word cat written upon the hoard with 
several other words, and call upon different pupils to 
point to and name it. Let some members of the class 
take a pointer and find the word on the reading chart or 
card. In like manner teach the word " black " showing 
something black, and thus gradually developing the 
idea. Print the words a, black, and cat upon the board. 
Call upon a pupil to speak the words in succession, and 
at once you have a phrase conveying a distinct idea. 
Then ask a number of questions about a black cat, 
and change the order of the words, placing one above 
the other. Now let the class name the words. Erase 
and again arrange them in a phrase, writing instead of 
printing them, and calling the attention of the children to 
the fact that words have two forms, written and printed. 

8, Children write the words. If the pupils 
are receiving, as they should be, lessons in writing, in 
a very short time they will be able to copy the sen- 
tences from the board on their slates, which should 
be carefully ruled for the purpose. This is a very 
important exercise, not only on account of the pnw- 
tice in writing which it affords, but it gives the chil- 
dren something attractive and ws&fid to tfo, find prevents 
miwMwous habit*, greatly lightening the burden of 
disciplining them. 

In this or somo similar manner, fifty or sixty worda 
may bo taught and combined into phrases, sentences, 
and brief storios. This work can bo accomplished easily 
in some six or eight weeks. Up to this time, perhaps 
only the cards and the blackboard have been used. 
The primers may now bo gradually introduced, in con- 
nection with the other aids, and finally the transition may 



METHODS IN BEADING. 95 

be made to books, by stages so easy as to be nearly im- 
perceptible. The children should be required to study 
their reading, lessons carefully. 

9. The Phonic Method Explained. The pu- 
pils having accomplished the work indicated under the 
word method, and having been taught incidentally the 
names of some of the more important letters, are now 
prepared to learn the simple elementary sounds. To do 
this, the 'following or some similar plan may be adopted : 
Let the teacher pronounce slowly and distinctly some 
word with, which the children are familiar, as the word 
cat. Require the learners to speak the same word, imita- 
ting the teachers manner of enunciating it. Now ask 
the children to utter the sound first heard in the word. 
Let it be simultaneously repeated by the entire class 
several times. The teacher now writes .the letter c 
upon the board where all can see it. Pointing to the 
letter she utters its sound distinctly, requiring the class 
io repeat it while looking at the letter. The sound of 
jach of the other letters in the word is given, and is 
repeated by the children in a similar manner. The 
separate sounds having been mastered, the class are 
.aught to repeat them in rapid succession until they at 
mce see that the united sounds produce the word cat. 

Several other words, containing the short sound of a, 
is rat, bat, hat, sad, mat, fat, -etc., should be treated in a. 
similar manner to the foregoing, the teacher being par- 
ocular each-day to review the sounds previously learned. 
Monosyllables containing short e may now be introduced, 
is red, led, met, etc. Subsequently, simple words con- 
iaining other elements should be selected, until the 
;ounds of the language are mastered and their combina- 
ions to form words are quite familiar. After the sounds 
>f several consonants have been learned, the teacher may 



96 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

occasionally select a word, as red, and giving the sound 
of the first letter, ask the class what letter stands for the 
sound. The children having named the letter, it is writ- 
ten upon the board, Next place some new vowel to the 
right of the r, as e short. Pointing to the vowel the 
teacher gives its sound, the class repeating it several 
times. The sound of d is then given, the children being 
already acquainted with it, and the letter is also written 
upon the board. The pupils now give all the sounds in 
rapid succession, and without difficulty pronounce the 
word red. 

Similar exercises with the remaining vowels are given, 
avoiding for the present all double vowels and silent let- 
ters, these difficulties being introduced at a later period 
when the children have mastered the simplest elemen- 
tary sounds. 

As the pupils become familiar with the sounds of the 
letters, the teacher gradually places before them new 
words, and requires them to give the sounds and pro- 
nounce the words without assistance. To introduce va- 
riety, the teacher may sometimes pronounce words, the 
pupils giving the sounds. Spelling fy letter should not 
be neglected, but should accompany every exercise in 
phonics. Spelling ly sound is a most useful vocal drill 
for pupils of any age, and for an entire school. Tt may be 
introduced in the intervals between recitations, before 
the close of the session, or whenever the pupils become 
listless or weary of the ordinary exercises of the school. 
10. Farther Suggestions. It is best to con- 
tinue the word method until the pupils can read a 
number of sentences with fluency and an easy, natural 
expression. Having accomplished this, the children may 
well feel that much has been done, and they are pro- 
pared and encouraged to learn new words by the pho- 



METHODS TK BEADING. 9T 

nic method. They are taught, of course, to recog- 
nize the word as a whole, precisely as they do an object. 
Whenever they are able to name words at sight quickly, ' 
there arises a desire to know their parts, the letters, and 
this is the proper time to resort to the use of the sounds 
represented hy the letters. By the methods suggested, 
children are enabled to read with more interest and 
expression in a far shorter time than hy the plans 
heretofore generally pursued. 

1 1. The " Sentence Method." * By this meth- 
od the teacher does not begin with the letters, nor 
with separate words, but with words in combination^ 
as the simplest expression of the simplest mental ele- 
menta thought. From this combination of words 
as the unit, the separate words are learned, as the let- 
ters are learned by the Word Method, that is to say, 
without special effort and almost if not quite uncon- 
sciously. 

In teaching by the Word Method the 'child's atten- 
tion is first called to the meaning of the word and 
then to the form and pronunciation. In the Sen- 
tence Method the attention is first directed to the 
idea. To this end, real objects and facts are at first 
employed to appeal to the senses and to demand of the 
child words -to give the idea oral expression, precisely 
as they were appealed to when he learned to talk. The 
eye and the mind are taught to recognize and regard 
a representation to the eye, (written words) of the oral 
language, as the simplest representation of .the idea. 
Language is used to express ideas. In learning to 
talk, children acquire ideas from objects, and then seek 
language to express them. In seeking the language, 
they do not so much regard the separate meaning of 

* See the Beading Book entitled" Sentence Method," fey Jofcn 
R. Webl). 



98 THE TEACHEE'S 

the words they use, as 'the combined meaning, because 
the idea which they wish to express oaimot be embodied 
in the separate words, It requires a combination of 
words, " because it takes the combination of words 
to give birth to the idea." 

This principle, which applies with equal force to 
written language, is said to have suggested the idea 
of the lt Sentence Method." In teaching reading it 
should, according to the author of the system, be the 
aim of the teacher not so much to teach separate sounds, 
letters, and words, as to develop and secure the proper 
expression of thought Of course, the letters and words 
must be known, but as they will necessarily beoome 
known by this method, without much special teach- 
ing, they are regarded and treated as of secondary 
importance for the time being. 

The advantages claimed for this method over others, 
are thus stated : 

(a) It inspires and develops ideas in the mind of 
the child in a perfectly natural way through objects. 

(b) The ideas thus becoming the child's property are 
expressed almost necessarily in a proper manner. 

(c) It trains the eye to "take in" and the mind 
to comprehend both words and ideas in advance of the 
voice, each of which is necessary to natural reading. 

(d) It trains the child to look through the words to 
the thoughts, by directing his attention, not to the me- 
dium of expression, word-forms, but to the ideas beyond. 
It thus makes easy, natural, and intelligent readers, and 
not awkward, unnatural, and thoughtless ones. 

(e) While doing this work, it is further claimed, that 
it accomplishes all that the other methods do, without 
additional time. 



METHODS IE BEADING. 99 

OHAPTEE XIY. 

BEADING CONTINUED. 

12. The more advanced Primary Lessons,- 

Having conducted the class through so much of the 
" Word and Phonic Methods " as may be deemed profita- 
ble, lessons may be assigned upon pages- containing pic- 
tures, with numerous familiar words. A conversation 
may be carried on between the teacher and the class, and 
the meaning of each lesson may be drawn from the chil- 
dren. A number of words may be written upon the 
board and the learners may be exercised in finding the 
same' words in their books. The teacher may next write 
sentences on the board, leading the class to comprehend 
the meaning intended by each word. Fow let eagh 
word be pronounced accurately, and each pupil led to 
know and appreciate the power of emphasis in bringing 
out the sense of a passage. The other graces of good 
reading may be' gradually taught by example and judi- 
cious questioning in a similar manner. 

13. An Important Caution. Never aUow a class 
to redd a lesson, until you have developed the meaning in 
a manner suited to the understanding of the children. 
Let words frequently be spelled, both by letter and sound. 
Let miscalled a'nd mispronounced words be carefully 
corrected, as far as possible by the pupils themselves, thus 
cultivating the ear and stimulating the attention. At 
each lesson, the teacher and the members of the class may 
alternately read word by word as rapidly as may bo 
compatible with accuracy. This is an excellent practice, 



100 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

cultivating attention, and enabling the pupils rapidly 
to recognize words at sight. The teacher should ques- 
tion constantly and closely concerning the meaning of 
words and sentences. Require a portion of each reading 
lesson to be -written on the slates. The class should stand 
in line, erect, square to the front, on both feet, with hands 
and books in an easy position, so as to allow a free play 
of the vocal organs. Finally, let it be remembered that 
good reading is the result only of careful, earnest, 
thorough work on the part of teacher and pupils. 

INTERMEDIATE READING. 

14. Preliminary Remarks. "Just as the twig 
is bent the tree is inclined," is an old proverb as true 
to-day as when first uttered ; and no study can claim its 
application with more force than Reading. 

If, from the time the pupil begins to read until he 
passes the Third Reader grade, no care is taken respect- 
ing emphasis, accent, and enunciation; if he is allowed 
to read the thoughts of others, without thinking them ; 
to pronounce words carelessly and without knowing 
their meaning ; difficult indeed will be the task of mak- 
ing that pupil a good reader or a careful thinker. 

15. Practical Suggestions. From the time the 
child enters the lowest primary class, and begins to learn 
the simple words cat, dog, man, boy, etc., he should 
never be allowed to pronounce one word indistinctly. 
The teacher should insist that the thought embodied in 
every sentence 'should be accurately rendered by the pu- 
pil. If the thought be joyous, let joy be expressed ; if 
sad, let sorrow characterize the style of reading. 

No word should be passed over, with the meaning of 
which t7w pupils are not thoroughly conversant. 

No study can be taught better incidentally, than 



METHODS HT BEADING, 101 

reading. In every recitation, whether it be geography, 
arithmetic, language, or any other, the teacher should 
insist upon a distinct utterance of every word, and an 
easy natural expression.. Let the "singsong drawl" 
and the "nasal twang," which so often prevail in the 
school-room, be avoided. If the pupil be required to de- 
scribe a river, a mountain system, or a race of people, 
the lesson ought not to be pronounced good unless given 
in a vivacious and intelligible manner. Each recitation ' 
of the right kind, while answering its special purpose, 
will make a better speaker and reader. 

16. The Method. No cast-iron model for con- 
ducting a class in reading can be constructed. The 
method should vary. If the teacher be blessed with a 
reasonable amount of originality, he will be able to in- 
vent many exercises which .will be both pleasant and 
' profitable. Three or four minutes at the beginning of 
each lesson may be spent in vocal drill A short exer- 
cise in breathing is always useful. It may be conducted 
somewhat in the following style : Let the members of 
the class inhale slowly, drawing in the breath as fully as 
possible ; then exhale in the same manner. Again, inhale 
slowly, exhale rapidly, and occasionally in' a forcible 
style. Or, while exhaling, let them couut audibly as long 
as they can do so without injuring the lungs. After a 
deep inhalation, let the pupils slowly utter one of the 
long vowel sounds, as "a," and thus determine who can 
give it unbroken the longest. This exercise is very 
valuable, as it trains the pupil to an economical we of 
the breath in, reading and speaking. It also gives 
strength and clearness to the voice. 

A short drill in phonic spotting, and the pronuncia- 
tion of words which involve somewhat difficult combi- 
nations of the sub-vocal and aspirate sounds,.will greatly 
aid the articulation and accent. 



302 THE TEACHER'S HAOT>BOOK. 

A brief exercise of this kind always brightens up a 
class, and places it in a better condition for good reading. 

Before books are opened, the subject matter of the les- 
son should be thoroughly examined and the class required 
to spell and carefully pronounce the more difficult words. 

Concert of action should be required in raising and 
opening the books, and perfect attention secured during 
the entire lesson. 

An alternation in the pronunciation of the vords of 
the lesson, between the teacher and the class in regular 
order, is a valuable exercise. It holds the attention of 
the class, and tests the ability of the pupils to pronounce 
the words correctly and readily. One sentence is all 
that the teacher should require to be read at a time. 
This should be criticised and re-read until it has* been 
rendered correctly by several members of the class. 
After the entire paragraph has been finished by sen- 
tences, it may be read by individual members, and in 
concert by the class. 

If the teacher be enthusiastic and earnest he will be 
likely to infuse into his pupils the same spirit, and, even 
a reading lesson will be rendered enjoyable as well as 
profitable. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS XIII, AND XIV. 

(I) Importance of primary reading being well taught ; should 
be taught intelligently, not mechanically ; (3) A stronger reason 
urged ; (3) Ideas from the beginning : self-reliance inculcated ; (4) 
Development and Discipline; (5) Special preparation necessary by 
the teacher; (6) Different systems of teaching referred to; the 
Alphabetic; Word ; Phonic ;" Thought and Sentence "; (7) Word 
Method explained ; (8) Children to write words, words combined 
into phrases and sentences; (9) Phonic method explained; short 
monosyllables at first ; Examples given ; (10) Further suggestions 



METHODS BT SPEIUK& 100 

on the Word and Phonic methoda ; (11) The Thought and Sen- 
tence Method" referred to; (12) The more advanced primary 
lessons ; (13) Important caution; make the subject matter under- 
stood before reading. 

INTERMEDIATE READING-, 

(14) Preliminary Remarks; value of correct primary lessons; 
(15) Practical suggestions ; distinct pronunciation insisted upon 
at every step ; the meaning of every word to be made familiar to 
the pupil ; value of incidental teaching of reading in connection 
with other studies ; (16) Mode of teaching intermediate reading 
explained; it must vary ; vocal drill; inhalation and exhalation; 
economical use of breath ; phonic spelling ; concert of action ; 
alternate pronunciation of the words of the lesson by teacher 
and class ; one sentence at a time ; then the paragraph ; indi- 
vidual and simultaneous reading ; enthusiasm of the teacher. 



CHAPTER XY. 

METHODS IN SPELLING. 

1. Oral Spelling not a test of accuracy. A 

good speller is not necessarily the person who is able 
orally to name every letter in the words of a prescribed 
list. But he is one who habitually gives the correct 
form to every word in his written exercises. It is only 
in written language, that correct spelling possesses any 
value. 

2. Rules for Spelling of little use. It has also 
been found by repeated experiments that rules for spell- 

ing are practically of little avail. It is, moreover, quite 
impossible to memorize by their letters all the words in 
our language. Hence, there seems to be but one gen- 
eral course left to us, and that is so to cultivate thepow* 



104 THE TEACHEB'S HAKD-BOOK. 

ers of observation and memory, that the mind may re- 
ceive and retain the correct form of every word which 
falls under the eye, and which it becomes necessary to 
use in written discourse. 

3. Ideas of form, position, etc. Whatever tends, 
therefore, to develop ideas of form, position, distance, 
direction, and size, cultivates the powers requisite in a 
good speller. Reading, Writing, Botany, Drawing, and 
Geometry, are especially adapted to develop and culti- 
vate these powers. Writing, Botany, Drawing, and 
Geometry have also a direct tendency to strengthen the 
memory. 

4. Perceptive powers in early life. Since 
the perceptive powers are more keenly active in early 
life than at any other period, these and similar subjects, 
should then be taught in their elements. If no careless 
work be allowed, but accuracy and neatness in every 
particular be required, habits of careful attention will be 
formed during the first ten years of the child's life, which 
will go far toward securing the ability tq spell correctly. 
But if habits of carelessness and inaccuracy are allowed 
to be formed in childhood, no ordinary efforts in after 
life can overcome the defects, or supply the deficiencies 
that result from such habits. Poor spelling will be one of 
the natural results of such a course. A bad spelter at 
sixteen years of age will usually remain so through life. 

5. When and how to begin to teach spell- 
ing. As soon as the pupils can write, which, in a well- 
conducted school, is about as soon as they can read, 
special instruction in spelling in the form of written ex- 
ercises should be introduced, and the children should be 
required both to write and spell orally every word in 
their reading and all other lessons. Each word should 
be regarded as a picture which they are to copy. The 



METHODS IN SPELLING. 105 

study of its form gives them a mental image, which they 
should afterwards strive accurately to reproduce from 
memory. 

6. Children should see no misspelled words, 

No misspelled words should be placed before young 
children, in the early stages of their course especially. 
They should see only correct forms, if we wish them to 
receive accurate mental impressions. 

7. Pronunciation and meaning of words to 
be associated with form. In connection with the 
form, should be learned the correct pronunciation and 
meaning' of the words. " If the three be associated in the 
child's mind, he can the more easily remember them all, 
than he can otherwise retain either one or two of them. 
Correct ideas of the meaning of words can be given by 
the objective method, which will be explained hereafter, 
and by their use in sentences and in common conversation. 

Correct ideas of the forms of words can be impressed 
only by written or printed exercises. 

Correct ideas of the enunciation of words, and of the 
powers of letters developing the organs of speech, can be 
given by oral exercises carefully conducted. 

In the primary school, the meaning of words should 
be developed according to methods similar to those which 
are employed in teaching reading. 

* 8. Constructive Method. If block-letters can be 
obtained, young children can be profitably employed in 
constructing words which the teacher has previously 
placed on the blackboard for their imitation. As soon 
as the pupils can write, the words should be written, 
afterwards spelled orally, then introduced into sentences 
and the sentences written. Thus far we have assumed 
that the children need spell only those words which they 
employ in other lessons or in ordinary conversation. 
5* 



106 THE TEACHER'S HAJSTD-BOOK. 

9. elective Method. With the Second reader 
can be introduced object spelling lessons similar to 
the following : Suppose -a leaf to be selected as the 
object. The pupils find by careful examination the dif- 
ferent parts, as the surfaces, upper and under, the margin, 
base, apex, mid-rib, and veins. Their uses are then 
talked about and the words carefully written by the 
teacher on the blackboard. The pupils are required to 
copy, and afterwards orally to spell and introduce them 
into sentences. In due time the properties of the objects 
should be considered in a similar manner, and short 
compositions containing the words learned may be 
required. 

Such a lesson forms a very pleasing and an exceed- 
ingly profitable exercise. It leads the children carefully 
to examine everything they see, and adds materially to 
their stock of words. 

10. Extension of this Method. Exercises sim- 
ilar to these can be extended indefinitely, and made to 
include the elements of Geography, Geometry, Natural 
Philosophy, Chemistry, and Geology, and in fact the 
elements of almost every science, forming the basis of 
their future study and saving much time and labor, when, 
if ever, these subjects shall be introduced into their 
course of instruction. 

11. Spelling and Definition Use of Diction- 
ary. If the pupils are so far advanced as to be able 
to use the dictionary, they may be required to bring to 
the recitation a certain number of words, with their 
meanings, which shall indicate the parts, qualities, uses, 
etc., of an object previously assigned by the teacher. 
From these lists a selection may be made for the next 
lesson, and each child will not only spell and define his 



METHODS ZBT SPELLING. 107 

own list, but all the words presented by the other mem- 
bers of the class. 

12. Another plan proposed, The following 
method may be profitably pursued. The teacher places 
a certain number of words on the blackboard, requiring 
the children to copy, learn to define, and use them in 
the composition of sentences. 

If habits of close observation have been formed in 
childhood, advanced classes will need but little drill in 
spelling as such. The incidental practice which they 
will obtain in the written exercises, in connection with 
their recitations in other subjects, will be sufficient. 

A variety of other methods of conducting spelling 
lessons may easily be introduced, among which the 
following are suggested : 

13. First Method. Suppose the lesson to have 
been assigned, and the words carefully examined by the 
pupils. With slates and pencils, paper and pencils, or 
upon the blackboard, the pupils write as the teacher 
pronounces, either the words, or sentences containing 
the words to be spelled. 

14. Second Method. Or the pupils may be re- 
quired to write the words and their definitions, after 
which each one may compose a sentence containing a 
part or all of the words, as the case may be. Or, a 
short composition may be prepared containing all the 
words. 

15. Third Method. Sentence writing as a test 
summary is exceedingly valuable, as the attention is then 
given more especially to the thought expressed than to 
the forms of the words, and if the pupils have not pre- 
viously become perfectly familiar with the words they 
will be likely to omit or misplace some of the letters. 
After the exercise is written, the pupils may exchange 



108 THE TEICHEE'S HASTD-BOOK. 



Each pupil may read one word, or one pupil may read 
several, or all of the words, according to the judgment 
of the teacher. Or, if preferred, monitors or section 
officers may be appointed to examine the work, and 
report to the teacher, 

Every misspelled word should lower the standing of 
the pupil, and he should be required to learn and after- 
wards to write it several times. 

16. Oral Methods. Oral exercises are far .less 
valuable than written, for reasons already assigned ; but 
they may be introduced to give interest and variety to 
the lessons. In these lessons the pupils may spell by 
turns, spell for places, spell down, or choose sides for a 
spirited contest in spelling. One person may spell a 
portion or all of the words, the other members of the 
class pronouncing from memory. 

17. Mixed Method. An exercise like the follow- 
ing may be introduced as a review in advanced classes. 
It may be either written or oral, or both. Assign for 
the lesson the names of classes of objects, as animals, 
flowers, minerals, fruits, or qualities, places, acts, etc. 
Suppose animals form the subject of the lesson. Each 
pupil in turn will pronounce and spell a name which 
begins with the final letter of the preceding one. " For 
instance, one pupil spells the word elephant. Another 
must select the name of an animal that begins with *' t," 
as tiger, while a third chooses one commencing with the 
letter "r," as rhinoceros, and a fourth with " s," as seal, 
etc. 

This exercise classifies the words according to sub- 
jects, and assists the memory in retaining both the 
forms of the words and their meaning. 



METHODS IN SPELLING. 109 

18. Classification according to Orthography. 

When the pupil has acquired a fair knowledge of 
words, he may be led to classify them according to 
their orthography, and to construct rules based upon 
their affinities, differences, etc., if deemed expedient. It 
is far better that the rules for spelling be deduced by the 
pupils from examples of particular words, than that they 
should be arbitrarily committed to memory. But after 
all, the ability to spell correctly must depend mainly 
upon t7ie learner's habits of observation. If careless and 
inaccurate in everything else, his want of exactness will 
be clearly manifested in his efforts to spell the words of 
his language. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTER XV. 

(1) Oral spelling not a test of accuracy ; (2) Bales for spelling 
of little use ; (8) Ideas of form, position, etc., to be cultivated ; 
(4) Perceptive Powers to be trained in early life ; (5) When and 
how to begin to teach spelling ; (6) Children should see no mis- 
spelled words j (7) Pronunciation and meaning of words to be 
associated with form; (8) The Constructive method; (9) The 
Objective method ; (id) Extension of the latter method to the 
terms employed in, the different sciences; (11) Spelling and 
definition, use of Dictionary; (12) Another plan proposed; (18) 
First method, use of slates, etc. ; (14) Second method, writing 
words and their definitions; (15) Third method, writing of sen- 
tences as a test summary ; (16) Oral methods suggested ; (17) The .. 
Mixed methodClasses of objects and their names ; (18) Classi- 
fication, according to orthographyConstruction of rules by the 
pupil, from examples of particular words. 



110 THE TBACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

.CHAPTER XVI. 
METHODS IN DRAWING. 

1. General Remarks. So much has recently 
been said and written upon the subject of Drawing, it 
bas so long held such a prominent position in the schools 
of Europe, and is now being so generally introduced into 
the best schools of our own country, that an elaborate 
essay on its importance is scarcely necessary in this place. 
A few suggestions only, will be made respecting its ob- 
jects and the methods to be employed in attaining them. 

2. The powers of perception and observa- 
tion. Knowledge depends to a considerable extent 
upon the powers of perception, and whatever cultivates 
these powers tends to develop the mind. Drawing is 
especially adapted to strengthen the powers of observa- 
tion. That eminent painter and scholar, Rubens, once 
said : " To see, to understand, to remember, is to know." 
The practice of carefully looking at olgects b?get$ keen- 
ness of perception. That of faithfully delineating than, 
accuracy of observation. 

3. Understanding and Memory. The repre- 
sentation of an object is a problem, the correct solution 

. of which depends upon fixed principles just as surely 
as does the solution of problems in mathematics. In 
neither case can the desired result be attained until the 
laws relating to it are thoroughly in vesli gated, under- 
stood, and applied. A thoughtful study of objects de- 
velops the power of understanding. Picturing things 
from memory, thoroughly tests and ztrwytlwm this 
faculty. 



METHODS IN DE AWING. Ill 

4. Drawing trains the knowing and the 'exec- 
utive faculties. Practice in drawing imparts such 
a control of the hand, as will enable it readily to obey 
the dictates of the mind. Hence, it follows that he who 
is learning'to draw is learning " to see, to understand, to 
remember," and to do. With these ideas before us we 
can easily comprehend that drawing must be an intel- 
lectual before it can become a successful physical exer- 
cise. The enjoyment of beautiful things, picture making, 
and the like, though valuable in themselves, are not the 
important ends to be attained in drawing. They are 
means rather than ends. As means they may develop 
the individual by cultivating perception, judgment, 
memory, and taste, as well as manual dexterity and skill 
powers whose proper exercise opens the way to the 
accomplishment of any object. 

5. Suggestions of Methods. One person sug- 
gests a landscape, another a building in ruins, or a dilap- 
idated fence, confidently expecting to cultivate the eye, 
the hand, the perceptive faculties, the aesthetic nature, 
and at the same time become possessor of a fine picture. 

6. A Radical Error.- Such drawing in the early 
part of the course is a positive .injury, inasmuch as the 
pupil is constantly tempted to " improve upon nature " 
by changing an outline here, and varying the light there ; 
or, if a slight mistake is made, covering it with an addi- 
tional vine or fence-post. Although these changes may 
not in the least affect the beauty of the drawing, or its 
general likeness 1 to the original, it cannot be too strongly 
impressed upon the teacher that such work defeats its 
own object, since the eye is thus accustomed to look care- 
lessly at everything. 

It is confidently believed that the desired result can 
be attained only by a careful and long-continued study 



112 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

of example and object, presenting decided outlines, and 
at the same time, clearly and pointedly illustrating the 
great laws of drawing. 

The following sketch of the plans which may be 
pursued, beginning in the primary school, is presented as 
a basis of the work that may be attempted at an insti- 
tute. The first lessons will appear very simple and- of 
little value. But to the beginner, wfwther young or 
old, they will prove both difficult and highly im- 
portant. 

Let it be remembered that " he who can learn to write 
can learn to draw," and that application and persever- 
ance will soon make the most obstinate doubter a con- 
vert to this doctrine., 

o o o o 

4. 4. 4. 4. 



X -X X 

.A. .A. .A. .A. 

+ + + + 

+ + + + - <? <? 

The object of the above lessons is to train the mind to 
judge promptly and accurately of position^ size, form^ 
distance, and direction. 

It will soon be learned that it is not an easy task to 
draw a straight line. Hence, Hues may be omitted at first 



METHODS Iff DBAWIffCk 113 

and the class may be exercised in the use of dots, short 
marks, 'squares, and other small figures, as in the fore- 
going group. These different characters should not, of 
course, all be introduced at once, but gradually. Chil- 
dren like variety, and the ingenious, watchful teacher will 
not allow them to become weary of any lesson. 

7. Combinations of these simple figures. 
If a little encouragement be given, some very pleasing 
groups, combining the different marks and figures may 
be produced,.thus developing the inventive faculties, and 
cultivating the tastes of the pupils. 

8. Direction, Length, Form. Thus far the 
lessons'have had a direct bearing upon position, size, and 
distance. At the end of two to four weeks, with straight 
lines and their combinations, ideas of direction, length, 
and form, should be presented, introducing lines in the 
following order : horizontal ; vertical ; right oblique; 
left oblique, as in the Second group. As soon as the 
learners are able to draw tolerably straight lines in dif- 
ferent directions, it will be advisable to give them the 
exact measure of an inch, requiring them to draw lines 
of different given lengths and directions, subdividing 
them into halves, thirds, etc., as in the Second group. 




9. Ideas of Form. The idea of form can now be 
introduced by combining these lines into angles, squares, 
rectangles, and similar figures, as in the Third group. 
Care must be taken to teach the name and definition 
of each, and lead the pupils to classify the different 
forms. 



114 



THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 





10. Use of Curves. Curves and their combina- 
tions should next follow, selecting the easiest first ; as, 
horizontal above, horizontal below; vertical left; vertical 
right, etc, j as given in the Fourth group. 







11. Outlines of Common OTbdects,~Dnring the 



METHODS IN DRAWING. 115 

preceding lessons the attention has been given exclu- 
sively to surface work. In order that the pupils may be 
constantly applying their knowledge in practical life, 
the teacher should often present different forms of paper, 
or pasteboard, so cut as to represent the outlines of com- 
mon objects, and require the learners to picture these 
forms. Leaves of plants may also be freely used as 
patterns, and the drawing lessons will thus become inti-' 
mately associated with real things. 

These exercises can be varied and multiplied to an 
indefinite extent, so that from one to three terms can be 
profitably occupied in similar lessons. 

.The subject of Drawing has become, during late 
years, so thoroughly systematized and simplified, its 
principles and methods have been so clearly elucidated, 
and useful works so greatly multiplied, that there is now 
really but one obstacle to its universal and successful 
introduction as a branch of common education. That 
obstacle, let it suffice to say, is the indifference, or the 
lack of persevering industry on tJie part of teachers. 
Where there is a will in respect to this matter there is 
emphatically a way. Let such works as those of Walter 
Smith, Chapman, and others, be studied, and their valua- 
ble lessons practically and persistently applied, and 
drawing will become an attainment as common as read- 
ing or writing, to which it can scarcely be said to rank 
second in importance. 

12. Developing Lessons. Our object in teaching 
-this useful branch is to cultivate certain powers. These 
powers can be developed -only by vigorous exercise. 
This exercise cannot be secured by communicating facts 
to the pupil. He must be led by judicious questionipg 
and gradual approaches to perceive those facts for him- 
self. This is really true in regard to every subject 



116 ma TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

to "be taught to beginners, and it is especially so with 
drawing. 

When we speak of teaching a fact or principle, it should 
not be understood that the words in which it is embodied 
are in some direct manner to be put into the pupiFs 
mouth, but rather by a judicious course of logical ques- 
tioning he is to be led from the known to the unknown, 
and aided to the distovery of the truth that should find 
a lodgment in his understanding and memory* 



CHAPTER XVII. 

DRAWING CONTINUED WRITING 

13, Advanced Lessons Solids. The most diffi- 
cult steps in drawing now present themselves for consid- 
erationthe representation of solids. Just here lot it 
be remarked that much depends upon the care with 
which the preceding steps have been taken. If the pro- 
vioTis lessons have been thoroughly mastered, the succeed- 
ing ones will be comparatively easy. The true plan now 
is to present to the class both the object and Its jtirtitw, 
beginning with the simple straight-line objects, ami grad- 
ually developing and introducing the principles ami 
their difficult applications. The cube is an excellent 
subject for the beginning. The learners have previously 
represented its surfaces as squares, and they immedi- 
ately perceive these forms." With a little judicious 
questioning they will soon perceive that, although the 
surface of a cube is made up of squares, yet no two faces 
appear at the same time to be square. Objects must 
therefore have two forms, the real and the apparent. 



METHODS Iff 

The representation of the real form is industrial, or 
mechanical drawing, which is especially important in the 
mechanic arts. 

fhe representation of the apparent form is perspective 
drawing. It is less important iu mechanics, but it leads 
more directly to the fine arts. 

A knowledge of one branch does not necessarily in- 
sure a knowledge of the principles of the other. But the 
ability to perceive and represent one class of forms 
greatly aids in picturing the other. 

14. Principles of Perspective. The represen- 
tation of the apparent forms involves the principles of 
perspective, which should be developed only as the mind 
is prepared by a careful study of the object and its picture 
to receive them. 

With the cube in parallel perspective, a little below 
and to the left of the eye, by proper questioning and 
measurements, the learners can be led to perceive that 
only one face appears square, and of that he is taking a 
front view. The others appear narrower, and of them he 
has an oblique view. Hence, a surface which presents an 
oblique view appears more narrow than it really is, or it 
is foreshortened. He will also discover that the parallel 
edges, which bound the upper and right surfaces, appear 
to incline upward and toward one common point. Hence, 
lines below the eye appear to incline upward, and parallel 
receding lines appear to approach each other. This 
principle is clearly illustrated by the rails of a railway 
track on an air line. 

15. Perspective Plane. A pane of glass placed 
before the object, and upon which can be traced its 
apparent form; will often prove of great value, enabling 
the learner to perceive the apparent form as it should 
be represented on the perspective plane, when nothing 



118 THE TEACHER'S HAJSD-BOOK. 

else could give the idea correctly. This pane of glass 
may "be said to represent the perspective plane. The 
student has now mastered some of the most important 
principles that enter into the representation of objects 
bounded by straight lines. Though he understands the 
principles, and has traced the outline of the apparent 
form upon the glass, he has not yet a clear conception of 
it, nor a thorough understanding of the method of pic- 
turing the appearance of the object. To give him a 
complete ideal, he must now see a perfect picture of 
the object. This is indispensable. It is always pref- 
erable in the early part of the course to use both object 
and picture. But if either must be dispensed with, let 
it be the object, as the most difficult part in drawing is 
to perceive the apparent form on the perspective piano. 
As the pupil becomes more familiar with the laws of 
nature and art, the pictures should gradually be ex- 
cluded and his attention given entirely to the objects. 

During the entire course, no part of the picture 
should be drawn unless the "pupils can give a reason 
why it should be drawn in that manner. 

" It is well* to require every exercise to be reproduced 
from memory, and drawn ou different scales. 

The pupils should be encouraged to make copies of 
objects at home, and bring them to school for inspection 
and criticism. 

Only in rare instances should the* use of straight 
edges or measurements be allowed. 



METHODS EST DBAWING. 119 

PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 

SUMMARY OF PRINCIPLES. 

The subjoined statement of principles will be found 
useful in teaching perspective drawing. 

16. "Straight-line Objects." The perspective 
of an object is a representation of its appearance. 

linear perspective is that branch of drawing, which 
treats of the effect produced upon the appearance of an 
object by position and distance. 

The ground plane is the plane upon which the object 
rests. It is always horizontal. 

The perspective plane is an imaginary transparent 
plane between the observer and the object. It is per- 
pendicular to the ground plane, and is represented by 
the surface upon which the picture -is drawn, called the 
picture plane. 

The base or Aground line is formed by the intersection 
of the ground and perspective planes. 

The horizontal line is the line that represents- the 
horizon, the latter being always on a level with the eye. 

The point of mew is the point where the eye is sup- 
posed to be placed when viewing the object. 

The center of view is that point in the picture plane 
which is directly opposite the eye. 

Vanishing points are points in a picture toward 
which all lines converge that in the object are parallel 
with each other. 

An object is in parallel perspective when one of its 
sides is parallel with the perspective plane. 

An object is in oUique perspective when none of its 
sides are parallel with the perspective plane. 



120 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

When picturing an object, we are to consider its form 
and the view which it presents. 

An object has two forms, the real and apparent. 
The apparent form is that which we see and which is 
represented by its perspective. 
An object must present two of four different views : 
viz., near, distant, front, and oblique. 

Near objects appear larger than distant ones. Near 
lines appear longer than those at a distance. 

A surface presents a front view when all the corre- 
sponding points are equally distant from the eye. 

When a surface presents a front view, it appears to 
be of its actual form. 

When a line presents a front view, it appears to be 
of its actual length. 

A surface presents an oblique view, when its corre- 
sponding points are not equally distant from the eye. 

Surfaces and lines seen obliquely are foreshortened, 
and the more oblique, the more foreshortened they 
appear. ' * 

Parallel receding lines, appear to approach each 
other as they recede, and if sufficiently prolonged they 
appear to meet. 



incline downward ; if below the eye, it appears to incline 
upward; if to the right, it appears to incline to tfw kfi ; 
if to the left, it appears to incline to the right; if directly 
in front, on a level with the eye, it appears to be a mere 
dot. 

17. Cylindrical Objects, A cylinder is a cir- 
cular solid of the same diameter throughout its whole 
extent. 

The doses of a cylinder are the circles formed by its 
extremities. 



. METHODS IN DRAWING. 121 

The axis of a cylinder is a line joining the centers of 
the bases. 

When a circle presents a front view, it still appears to 
be a circle. 

When a circle presents an oblique view, it appears to 
be foreshortened, and the nearest half appears larger 
than the more distant half. 

When a circle is directly in front of the eye^ and is 
either horizontal or vertical, it appears to be a straight 



. When a circle is to the left of the eye, it appears to be 
an ellipse with the more distant part inclined to the 
right ; when to the right of the eye, the ellipse seems to 
incline to the left ; when above, to incline downward; 
when below, to incline upward. 

18. Light, Shade and Shadow. A surface may 
be in light, shade, or shadow. 

When a surface is in light) the nearest part is the 
lightest. 

When a surface is in shade, the nearest part is the 
darkest. 

When a surface is in shadow, the part nearest the ob- 
ject casting the shadow is the darkest. 

Pictures of wood should usually be shaded lengthwise 
of the grain. 

Horizontal surfaces and shadows should usually be 
shaded horizontally. 

Curved surfaces may be shaded with different lines, 
according to the curve and direction, of the surface. 
Sometimes the shade must be given by various lines on 
the same surface. 

The details of an object are the most clearly defined 
where the light and shade blend. 
6 



122 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS XVI, AND 

(1) Importance of Drawing ; (2) Cultivation of perception and 
observation ; (3) Understanding and memory; (4) Training of the 
fawwinff and doing faculties ; (5) Crude suggestions of methods 
referred to ; (6) A radical error exposed ; outline of plan proposed ; 
lessons presented ; straight lines ; simple figures ; (7) Combina- 
tion of simple figures; (8) Direction, length, form; (9) Ideas of 
form; lessons suggested; (10) Uses of curves, their combina- 
tions ; (11) Outlines of common objects ; leaves of plants ; forms 
in. paper and pasteboard; industry and perseverance urged; 
(12) " Developing lessons," exercise of the faculties ; judicious 
questioning; (13) Advanced lessons; use of solids; thorough 
mastery of preceding lessons insisted upon ; real and apparent 
forms; perspective ; (14) Principles of perspective ; (15) Perspec- 
tive plane, illustrated and defined ; use both of objects and pic- 
tures ; (16) Summary of principles in the perspective of "straight 
line objects;" the perspective of an object; linear perspec- 
tive defined ; the ground plane ; perspective plane ; ground line ; 
tbe horizontal line; point of view; center of view; vanishing 
points ; parallel perspective ; oblique perspective ; " picturing an 
object;" real and apparent forms defined; near, distant, front, 
and oblique views defined; actual form ; actual length ; an oblique 
view; foreshortening; parallel receding lines; horizontal reced- 
ing lines; (17) Cylindrical objects; cylinder defined ; bases, axis; 
circle, front view ; circle, oblique view ; perspective of the circle 
in different positions ; (18) Light, shade, and shadow ; a surface in 
the light; a surface in the shade ; a surface in the shadow ; pic- 
tures of wood; shading of horizontal surfaces ; shading of curved 
surfaces ; blending of light and shade. 



The subject of writing in our public schools has for many 
years occupied a large share of attention, and numerous systems 
have been published and are being widely distributed throughout 
the country. A good series of writing books is within reach of 
every teacher and pupil in the laud, at a merely nominal cost. 
These series, usually accompanied with charts of a -large- size, so 



METHODS HT AB1THMETIC. 123 

thoroughly elucidate the theory and practice of penmanship that 
no teacher need be destitute of the aids requisite to a thorough 
and practical exposition of the whole subject. A trifling expendi- 
ture will put him in possession of any and all of the different 
systems, and consequently of all that the best minds devoted to 
the subject as a specialty, have been able to produce. 

It has therefore not been deemed necessary to offer any sug- 
gestions upon methods of teaching writing in the Hand-Book, 
The importance of a good, legible hand-writing is too well appre- 
ciated to require any argument. 

Writing should be taught from the beginning of the school 
course. Children that are of sufficient age to learn to read are 
prepared to learn writing. To this end, slates properly ruled 
ehould.be provided, and systematic daily lessons should be given 
in the primary school. The directions for giving the lessons, as 
well as a graduated course suited to each grade, will be found in 
several of the published series, and teachers are referred to them 
for such fall information as may be necessary for use. 



OHAPTEE XVIII. 

METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 

GENERAL REMAKES. 

1. Importance of abstracts or outlines. 

One great reason for BO much, poor teaching is, that 
many instructors have no adequate idea of tnat which, 
they are to teach, as a whole. This is as true of Arith- 
metic as of any other branch of study. The -subject to 
be taught .should be before the mind of the teacher in its 
entirety before any separate part is presented to a class, 
for its consideration. This should be so, not only that 
the relation of. one part to another, and of each to the 
whole may be more clearly discerned; but also, that 



124 THE TEACHER'S HAJSTD-BOOK. 

seeing these relations, the subject may be so divided as 
to simplicity and time, as to permit the pupil to master 
it at the least expense of time and labor. For this pur- 
pose, nothing is better than an abstract of the subject to 
be taught a map, as it were, placing before the mind at 
' a,glance all the most prominent points to be considered, 
in their proper relations to each other and to the whole. 

"With this idea in view, we 'here present a general 
abstract of the subject before us, Arithmetic, which 
should be carefully studied until thoroughly understood. 
Not that this particular analysis is to be considered 
infallible, or the only one possible, but that some idea 
may be obtained of the manner of mapping out the sub- 
ject in such a way as to present a bird's eye view of it 
from- the beginning to the end. 

2. Abstracts compared to a map of the 
world. This outline may be compared to the map of 
the world. As, from that we, get the general features 
of land and water, their forms, relative sizes and posi- 
tions both iu respect to one another and to the whole, 
without many of the minuter features, rivers, cities, 
towns, countries, etc., of its several component parts; 
so in this we see th.e great divisions of the subject, their 
general character, 'and their relative importance as 
regards each other and the whole subject, without ob- 
serving the numerous subdivisions of each. 

In each case the idea obtained- is much clearer than 
if an attempt were made to delineate everything at once. 
But, as after studying the Map of the World it is neces- 
sary to study separate maps of the different divisions in 
the same manner, so, after this general outline* it will be 
necessary for the teacher to make similar outlines of 
each distinct subject indicated in the first. 



METHODS IN AEETHMETK!. -125 



GENERAL OUTLINE OF TOPICS TO BE CONSIDEBED 
IN ARITHMETIC. 

Introduction. Number Lessons. 
I. General idea of number. 

1. Distinguishing the number of objects. 

a. Indefinitely, as one or more than one. 

b. Definitely, as one, two, three, four, etc. 

2. Counting. 
a. Concretely. 

0. Abstractly. 

II. Methods of expressing numbers. 

1. By Words; as one, two, three, four, etc. 

2. By Letters ; as I, IL, IIL, IV., etc. 

3. By Figures; as 1, 2, 3, 4, eto. 

III. Combining Numbers. 

1. By Addition. 

2. By Multiplication. 

IV. Separating Numbers. 

1. By Subtraction. 
' 2. By Division. 

NOTES 1. In the preceding lessons, objects should 
be freely used until the . class can count readily, ten, 
twenty, and even one hundred. And they should be 
referred to throughout the course, as helps in solving 
problems and to correct mistakes. 

2. No text-book should be used by the class at first, 
but toward the close of the course, a primary book might 
be introduced at the discretion of the teacher, although 
even then unnecessary. 

3. After completing this course, the pupils should be 
able to count one hundred, or even a greater number; 



126 THE TEACHEK'S HAND-BOOK. 

to perform simple " additions, subtractions,- multiplica- 
tions, 'and divisions, mentally; to recognize the signs 
indicating these operations, and to use them properly; 
and to perform simple problems upon the slate or black, 
board, in which there is no " carrying," as it is some- 
times called. 

4. Much reasoning should not be required of the 
pupils during this course. The .aim should be to make 
them ready to see how to do, and quick in obtaining 
results. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

PRIMARY ARITHMETIC. 

I. Preliminary Definitions. 

I. Unit. 

* 2. Number. 

II. Notation. 

1. Defined. 

2. JRoman defined and uses given. 
8.' Arabic denned and uses given. 

III. Arabic Notation. 
l. t flotation of integers. 

(a) Classification of units as units of the first order, 
or ones; as units of the second order, or tens; as units of 
the third order, or hundreds, etc. 

(o) Characters employed to represent numbers. 

(c) Combination of characters used to represent a 
combination of the different orders. 

(d) Law of increase and of decrease in the value of 
these orders. 



METHODS Iff ARITHMETIC. 127 

2. Notation of Decimals. 

(a) Classification of units as tenths, hundredths, 
thousandths, etc. 

(fi) Law of increase and of decrease in the value 
of the decimal orders. 

(c) Manner of representing the decimal orders, 
use of the decimal point. 

3. Exercises in writing and reading numbers. 
(a) Integers. 

(5) Decimals. 

(c) Integers and decimals combined. 

IV. Combining Numbers. 

1. Addition of integers and decimals. 

2. Multiplication of integers and decimals. 

V. Separating Numbers. 

1; /Subtraction of integers and decimals. 
2, Division of integers and decimals. 

VI. Practical problems, both, mental and 
written, combining two or more of the pre- 
ceding operations. 

, VII. Multiplication and division of deci- 
mals. 

VIII. Further applications of the fundamen- 
tal rules. 

1. United States Money. 

2. Compound JNurribers. 

3. Jfractions. 

4. Simple examples in /Simple Interest. 

NOTES. 1. At the beginning of this course also, a 
text-book is superfluous ; but if insisted upon, each lesson 
p the .book should be preceded by an oral lesson, that 
jbhe pupils may obtain ideas and not merely words. 

2. Only such definitions should be taught as are 



128 THE TEACHERS HASTD-BOOK. 

absolutely necessary. These should be made as simple 
as possible, and amply illustrated by both teacher and 
pupils. Until a pupil can illustrate a definition, he does 
not clearly understand it. 

3. The most important idea to be gained at the out- 
set is that of a unit, as it is the basis of all arithmetical 
calculations. The pupils must have a clear idea that 
units may differ in value and sise-Jhat one of anything 
is a unit whether large or mall, simple or compounded 
of other units smaller than itself. Numerous examples 
must be given. One dollar is a unit, so is one cent ; one 
bushel and one peck; one school, as well as each individ- 
ual that helps compose the school. In short, whatever 
is thought of as one whole, without reference to the 
parts that compose it, is a unit. They are now ready to 
understand how numbers are built up ; first, of simple 
"ones" as far as ten; then, that each ten is considered 
by itself as a whole, and is therefore a unit, to which are 
added others until a ten of these is obtained ; that these 
ten tens are now regarded as a whole, or a unit, to which 
other like units are added till again we reach ten. In 
this way they see what is meant by a unit of the first 
order, of the second order, of the third order., etc., and 
understand when they are told that, as each of the nine 
figures always represents a certain number of units (which 
may be of different orders), to represent a number com- 
posed of these different orders of units each must have 
its own place in the number j that, for exa'mple, 4 repre- 
sents four ones, or four tens, or four hundreds, etc., (each 
of which is a unit) according to its position in a number. 
4. As the Notation of Decimals is based upon the 
same law as that of integers, they should b& taugU at the 
same time. For this reason they are introduced together 
In this abstract. 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 129 

5. The terms used in the different subjects should be 
learned and defined. No rules should be learned, but 
simple explanations of processes be given by the pupils. 
No memorizing of principles should be allowed. In this 
course the foundation of facts is to be laid, from which, 
and upon which, may be built up the superstructure of 
principles and rules in the advanced course. The aim 
should be to make quick thinkers and ready workers. 
Accuracy and rapidity should be the watch-words. 



OHAPTEE XX. 
MORE ADVANCED ABITHMETIC. 

REVIEWS* 

I. Preliminary definitions. 

1. Unit defined. 

(a) Integral. 

(b) "Fractional. 

2. Number defined; unit of; Classes as to kind 
of unit ; 

(a) Integral, or integers ; 

(b) Fractional, or fractions and decimals ; 
Classes as to application. 

(a) Concrete. 

(b) Abstract. 

Classes as to likeness of unit value. 

(a) Like numbers. 

(b) Unlike numbers. 

Classes as to form, (a) simple; (b) compound. 
3. 



4. Arithmetic defined. 
6* 



130 THE TEACHER'S' HAND-BOOK. 

II. Notation and Numeration. 

1. Laws of the Roman Notation. 

2. Terms used in the Arabic notation, defined; as 
figure, cipher, digit, significant figure, simple and local 
value, decimal, etc. 

3. Law of Notation. 

4. Principles of Notation, with the reasons for the 
same, (a) Removing the decimal point either toward 
the right or left. (5) Prefixing or annexing ciphers to 
integers and to decimals. 

5. To read a number; Notation defined; also, to 
numerate. Numeration defined. 

6. Rules for Notation and Numeration, including 
integers and decimals, (a) For writing numbers, (b) For 
reading numbers, (c) For multiplying a number by ten, 
100, 1000, etc. (d) For dividing a number by 10, 100, 
1000, etc. 

III. Addition and Subtraction of Integers 
and Decimals. 

1. Principles. 

2. Problems solved and analysed. 
'B. Proofs. 

4. Rules deduced. 

IV. Multiplication and Division of Integers 
and Decimals. 

1. Principles, with the reasons for the same. 

2. Problems solved and analyzed. 

3. Proofs. 

4. JRules based upon analysis and principles. 

V. Difficult Problems involving all the funda- 
mental operations, to be analyzed and proved. 

VI; Contractions in Multiplication and Di- 
vision, with applications, using United States money. 



METHODS IS. ARITHMETIC. 131 

TEL Fractions. 

1. Terms reviewed and defined. 

2. Principles derived and illustrated. 

3. Rules based upon these principles to be demon- 
strated. 

4. Problems to be analyzed and proved. 

Till. Compound Numbers reviewed in con- 
nection with the Metric System. 

IX. Simple Interest thoroughly reviewed, 
with Compound Interest and Partial Payments. 

NEW SUBJECTS CONSIDERED. 

I. Factoring. 

1. Terms defined, (a) Divisor, factor, prime factors. 
(b) Prime and composite numbers, (c) Numbers prime 
to each other. , , '. 

2. Principles and rules demonstrated) and illustrated 
by examples. 

3. Greatest Common Divisor, and Least Common 
Multiple, (a) Terms defined.- (b) Different rules demon- 
strated and illustrated by examples. 

II. Percentage and its applications. Both 
mental and written problems analyzed and proved. 

1. Profit and.Zoss. 
' 2. Commission and Brokerage. 

3. Insurance. 

4. Taxes. 

5. Customs and Duties. 

6. Capital and Stock. 

1. United States Bonds. 

III. Ratio and - Proportion. Terms defined ; 
Simple and Compound Ratio, and Proportion; Principles 
and Rules deduced ; Problems solved. 



132 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

IV. Analysis of Miscellaneous Problems; 

both mental and written, involving principles pre- 
viously learned, testing and developing the reasoning 
faculty; to be solved by proportion as well as by analy- 
sis ; pupils encouraged to find the shortest and plainest 
solutions. 

V. Applications of Interest. 

1. Promissory Notes and Drafts. Practice in writ- 
ing the usual business forms; Banking; Discount. Ex- 
change, Domestic and Foreign ; Drafts ; Bills of Ex- 
change ; Practice in writing them; Practical Problems. 

2. Partnership, Simple; Compound. 

8. Averaging Accounts. With one side ; with two 
sides;' by products ; by interest. 

VI. Involution and Evolution. Algebraic 
Method first, followed, if desired, by the Geometric. 

VII. Alligation. Medial; Alternate. 

VIII. Progressions. Arithmetical; Geometrical; 
Rules and Formulae deduced from Analysis. 

- NOTES. 1. In this course, theoretical as well as 
practical arithmetic should receive attention. The 
reviews should be thorough, gathering up that which 
has been left unnoticed in the previous course, and 
combining all into a symmetrical whole. For this pur- 
pose, the teacher should encourage the pupils to form 
abstracts. This can be done by first presenting one for 
their inspection and pointing out the manner of its for- 
mation/afterwards requiring them to form their own as 
soon as a topic has been completed, and finally to unite 
these separate topics into one general abstract. 

1 2. Throughout this course, all principles and rales 
should be demonstrated. Nothing should be allowed to 
pass, the reason of .which is not understood ; and rigid 
analyses of all problems should be strictly adhered to. 



METHODS IN ABITHMBTIC. 133 

3. Pupils should be encouraged to do their own 
work; to form their own analyses, and to prove their 
work by logic rather than by the answer in the book. 



CHAPTER XXL 

ARITHMETIC CONTINUED. 

Sketclies of Lessons given as illustrations of what 
should be done in carrying out the preceding abstracts. 

I. FBIMABT LESSON. 

Notation and Numeration. Point. To teach 
the pupils to read and to write two periods of integers 
and three orders of decimals. 

The teacher first illustrates the different orders of 
units, as suggested in Note 3, at the close of the Abstract 
of Primary Arithmetic, and also teaches that some one 
of the nine figures is used to represent these different' 
orders of units ; which one, depending upon the number 
of units to be represented. , Thus, teacher questions and 
pupils answer. " What does this figure (4) represent ? " 
"It represents. four units." " What order of units may 
it represent ? " " It may represent any order of units ' 
four ones, or four tens, or four hundreds." 

As the form of the figure is always the same, the 
pupils see that there must be some way of distinguishing 
which order a figure is intended to represent, and are 
told, or themselves , discover, that it is the place of a 
figure in a number that determines its value ; that units 
of the first order, or ones, are represented by a figure in 



134 THE TEAOHBB'S HAND-BOOK. 

the first right-hand place; of the second order, or tens, 
by a figure in the second place toward the left, &c. 
They now see the necessity for a character to show the 
absence of any order of units the cipher. 

Upon being questioned by the teacher as to how 
numbers that are composed of different orders of units, 
are represented, the pupils answer: "A number com- 
posed of different orders of units is represented by com- 
bining and repeating some of the nine figures in a hori- 
zontal line, using ciphers if necessary." " What does 
each figure represent ? " " It represents a certain num- 
ber of units." " Upon what does the value of the unit 
represented depend." " Its value depends upon the place 
of the figure in the number." 

The teacher now places a number on the black 
board ; as, 563. Upon being questioned, the pupils say, 
" The figure 3 represents three units of the first order, 
or three ones," and so on with each other figure in the 
number. They then read the number ; as, " 5 hundreds, 
6 tens, and 3 ones," or "Five hundred sixty-three." 
Other numbers are to be read in the same manner, and 
also written. 

The teacher now reviews the composition of the dif- 
ferent orders of units j which is given by the pupils as 
follows: " Each one, or unit of the first order, is a 
simple unit. Each ten is composed of ones, each hundred 
is composed of tens and therefore of ones. Ten ones make 
one ten, ten tens or one hundred ones make one hun- 
dred." They may now numerate numbers as ones, tens 
of ones, hundreds of ones. They then learn that these 
three orders form a period, and as each is composed of 
ones, it is called the period of ones. The teacher next 
presents the fourth order of units in a similar manner, 
and the pupils learn that it is called units of thousands, 



METHODS TSf ARITHMETIC, 135 

because each is made up of a thousand ones. From this 
to the next two higher orders is an easy step. The 
pupils complete the table of Notation as far as now. 
learned. They are then told that these three higher 
orders taken together form a second period called the 
period of thousands, and observe for themselves that 
each period is composed of units, tens, and hundreds, 
the periods being separated by a comma. 

The teacher now drills the class in reading and writ- 
ing numbers of two periods. 

2. Exercises in writing numbers. 

1. Write 5 hundreds, 2 tens, of the jsecond period ; 3 
hundreds, 4 ones, of the first period. 

(As soon as an order is omitted, a cipher should be 
written ; and as soon as the second period is complete, a 
comma should be placed after it. If these directions are 
observed, the frequent erasures and rewriting so common 
will be avoided.) Many exercises of this kind should be 
given till the pupils 'make no mistakes. 

2. Write three hundreds of 'thousands, two units of 
thousands, four, hundreds of ones, and six, tens of* ones, 
etc. 

3. Write four hundred sixty-four thousand, twenty- 
four, etc. 

Numerous examples should be given, both for the 
class to prepare before recitations and for class drill 
during recitation. 

The teacher now calls the pupil's attention to the fact 
already observed by them, that the different orders of 
units increase in value from right to left, and decrease in 
value from left to right; that each lower order 'is ten 
times less, or one-tenth as great in value, as the preced- 
ing higher order. 

Having already become familiar with the idea of 



186 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

units differing in size and value, they will not be sur- 
prised to learn that there are units still less in value 
. than the ones, and will perhaps 'themselves observe that 
each must be one-tenth as great in value as a one, which 
will suggest the name, tenths. At a hint from the 
teacher they are also ready to tell where a figure intended 
to represent such units should be placed, in the first 
place at the right of the ones. They now see that some- 
thing is necessary to distinguish tenths from ones, and 
the use of the period or decimal point is taught. Hav- 
ing compared these orders at the right of ones, with 
those at the left, and observed that the first order at the 
left of ones is tens, while the first at the right is tenths; 
that the second at the left is hundreds, while the second 
at the right is hundredths, &c., they are prepared to 
reason by analogy and find the names of the remaining 
decimal orders. 

As each order is learned, the pupils are drilled in 
reading and writing it, both alone and in connection 
with other orders. 

. Questions such as the following are asked and 
answered: "Which decimal order is hundredths? 
tenths? thousandths?" <fcc. "What decimal order is 
represented by a figure in the third place at the right ? in 
the second place ? " <fcc. " How many decimal places are 
required to represent thousandths? hundredth^?" <fcc, 
" How many tenths in five ones ? " * How many hun- 
drcdths in two tenths ? " <fcc. " How many ones in sixty 
tenths?" How many hundredths in seventy thou- 
sandths?". 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 137 



II. MORE ADVANCED LESSONS. 

POINT. To derive the rale for multiplying any num- 
ber by 10, 100, 1000, eta 

The teacher first reviews the class on the following 
points : 

What does each figure in a number represent ? Upon 
what does the value of the unit represented depend ? 
Then continue to question as follows : 

" Since the value of a number depends on the position 
of its figures, how may its value be changed ? " " The 
value of a number may be changed by changing the 
position of its figures." " What point determines the 
position of the figures ? " " The decimal point, &c." 
(complete answers required). " How then may the posi- 
tion of the figures be altered without erasing any of 
them?" "By changing the position of the decimal 
point." "How must the position of the figures be 
changed in order to increase the value of the number ? " 
" They must be placed farther to the left as regards the 
decimal point." "Why?" "Because the orders of 
units increase in value toward the left." "How shall 
this change be effected ? " " By moving the decimal 
point toward the right." "Why?" "Because this 
has the effect of moving the figures toward the left as 
regards the decimal point." " If the decimal point be 
moved one place to the right, what will be the effect 
upon the value of the number ? " " The number will be 
ten times as great in value as before." " How do you 
know the exact increase?" "Each order toward the' 
left is ten times as great in value as the next lower 
order, and each figure has been placed one order higher 



138 THE TBACHBU'S &AND-BOOK. 

than before." (Similar questions on two removals, three, 
etc.) 

The pupils are now ready to give the following prin- 
ciple, with the reason for it: Moving the decimal point 
toward the right increases the value of a number ten 
times for each order beyond which it is moved: 

Because, the figures are thus moved as many places 
toward the left, which increases their values according 
to the Law of Notation: The different orders of units 
increase in value toward the left in a tenfold ratio. 
From the preceding principle the following rule is 
derived : 

RXTLB. To multiply a number by 10, 100, 1,000, etc. 
Move the decimal point as many orders to the right 
as there are ciphers in the multiplier. 

Examples for practice should follow. 

NOTE. The answers given to the preceding ques- 
tions may be varied in language by each member of the 
class; in fact they will necessarily be varied, as they arc 
not learned from a text-book, nor from the dictation of 
the teacher, but are thought out in the mind of each 
individual pupil. To encourage the original expression 
of ideas, the summing up^ after a developing lesson may 
be left to private study ; after which each pupil should 
produce in writing the Principle, Reason, and Hule, 
expressed in his own language. He should likewise, 
without farther instruction, be required to think out the 
remaining principles and rules of Notation, and bring 
them to the class in writing. 



METHODS Iff ARITHMETIC. 139 



CHAPTER XXII. 

SKETCH OF LESSONS IN ADDITION AND MULTIPLI- 
CATION. 

POINT. To teach the definitions, and the analysis of 
examples. 

1. Matter. 1. Addition is counting together two 
or more numbers to find another number equal to all of 
them combined. 

2. The sum is the number found by counting two or 
more numbers together. 

8. Multiplication is uniting two or more equal num- 
bers at once, to find their sum.. 

4. The multiplicand is any one of the equal numbers 
to be united. 

5. The multiplier is the number that shows how 
many equal numbers are to be united. 

6. The 'product is the sum found by uniting equal 
numbers at once. 

II. Method Addition. 

1. Pupils having already learned to add in the Num- 
ber Lessons, the teacher gives them a few mental prob- 
lems, which they quickly solve. He next gives some 
that are more difficult, requiring more time. 

He then calls attention to the process gone through 
in their minds before arriving at the result. Pupils re- 
member that they were obliged to count the numbers 
together, and are told that this counting of numbers 
together, is called Addition. The teacher now calls 
their attention to the- number obtained, and they com- 
pare it with the numbers added. Being asked the pur- 



140 THE TBAOHBB'S HAND-BOOK. 

pose of addition, they are ready to answer, "To find 
another number equal to all the others." The pupils 
now recite and write the definition as in " 1," "Matter." 

2. The teacher tells the class the name of the result. 
Pupils repeat and write the definition as in " 2 " 
"Matter." 

3. Examples analyzed. Pupils remember from their 
number lessons that only like numbers can be added, and 
and how to write numbers for addition. They have 
now to learn how to add numbers when the sum of a 
column exceeds nine, and to explain the process. 

The teacher writes upon the board some numbers to 
be added; as 

34.6 
88.9 
79.8 

202.8 

The pupils add the first column, finding the sum to be 
18 tenths. The teacher questions and the pupils answer 
as follows : "How many of a lower order make one of 
a next higher?" "Ten of any order make one of the 
next higher." "How many more than 10 tenths arc 
there in 18 tenths ?" There are 8 tenths more than 10 
tenths in 1 8 tenths." " What is the .next higher order ? M 
"Ones is the next higher order." "Then to what are 
18 tenths equal ? " " 18 tenths are equfil to 1 one and 8 
tenths." (The teacher here writes a figure eight under 
the column of tenths.) " What kind of units do wo add 
together?"' "Units of the same order." " Are there 
any other units of the same ordor ns the 1 one taken out 
of the 18 tenths ? " There is a column of ones." " What 
then shall be done with the 1 one?" ."Add it to the 
column of ones." 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 141 

Teacher and pupils proceed in the same way until all 
the columns have been added. Each pupil now explains 
the process as follows (naming sums but not the differ- 
ent figures added) : 3, 12, 18 tenths. In 18 tenths there 
are 1 one and 8 tenths. Write a figure 8 under the column 
of tenths and add the one with the column of ones. . 

1, 10, 18, 22 ones. In 22 ones there are 2 tens and 2 
ones. Write a figure 2 under the column of ones, and 
add the 2 tens to the column of tens. 

2, 9, 17, 20 tens. In 20 tens there are 2 hundreds 
and no tens. Write a cipher under the column of tens, 
and a figure 2 at the left of it in hundreds' place. The 
sum of these numbers is found to be 202.8. 

Many examples are given for practice, till the pupils 
become expert in explaining. 

Multiplication. 1. The teacher reviews the class 
on the multiplication table as learned in the number les- 
sons : as " Two 'times four are how many ? " " Six times 
eight ? " " Seven times nine ? " <fcc. The teacher ques- 
tions and pupils answer, as follows : " What is done to 
find two times four ? " " Two fours are added together." 
"To find six times eight?" "Six eights are added to- 
gether," <fcc. " If you were required to add four eights 
and twelve together, how should you proceed ? " " Add 
four and eight and to this sum add twelve." " In adding 
the four and eight, and afterwards the twelve to the 
twelve, do you stop to count, or what do you do?" 
" No, we remember the results." " When I ask you how 
many three times four are, do you add four to four, and 
then this result to four, before you can answer, or what 
do you do ? " " No, we add the three fours at once by 
remembering that the sum is twelve." " Compare the 
numbers to be added in the last example (Three times 
four) with those in the preceding (four, eight, twelve.) 



142 THE TEACHEB'S HAJSTD-BOOK. 

What can you. say of the value of the numbers 
in the last ? " " They are equal." What is the result 
called ? " " The sum." They are now told that adding 
several equal numbers at once to find their sum, is called 
multiplication. The definition is then repeated and 
written as in "3," "Matter." 2. The ideas involved in 
the remaining definitions are then developed in "a similar 
manner and the definitions are repeated and written as in 

"V 5," and "6 ""Matter." 

3. Example explained. In the Number Lessons the 
pupils were taught how to solve examples when the mul- 
tiplier consists of only one figure and no product 
exceeds nine. They are now to learn to multiply when 
the multiplier contains more than one order and the 
products exceed nine. At this point the multiplicand 
may be a decimal or contain one, but the multiplier must 
be an integer. 

The teacher writes an example on the black board ; 
a& 

68. 75 
24 

By questioning draw from the pupils that the multiplier 
is composed of 2 tens and 4 ones; and that therefore, 
the product must be 2 tens times the multiplicand and 
4 ones times the multiplicand. They know that each 
figure in the multiplicand must be multiplied, and give 
the first result as 20 hundredths, which, remembering 
the process in addition, they are ready to express as 2 
tenths and hundredths. Eeasoning by analogy they 
infer that a cipher should be written under hundredths 
and the 2 tenths added to the product of tenths. They 
proceed in like manner till the first partial product is 
complete. 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 143 

The teacher now by trains of questions draws from 
the pupils that as the 2 in the multiplier is one order 
higher than the 4 of the multiplier, the product by 2 
must be one order higher than the product by 4, or 
tens. They then proceed to multiply: 5 hundredths by 
2 of the second order is 10 tenths ; In 10 tenths there are 
1 one and no tenths. Write a cipher under the tenths 
of the first partial product, and add the 1 one with the 
next product ; and so on till the second partial product 
is complete, when the two are combined to find the en- 
tire product. The entire example should now be ex- 
plained by one or more of the pupils. 

NOTE 1. After completing the fifth and sixth topics 
of the abstract, the multiplication and division of deci- 
mals are suggested. They should be considered in a 
very simple way without much abstract reasoning. 
The following explanation of an example in multiplioa- 
tion may serve as a hiat. 



36.24 
1.23 

36.24 
7.248 
1.0872 

44.5752 

Multiplying by 1, the first partial product is 36.24. 
Next multiply by 2. As this is one order lower than 
the 1, its product must be one order lower than the 
product by 1, hence, must be placed one order farther to 
the right, giving for the second partial product, 7.248. 
For a like reason the third partial product must be 
placed one order to the right of the second, and is 



144 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

1.08'72. Adding the partial products, the entire product 
is 44.5752. 

NOTE 2. The following abstract will indicate what 
is to be done in these subjects by more advanced classes. 
The new topics are combined with the old so as to make 
a complete abstract. 

ADDITION. EXAMPLE OP ABSTRACTS. 

I. Definitions. 

1. Addition. 

2. Sum. 

II. Signs. 

1. Of addition +. 

2. Of equality =. 

III. Principles. 

1. Like numbers. 

2. Like orders, of figures. 

IV. Analysis of examples. 

1. Manner of writing the nimbers. "Why? 

2. Place to begin. Why f 
S. Add each column. 

4. Conclusion. 

V. Rules. 

MULTIPLICATION. 

I. Definitions. 

1. Multiplication. 



3. 

4. Product. 

5. Factors'. 

II. Principles. 

1. Natwe of the midtipHcmdcovcTete or abstract. 

2. tfatwe of the mutiipli&r always abstract. 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 145 

3. Natwre of the product like the multiplicand. 

4. Order of the factors. 

5. Multiplying or dividing tlie multiplicand. 

6. Multiplying or dividing the multiplier. 

III. Examples analyzed. 

1. When the multiplier is an integer. 

2. When the multiplier is a decimal. 

IV. Hides derived from analysis. 
Another analysis for multiplying by a decimal. 

EXAMPLE. 

34.27X2.35=8053.45-r-100=80.5345. 
2.35 

171.35 Multiply first by 235 ones, which gives 

1028.1 as a product 8053.45. But as this multi- 

6854. plier is 100 times as great as the true 

8053.45 multiplier, 235 hundredths, the product 

obtained mast be 100 times as great as 

the required product. We therefore divide 8053.45 by 

100, which is done by moving the decimal point two 

orders to the left. Therefore the product is 8053.45. 



CHAPTER XXIIL 

SKETCHES OF LESSONS IN SUBTRACTION AND 
DIVISION. 

POINT. To teach definitions and analyses. 

1. Matter. 1. Subtraction is taking part of a num- 
ber from the whole of it to find how much remains. 

2. The minuend is the number from which a part is 

taken, 

7 



146 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

3. The subtrahend is the part of the minuend taken 
away. 

4. The remainder is the part of the minuend left after 
the subtrahend has been taken away. 

5. Division is the process of finding how many equal 
numbers, one of which is given, there are in another, 
or it is finding one of the equal numbers when their 
number is given. 

6. It may be found by successive subtractions, but 
division is the shorter process. 

7. The terms defined as usual. 

II. Method. A method similar to the one in the pre- 
ceding sketch should be pursued. The lessons should be 
oral, the questions asked in such a way as to bring out 
from the pupils the expression of the ideas embodied in 
the definitions. At the close of each recitation the defi- 
nitions should be written by each member of the class 
and illustrated by examples. 

III. Explanation of examples. 

1. Subtraction. The teacher writes an example on 
the board, and leads the pupils by questions to perform 
the work. Then each pupil explains an example as, 
From 326.5 subtract 219,7. "Write the subtrahend 
under the minuend with figures of the same order in the 
same column. Commence at the right to subtract. As 
7 tenths cannot be taken from 5 tenths, the 5 tenths 
must be increased. Take 1 one from 6 ones, leaving 
5 ones. 1 one is equal to 10 tenths, which, added to 5 
tenths, make 15 tenths. 7 tenths taken from 15 tenths 
leave 8 tenths. Write a figure 8 under tenths' column." 
And so on with each column. 

2. Division. 

Examples in Short Division should be explained first, 
each step in the division being taken alone by the pupils 



METHODS IS ARITHMETIC. 147 

writing the quotient, reducing the remainder, and 
adding it to the next lower order, &e. 

Long Division should be explained in the same man- 
ner as Short Division, the only difference between them 
being that the products and remainders are written in* 
the one and not in the other. 

NOTE 1. Division of Decimals may be omitted till 
the advanced course, if thought advisable, although it 
may be taught in a very simple manner here. 

First show that the dividend is always the product of 
the divisor and quotient. It must therefore contain as 
many decimal places as the sum of those in the other 
two terms. Whence it follows that the quotient must 
contain as many as those in the dividend less those in the 
divisor. Examples may now be solved and explained 
by dividing as if the divisor were an integer, and then 
following the rule for the number of decimal places. 

NOTE 2. Abstracts of these subjects as they may be 
considered in advanced Arithmetic. 

SUBTRACTION. 

I. Definitions. 

1. Subtraction. 

2. Minuend. 

3. Subtrahend. 

4. Remainder. 

II. Sign minus. 

III. Principles. 
'U Zake numbers. 

2. Like orders of figures. 

IV. Examples explained. 
(Same steps as in addition.) 

V. Proof. 

VI. Rule derived from analysis. 



J48 THE TBAOHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

DIVISION. 
I. Definitions. 

1. division, (a) How many times one number is 
Contained in another, (b) Finding one of its equal parts. 

2. Dividend. 

3. Division. 

4. Quotient. 

5. Remainder, 

TT a- pividend, 

n ' Sl ^- + DivIIoT 
III. Principles. 

1. Nature of the terms in the first division (a). 

2. Nature of the terms in the second division (b). 

3. Divisor and quotient as factors. 

4. Multiplying or dividing the dividend. 

5. Multiplying the divisor. 

6. Dividing the divisor. 

7. Multiplying or dividing loth dividend and divisor 



IV. Examples analyzed. 

1. When the divisor is an integer. 

2. When the divisor is a decimal or a mixed number. 

V. Rules derived from the analyses. 

Another explanation of an example in division of 
decimals. 

EXAMPLE _ 12 ) 268 - 032 -*- 1 - 2 = 2 2.336 X 10=223.36 
22.336 

First dividing by 12 ones the quotient is 22.336. 
But as the divisor used, 12 ones is ten times as great as 
the given divisor 12 tenths, this quotient must be ten 
times as small as the required quotient. Therefore we 
multiply 22.336 by 10, by moving, the decimal point one 
order to the right, and the quotient is 223.36. 



METHODS IK ARITHMETIC. 149 



CKAPTEE XXIV. 

FRACTIONS. 

Abstract of points to be considered in Primary Arith- 
metic. 

I. Definitions. 

1. fractions. 

2. Numerator. 

3. Denominator* 

II. Classes of Fractions. 

1. Proper. 

2. Improper. 

3. Mixed number. 

III. Reduction. 

1. Integers and mixed numbers to improper fractions. 

2. Improper fractions to integers or mixed numbers. 

3. fractions to their lowest terms, (a) Lowest terms 
defined, (b) Principle upon which the operation is based. 

4. JReview, with numerous examples. 

IV. Addition. 

1. Fractions of like denominators. 

2. Fractions of unlike denominators. 

(a) Reduction of fractions to & common denomi- 
nator. 

V. Subtraction. 

1. Fractions of like denominators. 

2. Fractions of unlike denominators. 

VI. Examples combining and illustrating 
Addition and Subtraction. 



150 THE TEACHEE'S HAED-BOOK, 

VII. Multiplication. 

1. A fraction by an integer, (a) By multiplying the 
numerator, (b) By dividing the denominator. 

2. An integer by a fraction. 

3. Iteview, with numerous examples. 

VIII. Problems combining Addition, Sub- 
traction, and Multiplication. 

IX. Division. 

1. A fraction by an integer, (a) Dividing the 
numerator, (b) By multiplying the denominator. 

2. Multiplying a fraction by a fraction. 

3. Cancellation. 

4. Dividing an integer by a fraction. 

5. Dividing a fraction by a fraction. 

6. Review, with numerous examples. 

X. Miscellaneous problems reviewing the 
preceding operations. 

METHODS IN FRACTIONS. 

1. Definition 1. The definitions should be simple, 
but correct. For the sake of simplicity do not say a 
fraction is a " broken number," nor a part of a number. 

2. Numerator. In defining the numerator give the 
meaning of the word numberer hence the figure that 
numbers the parts of the fraction. 

3. Denominator. In defining denominator give the 
meaning of the word namer hence the part that names 
the fraction. Impress upon the minds of the class that 
it shows into how many parts the unit has been divided 
and the size of the parts ; that the more parts a thing is 
divided into, the smaller each part will be hence the 
greater the number used as the denominator the less the 
size of each part represented, and vice versa. 

. The ideas in these definitions should be de- 



METHODS Iff AIHTHMETIC. 151 

veloped by the use of objects, and all operations in frac- 
tions should be illustrated by them. 

II. Classes. 1 and 2. Several proper and improper 
fractions compared with unity, and their names and 
definitions derived from the comparison. 

3. Mixed Numbers. Their nature as a combination 
of integer and fraction. 

III. Reduction. 1 and 2. Whole or mixed num- 
bers to improper fractions, and vice versa. These two 
cases are easily understood. Examples should be ex- 
plained ; as in 2f how many 3ds ? Since in 1 there 
are f in 2f there are 2 times j-+f, which is f. 

In if- how many ones ? Since in -J there is 1, in *- 
there are as many ones as { are contained' times in *, 
which are 2| times. 

3. Lowest terms. To show the manner of reducing 
fractions to lowest terms, refer to the fact that the nu- 
merator shows the number of parts, while the denomi- 
nator shows their size. Show that if the number of parts 
is made less, and the size of the parts just as much 
greater, the fraction will be of the same value as before. 
To change the number of parts the numerator must be 
changed, and to lessen the number, the numerator must 
be made of less value. To change the size of the parts, 
the denominator must be changed, and to make them 
greater the denominator must be made smaller, de- 
creased in value. Therefore, dividing both numerator 
and denominator, <fcc. From this the method of proce- 
dure in reducing to lowest terms is plain. 

Illustrate by giving part of the class a number of 
equal parts of an apple, and the rest a less number but 
each of greater size in proportion; as, part of the class each 
receives $, another part , and the rest . By comparison 
they see that each has the same part of an apple as the 
other. 



152 THE TEACHER'S 

IV. Addition. 1. Denominators alike. That the 
denominator shows the name of the parts and the 
numerator their number, is the significant fact here. 
Hence, to find how many there are in two or more of 
the same name, taken together, add the several numbers 
indicating how many there are of each, that is, add 
the numerators. As the sum is of the same kind as the 
numbers added, write the denominator under the sum 
of the numerators. 

2. Denominators unlike. The pupils have already 
learned that unlike numbers can not be added without 
change; as, 4 books and 2 pencils must be added together 
as 4 objects and 2 objects, making 6 objects. Also, in 
subtraction, before adding 1 of a higher denomination to 
a number of a lower, it had to be reduced to that lower. 
So these fractional numbers must be made alike before 
they can be added. 

To do this the pupils must learn how to reduce frac- 
tions to a common denominator. Eefer to the process 
of reducing to lowest terms and the principles involved. 
Show that if, instead of dividing the numerator, it were 
multiplied, the number of parts would be increased, and 
to preserve the value of the fraction their size must be 
decreased just as much; hence, the denominator must be 
made greater by multiplying it by the same number. 
Here the principle should be stated and illustrated: 
To make fractions alike, multiply the terms of each by a 
number that will make the denominators alike. 

In many cases the new denominator can be determined 
by inspection; if not, multiply idle given denominators 
together and use the product for the new denominator. 

V. Subtraction. Will be understood by compar- 
ing it with Addition. 

VI. Multiplication.!. To multiply a fraction 



METHODS IMF ABITHMETIC. 153 

by an integer, (a) By multiplying the numerator. Show 
that a fraction may be changed in value in two ways, 
by changing the number of parts or by changing their 
size. If the number of parts be increased, and each be of 
the same size as before, the value of the fraction must 
have been increased. Hence, a fraction may be multi- 
plied by multiplying the numerator, (b) By multiply- 
ing the denominator. If each part be increased in size 
and there be just as many parts as before, the fraction 
will be increased in value. Hence, a fraction is also 
multiplied by .dividing its denominator. 

2. To multipy an integer by a fraction. Refer to 
the fact that a change in the order of tjie factors does 
not change the product. Therefore, change the order of 
the factors and multiply as before. 

VII. Division. 1. To divide a fraction by an in- 
teger. Developed in a manner similar to the same case 
in Multiplication. 2. To multiply a fraction by a frac- 
tion. Teach that when numbers are written in the form 
of a fraction division is indicated; as, f=2-i-3. Hence 



Show by using integers that the effect on the product 
is the same whether it be divided, or the multiplier be 
divided before multiplying. So in this case we may mul- 
tiply first and then divide the product, giving a result 
of -3^-. Hence the Rule. 3. Cancellation. Teach by 
referring to the Principle ; Dividing both terms by the 
same number, <fcc. 

4. To divide an integer by a fraction. Show that 
to find how many times one number is contained in an- 
other, the numbers must be alike. So in fractions, if 
they are alike, the process is the same as finding how 
many times a certain number of dollars is contained in 
another number of dollars ; as, 4 fifths are contained in 8 
fifths 2 times, -J-f =4. 



154 THE TBACHBE'S HAND-BOOK. 

Therefore reduce the integer to the same denomina- 
tion as the divisor, and divide the numerator of the divi- 
dend by the numerator of the divisor. 

5. Fraction by a fraction. Based on the same 
principle as the preceding. Hence, reduce them to a 
common denominator and divide the numerator of the 
dividend by the numerator of the divisor. 

VIII. Problems. These should be simple but prac- 
tical, mental and written. Continue them until the pu- 
pils become quite expert, but not long enough to weary 
them. They can be used in the problems in the remain- 
ing subjects, so that the pupil will become ready in 
their application. 

Abstract of Fractions as prepared for more advanced 
pupils. 

I. Definitions* 

1. Fraction* (a) Unit of. (b) Fractional unit. 

2. Terms, (a) Numerator. (b) Denominator. 
II, Fraction. Indicates divisionvalue of. 
in. A Fraction analyzed. 

IV. Classes of Fractions. 

1. As to value when compared with unity, (a) Proper. 

(b) Improper. 

2. As to form, (a) Mixed number, (b) Simple. 

(c) Compound, (d) Complex. 

V. Principles and Rules derived from the 
analyses of examples. 

1. Prin. Multiplying the numerator. 

2. Prin. Dividing the denominator, (a) Rule for 
multiplying a fraction by an integer. 

3. Prin. Dividing the numerator. 

4. Prin. Multiplying the denominator, (b) Rule for 
dividing a fraction by an integer. 



METHODS IX AEITHMETIC, 155 

5. Prin. Multiplying 'both terms by same member, 
(c) Rule for 'reducing a fraction to higher terms. 

6. Prin. Dividing loth terms by the same number, 
(d} Rule for reducing a fraction to lower terms. 

VI. Reduction defined. 

1. To reduce a whole or mixed number to an improper 
fraction, (a) Example analyzed, (b) Based upon Prin- 
ciple 5. (c) Rule. 

2. Improper fractions to whole or mixed numbers. 

(a) Example analyzed, (b) Based on Principle 6. (c) 
Rule. 

3. Fractions to lowest terms defined, (a) Example 
analyzed, (b) Based on Principle 6. (c) Rule. 

4. To higher terms, (a) Example analyzed, (b) 
Based on Principle 5. (c) Rule. 

5. Compound fractions to Simple, (a) Example 
analyzed, (b) Based on Principles 1 and 4, or 1 and 3. 
(c) Rule. 

6. Fractions to Decimals, (a) Example analyzed. 

(b) Based on Principle 6. (c) Rule. 

7. Decimals to fractions. (Same as lowest terms.) 

8. fractions to Common and Least Common Deno- 
minator. 

VII. Addition. 

1. Fractions of like denominators. 

2. fractions of unlike denominators. 

3. Mixed Numbers. 

4. Rule. 

VIII. Subtraction. 

1. fractions of like denominators. 

2. Fractions of unlike denominators. ' 
3. 

4. Rule. 



156 TUB TEACHBB'S HAND-BOG'S:. 

IX. Multiplication. 

1. A fraction by an integer, (a) By multiplying the 
numerator. (b) By dividing the denominator, (c) Refer 
to Principles 1 and 2 for deriving the rule. 

2. An integer by a fraction, (a) Examples analyzed. 
(5) Rule derived from analysis. 

3. A fraction by a fraction, (a) Example analyzed. 
(b) Rule derived from analysis. 

4. One or each factor a mixed number. 

X. Division. 

1. A fraction by an integer, (a) Dividing the nu- 
merator, (b) Multiplying the denominator, (c) Refer 
to Principles 3 and 4 for deriving the rule. 

2. An integer by a fraction, (a) Examples analyzed. 
(b) Rule derived from analysis. 

3. A fraction by a fraction, (a) Examples analyzed. 
(b) Rules derived from analyses. 

4. Dividend, or divisor, or each a mixed number. 

5. Complex fractions reduced to simple ones. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

ILLUSTRATION OP SEVERAL POINTS IN THE LAST 
ABSTRACT. 

I. Analysis of a Fraction. Analyze the frac- 
tion f 

f is a fraction because it expresses 6 of the 7 equal 
parts of a unit. 1 is the unit of the fraction, or the unit 
divided to form the fraction. | is the fractional unit, or 
1 of the equal parts of the unit divided. 7 is .the denom- 
inator, it names the fraction. It shows that the unit 



METHODS IK ARITHMETIC. ' 157 

is divided into 7 equal parts and the size of each part. 
It is written below a short horizontal line. 6 is the 
numerator, it numbers the parts taken to form the frac- 
tion. It is written above the line. 6 and 7 are the 
terms of the fraction, and its value is 6 -=-7. 

II. Derivation of the Second Principle. It is 
required to derive the second principle of fractions. To 
do this I analyze the following example : If the denomi- 
nator of the fraction -^ be divided by 2, what will be the 
effect on the value of the fraction ? Dividing the d enomi- 
nator by 2, the resulting fraction is J. -J contains the 
same number of fractional units as -fa but each unit is 
twice as great. Therefore the fraction has been multi- 
plied by 2. Hence the principle : Dividing the denom- 
inator of a fraction by an integer multiplies the value 
of the fraction by the same number, because it increases 
the size of the fractional units, while their number re- 
mains the same. 

III. To reduce a Compound Fraction to a 
Simple one. Reduce f of 4 to a simple fraction. First 
find I off 

Since to find J of a number we divide the number by 
3, J of 4=4-i-3, 44-3=^. (Prin. 4). Since of 4 is &, 
f of 4 is 2 times &=]$ (Prin. 1). 

We observe that the numerator of the product is the 
product of the numerator of the given fractions ; and the 
denominator of the product is the product of the denomi- 
nator. Hence the rule. 

IV. To derive a Rule for multiplying a Frac- 
tion by a Fraction. 

To do this I analyze the following example : 1. Mul- 
tiply | by , -J-x4-=^-. But as the multiplier used is 5 
times as large as the given multiplier, the product 
obtained must be 5 times as large as the required pro- 



158 TUE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

duct. I therefore divide ^ by 5, which gives for a 
result }. Therefore fXt=jf Hence the rule. Mul- 
tiply the multiplicand by the numerator of the multi- 
plier and divide the product by the denominator. Or, 
as according to the first part of this rule, the numerators 
of the factors are multiplied together, and by the last 
part the denominators, we have the more general rule. 
Multiply the numerators of the fractions together for the 
numerator of the product, and the denominators together 
for its denominator. 

V. To divide a Fraction by a Fraction. This 
rule may be derived in a manner similar to the preced- 
ing, by dividing first by the numerator of the divisor, 
or first by the fractional unit of the divisor. But as in 
every division of a fraction by a fraction by inverting 
the divisor, the fractions are really reduced to a common 
denominator, the latter method would seem to be pref- 
erable. 

PERCENTAGE. 

ABSTRACT. 

I. Terms defined. 

1. Per cent how expressed. 

2. Base. 

3. Hate per cent. 

4. Percentage. 

5. Amount. 

6. Difference. 
II. Oases. 

1. To find the Percentage, Ease and Rate being given, 
(a) Analysis of examples, (b) Formula: B-f-R:=P. 
(c) Kule. 

2. To find the JSase, Percentage and Hate leing given. 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 159 

(a) Analysis of examples, (b) Formula: P-r-R=B. 
(c) Rule. 

3. To find the Hate, Percentage and JBase given. 
(a) Examples analyzed, (b) Formula: P-r-B=K. (c) 
Rule. 

4. To find the Base, Amount and Rate being given-, 
(a) Analysis of examples, (b) Formula: -=-(! +K)=B. 
(c) Rule. 

5. To find theJBase, Difference and Bate being given. 
(a) Examples analyzed, (b) Formula: D-M R=B. 
(c) Rule. 

METHODS. 
/ 

I. Definitions.The pupils should learn the defini- 
tions from the text-book At the recitation the teacher 
should test their knowledge of the subject by other 
means than by merely asking questions; such as, What 
is per cent. ? What is the base ? <fcc., and receiving as 
answers the definitions as previously learned. 

1. Per cent. The first thing to be done is to clearly 
impress upon the class that 1 per cent, means .01, 3 per 
cent. .03, <fcc. In short, that any per cent, of a number is 
so many hundredths of it. 

To do this let the class be sent to the board to write 
from dictation. 

1. Teacher dictates the numbers as per cents. Pupils 
write as dictated, using the sign #, and then write the 
equivalent of the given number in hundredths ; as, 

6#= .06 
25#= .25 
J#= .OOJ=.0025 
2#= ,02|=.025 
225^=2.25 



160 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

This form of exercise to be continued until the 
majority of the class make no mistakes. 

2. Teacher dictates the numbers as huudredths, which 
are written by the pupils as dictated, followed by their 
equivalents as the sign # ; as, 

.03 = 3# 

.001= W 

.002= \<f> 

2.45 =245# 

.20 = 20# 

.6 = 60# 

3. The Per cents to be written as decimals and as 
common fractions ; as, 



25 #=.2 

20 #=.20 =flV = 



4. Examples dictated to be solved mentally. What 
is 6# of 12 bushels ? 6#=.06, and .06 of 12 bushels=Y2 
bushels. What is 8# of 90 ? 8#=.08, and .08 of 90= 7.2. 
What is 12# of 64 ? 12#= 12, or ^ and ^ of 64= 8. 
What is 33|# of 360 ? 33^.33{, or |, and -J of 360 
is 120. 

2. Base, Bate, etc. As these terms are defined, they 
should be illustrated, both by the one giving the defini- 
tion, and by other members of the class. Thus : the 
Base is the number of which a certain number of hun- 
dredths are to be taken ; as, a man lost 25$ of $40. $40 
is the base. 20$ of 300 are how many ? 300 is the 



The Rate Per cent, is the number showing how many 
hundredths of the base are to be taken ; as, a boy had 
$1 and gave away 20$ of it. 20 is the rate per cent. 

The remaining definitions should be illustrated in a 



METHODS HT ARITHMETIC. 161 

similar manner. The teacher may then give examples, 
and let the class decide as to the terms used. 

The teacher writes on the board : $5 is 20# of $25. 
Pupils recite : $5 is the percentage, 20 is the rate, $25 is 
the base. 

A man having $100 in the bank adds to it 25# as 
much, and then has 8125. Pupils recite : $100 is the 
base, 25 is the rate, and $125 is the amount. 

Continue exercises of the kind until the terms are 
readily distinguished. 

II. The pupils should study a lesson previously 
assigned in the book, and bring to class upon their 
slates, problems already solved, ready for explanation. 
The teacher should be sure always to hear the lesson 
assigned, otherwise the pupils may become careless in its 
preparation. Allow wide range in the forms of analysis 
as long as the language is good and the reasoning 
logical. 

After the pupils have recited what they have pre- 
pared, they should be put to the test in various ways ; as, 
Each may be called upon for an original example in the 
case under discussion, stating which number in it is the 
Base, etc., and what term is called for by the question. 

2. One pupil may give an example for the others to 
decide as to its terms. 

3. The teacher may give the example and the class 
tell the terms. 

4. After completing a case it may be reviewed by 
requiring the pupils to make an abstract of it. At the 
recitation each pupil should write his abstract on the 
board, and several should be called upon to give topical 
recitations from them, defining terms, analyzing exam- 
ples,, giving formulae, and deducing rules. 

The review of the five oases can be conducted in a 



162 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

similar manner. Three days, if not more, may "be very 
profitably employed in reviewing. 

1. The first day, as suggested above. Also some time 
during that day the teacher might dictate some problems 
for the second day, containing applications of all the 
cases. 

NOTE. Each pupil should understand the benefit he 
will deriye if he gets no help in solving difficult prob- 
lems. It should be a point of honor to prefer coming to 
class with unsolved problems, after persistent effort, 
rather than be assisted by others. The teacher can then 
determine the exact instruction needed by individual 
pupils, and the length, of time that should be devoted to 
a subject, in order to make the class thorough in it. 
Whereas if the pupils come with their work well done, 
by others, the teacher may suppose them to be inde- 
pendent thinkers, and the very instruction such pupils 
need they may thus fail to receive. 

3. The recitation on the third day may profitably be 
spent in solving problems that are entirely new to the 
class, thus testing their judgment and accuracy, also the 
rapidity with which they can solve problems. 

To save time, the teacher' may test the judgment of 
the class as to the proper solution of problems, by making 
a list beforehand, of such as he considers proper tests, 
and writing them on the board. The pupils then, after 
coming to class, may read and explain them without 
actually working them out. 



METHODS IN ARITHMETIC. 163 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS XVIII. TO XXV. INCLUSIVE. 

ARITHMETIC. 

(1) Importance of abstracts or outlines ; (2) Abstracts compared 
to map of the world. 

General outline of topics. Number lessons. 

I. General idea of number. U. Metbod of expressing numbers 
particularized. III. Combining numbers by Addition, by Multipli- 
cation. IV. Separating numbers ; by Subtraction, by Division ; 
Notes on the foregoing outline. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

FBHIABY ARITHMETIC OUTLINE. 

I. Preliminary definitions unit ; number. II. Notation ; Ro- 
man; Arabic. III. Arabic notation; Notation of integers; No- 
tation of decimals ; Writing and Reading numbers. IV. Com- 
bining numbers ; Addition of integers and decimals ; Multiplica- 
tion of do. V. Separating numbers, Subtraction of integers and 
decimals ; -Division of do. VI. Practical problems involving fore- 
going. VII. Multiplication and division of decimals. VIII. Ap- 
plication, of foregoing. Note on the above. 

XX. 

MORE ADVANCED LESSONS J BEVIBWB. 

I. Preliminary definitions. II. Notation and Numeration. III. 
and IV. Fundamental rules. V. Difficult problems. VI. Con- 
tractions, &c. VII. Fractions further considered. VIII. Com- 
pound numbers reviewed, &c. IX. Simple interest reviewed, &c. 

NEW SUBJECTS CONSIDERED. 

I. Factoring, &c. II. Percentage and its applications. HI. 
Ratio and Proportion. IV. Analysis of miscellaneous problems. 



164 THE TEACHER'S HARD-BOOK. 

V. Applications of Interest. VI. Involution and Evolution. VIL 
Alligation. VIII. Progressions. Notes. 

XXI. 

SKETCHES OF LESSONS. 

I. Primary lessons given in detail. II. More advanced lessons ; 
Notes. 

XXII. 

I. Outline of matter. II. Method addition, multiplication; 
Example of abstracts. 

XXIII. 

SKETCHES Off LESSONS CONTINUED. 

Subtraction and Division Matter and Method. Outlines 
presented. 

xxiv. 

Outlines and Methods. _ Analyses of fractions. 

XXV. 

Fractions further considered ; Percentage. Typical methods. 



METHODS IS GEOGEAPHY. 165 

OHAPTEE XXYI. 

METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY. 

1. Improved Methods. For several years past 
Geography and geographical teaching have claimed and 
received much thoughtful attention from educators. 
There has been a deep-seated dissatisfaction "both with, 
the text-books and the methods of teaching in common 
use. But the active discussion of Jhe subject, and espe- 
cially the earnest labors of some of our best minds in the 
production of superior treatises and maps, have led not 
only to a better knowledge of the subject itself, but to 
great improvements in methods of teaching it. 

Nearly every intelligent person admits the impor- 
tance of geography properly taught, but still there are 
many who claim that it is the most dry and uninterest- 
ing of our school studies. Such a feeling cannot arise 
however from a consideration of the nature of the study; 
for no science can be more fully freighted with interest- 
ing and valuable, not to say, fascinating ideas. 

2. More Rational Plans. Being unable to 
escape the responsibility of teaching this branch, we 
must boldly assume it, admitting that our plans hereto- 
fore have been far short of perfection, and strive to do 
what we can to render them more rational and efficient. 

The query why our methods in Geography have not 
kept pace with those in other subjects is often presented. 
Among the many important reasons for this deficiency 
may be mentioned the following : 

First. The science is not so nearly an independent 



166 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

one as some, but is based upon and draws largely from 
several others. 

Second. The majority of teachers have had neither 
the time nor opportunity to acquire a comprehensive 
knowledge of these various sciences, and hence have 
made little or no effort to prepare a systematic plan for 
teaching the facts presented in the text-books. 

Third. They have frequently felt more inclined to 
invent a plan whereby they might entirely exclude the 
subject from the school. This feeling is but natural, 
since the greater number of those whose circumstances 
have enabled them to investigate the science have pre- 
sented, if they have published anything in the form of 
text-books, only mere theory, or dry, hard facts. The 
authors of many text-books seem not to have understood 
that these isolated statements, however valuable to them- 
selves as summaries of their research, are little else than 
dry bones to the uninitiated. 

Again, other subjects have been taught with a view 
to prepare the pupil for the active duties of life, while 
Geography, judging from the text-books and methods 
heretofore employed, has apparently no relation to a 
practical education. The student is seemingly led to 
infer that the sum total of geography is "mental disci- 
pline," as manifested in the rapid repetition of words 
minutely descriptive of the location, length, breadth, and 
height of mountains, and other particulars involving the 
use of names of difficult pronunciation, with little or no 
idea of the influence of geographical forms, and of terres- 
trial phenomena upon man and his movements in the 
course of history. This neglect to introduce Geography 
into the course of "practical studies " has had a tendency 
to keep improved methods of teaching it, also in the 
background. 



METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY. 167 

3. The study of Geography a means to an 
important end. This subject should not be taught as 
an end so much as a means to an end, and that end not 
altogether "mental discipline." It should rather be 
pursued as a means whereby the student is enabled to 
understand the history and civilization of mankind. The 
simple question presented for solution throughout the 
entire course is, " What relation does this or that coun- 
try, its physical features, productions, &c., bear to other 
parts of the world 3 and above all, to man and his move- 
ment in the great march of history ? " Hence, although 
a knowledge of the physical characteristics, or of the pro- 
ductive capacities of a country, is necessary as a basis, 
the attention should mainly be directed to the question, 
" What does one region produce that is necessary for 
the comfort or enjoyment] of the people of another, and 
what are the means, both natural and artificial, of trans- 
porting these products ? " What are the educational, 
social, and political conditions of the various countries, 
the influence of each upon the other and upon the world 
at large. 

4. Study of physical features not to be. 
undervalued. We would no.t, in this brief sketch, 
underrate the careful study of the surface, drainage, 
climate, and natural resources of the various sections, for 
a superstructure without a solid foundation is of little 
value. But let the fact be impressed that a basis, how- 
ever substantial, without either a superstructure or the 
power to erect one, or a basis that is out of proportion to 
the former, is a most undesirable possession. Let these 
natural features be studied then, not as detached facts 
but as parts of a harmonious whole, and with reference 
to their influence on the life of man. Let the knowledge 
of the drainage of a country be made subservient to a 



168 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

knowledge of its capabilities for water power and navi- 
gation, and the extent to which each is or may be used 
for the benefit of man. Make each natural feature but 
the stepping-stone to a better comprehension of the civili- 
zation of the world, and the complaint that the study of 
Geography is uninteresting and unprofitable will no 
. longer be heard. 

5. Outline of the Course. It is not proposed to 
lay down an extended course in this connection. To' 
present an exhaustive analysis of the subject would re- 
quire far more space than the limits of a work like the 
Hand-Book will allow. The formal study of Geography 
should be preceded by oral lessons that should develop 
ideas of place, direction, form, size, and distance. This 
primary course would usually occupy about three years* 
For details respecting the method of conducting these 
oral lessons, reference is made to Sheldon's Manual of 
Elementary Instruction, and' works t>f a similar character. 

6. Geography proper. First step, one year. 
Lessons in the first grade will include ideas of repre- 
sentation by map drawing. The course maybe com- 
menced by drawing an outline of the top of a table, of 
the school-room, of the school grounds, of a block, of the 
entire city, town, and finally a map of the county, locat- 
ing upon each the more prominent objects of interest, so 
as to impress upon the minds of the pupils the concep- 
tion that a map is a picture of that which has a real 
existence. 

Throughout this step the teacher should introduce 
the more important geographical terms, and the manner 
of representing the different physical features located in 
the section under consideration. This work should be 
carefully and thoroughly done. In preparing the maps, 
constant reference should be made to the localities and 



METHODS DT GEOGBAFHY. 169 

objects represented by it. No term should be intro- 
duced until the thing signified is clearly apprehended, 

7. Second Step. The State two years. In 
this step the geography of the State should be considered 
somewhat in detail, together with a general outline 
course of the world. The map of the State should be 
drawn and the pupils taken on imaginary journeys to 
different portions of it, to parts of the United States and 
of the globe. The true signification of maps has been 
acquired, and the physical features should now be studied 
with some reference to their bearing upon man and upon 
civilization. The agricultural and mining sections should 
be noted, the water powers and navigable rivers indi- 
cated, and the various productions and means of transit 
described. Throughout this step the teacher has innu- 
merable opportunities to arouse interest in the study, and 
much of the pleasure and success of his future work will 
depend upon the thoroughness with which this part is 
done. (See outline of method.) 

8. Third Step one year. The lessons in this 
step should include simple exercises on the globe,' in 
which are developed ideas of the equator, poles, tropics, 
form of the earth, form of the continents and their com- 
parative sizes, general ideas of climate, and some of the 
causes of its diversity. Hexe, also, should be introduced 
the motions of the earth on its axis and around 'the sun,- 
and the result of these motions, or the succession of day 
and night, the change of the seasons, &c. At this point 
the oceans may be considered in outline. Their forms, 
relative sizes, and the great currents that facilitate com- 
merce should be studied. 

At the close of this course the pupil will have a good 
knowledge of the geography of his own State, and a suffi- 
cient general knowledge of the subject at large to enable 
8 



170 



THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 



him to help himself in the further prosecution of the 
study. 

But if there be time, and a disposition further to pur- 
sue the subject, a careful and systematic examination 'of 
each country would not only be of exceeding interest, 
but it would add greatly to his stock of general infor- 
mation. (See outline of methods,) 

9. Syllabus of Topics. The following series of 
topics will indicate the general course that may be 
pursued in the study either of the State or of any given 
country : 

I. Map of the State or country to be accurately drawn. 

II. Its position defined. 

HI. Its boundaries, (a) Mathematical. 



Size. 



(a) Actual. 



(5) Physical. 

(Length. 
Breadth. 
Area. 
Elevation. 
Seaboard. 



Comparative. 



V. Its Form. 
YL Its Coast. 

VIL Its Surface j ggj** 

VIE. Inland Waters, j 

IX. Its Climate. 

X. Its Soil. 

XI. Its Productions. 



All. Its Occupations 



' Vegetable. 
Animals. 
Minerals. 

Agriculture. 

Mining. 

Fisheries. 

Manufactures. 

Commerce. 



(a) Amount. 



METHODS IN GEOGBAPHY, 171 

XIIL Its Towns. 

XIV. Its People. 

XV. Education. 

XVI. Religion. 

XVII. Government. 

10. Mathematical Geography. Syllabus 
of Topics. This syllabus of topics in mathematical 
geography will be serviceable in the third step. 

I. The subject defined. 

11, Form of the Earth. 
III. Proofs of Form. 



V. Latitude and Longitude. 

[ Direction and rate. 
Diurnal, -j Proofs. 

VT. Motions of the 



Earih. 



( Direction and rate. 



Annual < ^ nnon x 
' j Sun's declination. 

[Eesults. 

YIL Change of Seasons explained and copiously 
illustrated. 

11. Brief Outline of Methods First Step. 

Instruction in the first grade must be presented mainly 
in the form of oral lessons, but the pupils should be re- 
quired to collect and bring to the recitation all the 
information they can obtain on the various subjects. 
They should be taught where and how to seek for the 
desired information, and should be encouraged to dili- 
gence in obtaining it. 

12, Second and Third Steps. In the second and 
third grades, when the teacher selects a topic for a les- 
son, he should also present an abstract of it, applicable 
to the locality under consideration. Suppose the climate 



172 



THE TEACHBB'S HAND-BOOK. 



of North America to be the subject of the lesson. An 
abstract similar to that which follows should be furnished 
by the teacher, and each pupil required to collect, arrange, 
and write the subject matter under the proper headings. 



Temperature. 



It .would be well to require each pupil to keep a note 
book, in which the topics and the subject matter of each 
should be carefully and systematically arranged under 
the supervision of the teacher. The labor and study 
necessary in the compilation of the matter under these 
abstracts will be very useful and important to the pupils, 
aud the books will be exceedingly valuable for reference 
in reviews. 



ABSTRACT. 


'Northern, or cold 


Coast. 


r 


region. 


Interior. 


Eastern. 


Middle, or tem- 


Northern. 


Central. 


perate region. 

Southern, or 
warm region. ' 


Temperate. 
Coast and 
Islands. 
Highlands. 


Western. 
Northern. 
Southern. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTER XXVI. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

(1) Improved methods; old methods unsatisfactory; when 
properly studied, an interesting science ; (2) More rational plans ; 
Geography a -dependent science"; (8) The study of Geography a 
means to an important end ; a knowledge of the earth, its climate 
and productions in their relations to mankind ; (4) Study of physi- 
cal features not to be undervalued ; to he considered as parts of a 
harmonious whole ; (5) Outlines of course, an exhaustive analysis 
not attempted ; study to be preceded by oral lessons ; (6) Geogra- 
phy proper first step, one year, first grade lessons include repre- 
sentations by map drawing ; practical suggestions ; (7) Second 
step the State, two years ; (8) Third step, one year use of globe ; 
mathematical geography ; (9) A syllabus of topics presented ; (10) 
Syllabus of topics in mathematical geography; (11) Brief outline 
of method's ; abstracts. 



METHODS Iff GBAMMAB. 173 



CHAPTEE XXVII. 

METHODS IN GRAMMAR. 

GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE COURSE. 

I. Introduction- Language lessons. 

1. The Sentence: Its definition developed; Its prin- 
cipal parts named; Classification as to use. 

2. Capital letters and their uses. 

3. /Simple exercises in Punctuation. 

4. Simple exercises in Composition. 

II. Elementary Grammar. 

1. The sentence defined, (a) Simple sentences ; Their 
elements; Analysis, naming the elements and their uses. 
(b) Compound sentences; Analysis, (c) Complex sen- 
tences; Analysis. 

. . 2. Parts of speech defined; Their uses in a sentence; 
Analysis continued. 

3. More advanced exercises in written composition. 

III. Advanced Grammar. 

The term grammar defined ; Its principal divisions ; 
Orthography; Etymology; Syntax; Prosody ; Each 
considered separately and in order. 

NOTES ON LANGUAGE LESSONS. 

1. Time of introducing lessons. 

Formal lessons in language should not be given 
before the fourth school year, and in some cases perhaps, 
not until a still later period. The teacher should exer- 
cise a wise discretion in respect to this matter. But 
from the child's entrance into the school, it should be 
the teacher's constant care to lead his pupils to form cor- 



174 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

rect habits in the use of language. That this may be 
accomplished the teacher must himself at all times speak 
accurately; he must rectify all errors, both in the pro- 
nunciation of words and the construction of sentences, 
that are committed by his pupils, himself giving the 
correct expression when, necessary, to be repeated by the 
learners. Every recitation in the school should be a 
practical language lesson, habituating the pupils to 
speak with ^purity, propriety, and precision, and requir- 
ing them to give their answers in complete sentences 
whenever it is possible. 

2. Use of words, &c. Every new word should 
be spelled, and its meaning illustrated by its proper use 
in sentences orally expressed. 

After the pupils have learned to write, the Beading 
and Spelling lessons should be carefully written on their 
slates. They may also practice writing simple sentences, 
using capitals and periods in a proper manner. 

3. Object of Language Lessons. The object of 
the course of language lessons is to impart some formal 
instruction upon the subject, with special reference to 
written composition, that the children may early form 
the habit of expressing their thoughts in writing, using 
correct and pleasing expressions, and, at the same time, 
learning the application of the more common marks of 
punctuation. No technical terms, except such as may be 
absolutely necessary, should be introduced into this course. 

SYLLABUS OF LANGUAGE LESSONS. 

I. Sentences considered. 

1. The sentence defined. 

2. Parts of the sentence; (a) First part, representing 
object spoken of. ( b) The second part, representing what 
is said of the object. 



METHODS HT GEAMHAE. 175 

3. JSSnds of Sentences, (a) The telling sentence; 
Use of capital letter and period, (b) The asking sen- 
tence; Interrogation point, '(c) Commanding sentence; 
Period, (d) Exclaiming sentence ; Exclamation point 

4. Exercises in composing and writing these different 
kinds of sentences. 

II. Other uses of Capital Letters. 
1. The words OandL 

%. Names of the Creator and of Persons. 

3. Names of days, months, and of particular days 
of the year. 

4. Names of cities, towns, counties, states, and coun- 
tries. 

5. Names of streams and bodies of water. 

III. Other uses of Punctuation Marks. 

1. Comma and Semicolon, (a) Words used to in- 
troduce examples. 

2. Apostrophe, (a) To denote possession. (b) To 
denote the omission of a letter. 

3. Use of the Period, (a) Abbreviations, (b) Initial 
letters, (c) Numeral letters and figures. 

4. Use of the Comma, (a) Parts of a couplet when 
"and " is omitted, (b) Parts of a series, (c) Word de- 
noting person or thing spoken to. 

5: Use of the Hyphen, (a) Parts of a compound 
word, (b) After an unfinished word at the end of a line. 

6. Use of quotation marks, (a) Direct, (b) Indi- 
rect, (c) Continuous, (d ) Interrupted. 

IV. Exercises in Composition. 

1. Description of inanimate objects, their parts, quali- 
ties, and uses.* 

2. Description of animals. 

3. Description of persons. 

4. Description of pictures. 



176 THE TEACHER'S HAITO-BOOK. 

5. Description of games or pfays. 

6. Description of places. 

7. Description of journeys. 
8. 



METHODS FOE LANGUAGE LESSONS. 

General Remarks. The lessons should be oral 
and developing in tbeir character. The subject matter 
of each lesson should be reproduced in writing by the 
pupils, and subjected to the criticisms of the teacher. 
The children must be directed quite minutely respecting 
the work to be done, otherwise the sentences may be too 
difficult for them to understand and punctuate. 

2. Sentences defined. Awaken thought in the 
minds of the pupils respecting some object, as a tree. 
They perceive that before their thoughts can be known 
to others they must express them. These thoughts may 
then be expressed; as, "The tree is green,'" "The tree 
grows," &c. They next discover that to communicate 
their thoughts they must use words. Now let them form 
several sentences orally, saying in each case : "I first 
think about something; I then use words to^ express my 

thought. The words that express my thought are 

<fcc." They are now told that words that express 

a thought are called a sentence. From this step the 
pupils are led to define a sentence as follows: "A sen- 
tence is words that express a thought." Each member 
of -the class then gives a sentence, saying, " 



3. First and Second Parts. By a similar pro- 
cess of development the pupils are led to observe that 
before there can be a thought in the mind there must be 
an object or subject for thought, and that they tnust think 
about that object. They further discover that when 



HETHODS IN GEAMMAB. 177 

they tell their thoughts they speak of some object or 
subject, and also say something about that 'object. 
Hence they will perceive that there are two parts to their- 
sentences which they are informed they may call First 
Part and Second Part. By repeated trials they soon 
. find that they can form no sentences without these two 
parts. They are now led to define the First Part as that 
which represents the otfect spoken of; and the Second 
Part as that which represents what is said of the object. 
The sentences given in this lesson, and those proposed 
for the next lesson, should be oral. They may be ex- 
plained as follows : " Birds sing " is a sentence, because 
it is words that express a thought. The word " Bird " 
is the First Part, because it represents the objects spoken 
of. The word " sing " is the Second Part; it represents 
what is said of the birds. 

4. Kinds of Sentences. To develop the ideas of 
these classes of sentences, such as Telling, Asking, <fcc., 
it will be necessary for the teacher to invent circum- 
stances in which it would be natural for the pupils to use 
them. The teacher can then write these sentences as 
given ty the pupils, their differences can be pointed out, 
and the appropriate names given. The proper written 
expression should be taught at the same time. 

. The lesson to be prepared for the next day should be 
carefully assigned. For example, after the lesson on 
Telling sentences the following may be given out for 
preparation : " Write on your slates the definition of a 
sentence, of the first and second Parts, and of a telling 
sentence. Then write six telling sentences, one about 
each of these objects : a horse, a book, a girl, a boy, a 
clock, a flower, and tell only one thing about each." 
Or, at the close of the second .exercise, the assigned les- 
son might be as follows : " Write the definition of an 
8* 



178 THE TBACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

asking sentence. Then write an asking and a telling 
sentence about each of the following objects : home, 
school, vacation, lions, <fcc., telling and asking only one 
thing about each." The sentences prepared by the 
pupils should be brought to the class and read, after 
which they should be explained, stating, 1. A Sentence, 
Why? 2. What kind, Why? 3. First Part, Why ? 4. 
Second Part, Why? <fcc. 

5. Uses of Capital Letters. Question the pupils 
in such a way that they will form sentences requiring the 
use of these capitals, then give the rules. Conduct 
several exercises on their application. Carefully scruti- 
nize and criticise the work of the class. 

6. Punctuation. Same as above, all new terms 
being defined. 

More complex sentences may be formed after learn- 
ing the uses of the comma; as, " Tell one thing about 
two persons." " Tell three things about some animal." 
" Write three words before the word ' house * to describe 
the house, and also state something about the house." 
" Speak to Mary and tell her to do something, asking her 
if she will do it," &c., <fcc. 

In learning to use the marks of punctuation, sentences 
correctly punctuated should be presented to the class, 
from which they can deduce the rules. Then the pupils 
themselves should form their own sentences and punctu- 
ate them properly. Finally, other sentences not written 
by th'e pupils may be given them to punctuate. 

7. Ezercises in Composition. Position of the 
subject, margin, paragraphs, &c., should be spoken of. 
Show the class a good model, At first the lessons should 



as possible for themselves, and the teacher giving all 
necessary information. The lesson should be summed up 



METHODS IN GBAMMAB. 179 

orally in good language by the children, the points hav- 
ing been presented in logical order so that they can easily 
be remembered. After a course of Object and Animal 
Lessons, and, perhaps, Plant Lessons, the pupils maybe left 
to write their own compositions from an abstract placed on 
the board by the teacher. The object lessons may con- 
sist of exercises on all objects of common use at home, 
at school, in the different trades, <fcc. ; also on different 
kinds of plants, flowers, trees, <fec. 

The following may serve as a hint in the preparation 
of abstracts : 

Inanimate Objects. 

1. General description of defined, of what composed, 
where found, for what used, shape, size, &c. 

2. Parts name, number, and position. 

3. Qualities and uses dependent on them. 

Animals. 

1. Foreign or native. 

2. "Wild, tame, or domesticated. 

3. Size, parts, covering. 

4. Habits. 

5. Uses, living or dead, of its part or as a whole. 

Description of a Picture. 

1. Name of the scene.. 

2. Objects seen in the foreground, background, at the 
right and left. 

3. Their appearance. 

4. If animate, what they appear ttfbe doing. 

5. Thoughts about the picture as a whole. " 



180 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



1. When and where played. 

2. By boys or girls. 

3. Objects used in the play. 

4. Numbers of persons engaged. 

5. The game to be won. 

6. Manner of playing. 

*I. What you think about the game. 



OHAPTEE XXTIIL 

METHODS ET ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR. 
SILLABUB 0V TOPICS. 

I. The Sentence. 

1. Definition developed. 

2. Elements as to rank, (a) Principal, Subject and 
Predicate. 

(&) Subordinate to subject, adjective elements ; to 
predicate, adverbial and objective elements; the latter 
direct, indirect, and double. 

3. Mements as to form, (a) Simple, (b) Complex. 
(o) Compound. 

4. Analysis of simple sentences, naming the elements 
and their itses. 

6. Sentences classified according to propositions, 
(a) Propositions defined, (b) Classes of Propositions 
developed; Principal, Subordinate, Co-ordinate, (c) 
Classes of Sentences Simple, Complex, Compound. 



METHODS Iff GRAMMAB. 131 

6. Analysis of Complex and Compound Sentences. 
XL Farts of Speech. 

1. T/w Noun, (a) Definition developed. () Its uses 
in a sentence ; as Subject j as part of simple Predicate ; 
as Object ; as Identifier ; as the name of a Possessor ; 
as the name of the person spoken to. 

2. The Pronoun, (a) Its definition developed. (?) Its 
uses in the sentence; as Subject ; -as part of simple Pre- 
dicate ; as Object ; as representing Possessor ; as rep- 
resenting person spoken to ; as subordinate connector, 

3. The Adjective, (a) Definition developed, (b) Its 
uses in a sentence ; to describe objects by showing form, 
size, color, weight, position, condition, character, &c.; to 
number objects, definitely and indefinitely; to locate 
them ; to point out an object, definitely and indefinitely; 
used as part of simple predicate; for euphony. 

4. The Verb, (a) Definition developed. (b) It rep- 
resents action, being, state, possession. 

(c) Its uses in a sentence; as simple Predicate ; as 
affirming part of simple Predicate. 

(d) The Participle ; its uses in a sentence ; as Sub- 
ject; .as part of simple Predicate; as objective element; 
as adjective element ; as adverbial element 

(e) The Infinitive; its uses in a sentence j as Subject; 
as part of simple Predicate ; as adjective element ; as 
adverbial element; as objective element 

5. The Adverb, (a) Definition developed. Its 
uses in a sentence; to describe actions, being, <fcc.; 
joined to verbs, showing manner, time, place, cause; 
joined to adjectives to describe qualities ; joined to other 
adverbs to describe, manner, time, &c. 

6. Preposition, (a) Definition developed, (b) Its uses 
in a sentence; to denote relation ; adjective, adverbial; 
indirect, objective. 



182 THE TEACHEB'S HAOT-BOOK. 

1 The Conjunction, (a) Definition developed. (5) 
"Uses in a sentence; as subordinate connector; as co-or- 
dinate connector. 

8. Interjection, (a) Definition developed. (5) Its uses. 



NOTES ON ELEMENTARY LESSONS IN GRAMMAR. 

1. The Utility of the Study. Grammar has 
too often been considered by the pupil as a dry, uninter- 
esting subject, which he studies only because he is com- 
pelled to do so. It should be the aim of the teacher to 
present the subject so that it will be not only profitable 
but pleasant. It should be presented to the class as the 



Let the teacher draw from the pupils the fact that 
language is the means by which we express our thoughts, 
feelings, and desires. Show how helpless we should be 
without it, and what a great source of enjoyment it is 
in many ways. They will thus see the importance of its 
proper use, and of its study in order to derive the greatest 
benefit and pleasure from it. 

2. Strive to awaken thought. The teacher 
should, throughout the course, awaken the mind of the 
child to activity. He should invent circumstances to 
arouse thoughts that will require for their expression 
various kinds of sentences and different forms of elements. 
The pupil, knowing the thought he -intended to express, 
will be interested in examining the language by which he 
has conveyed his thought to others; he will also be 
anxious to hear others express the ideas he has conveyed 
to them by his words. If they be those which he de- 
signed, then pleasure will follow as the reward of his 
effort. Should he fail to express himself intelligibly, the 1 



METHODS IN GKAMMAE. 183 

failure should be made to act as a stimulus to renewed 
attempts until success shall reward his perseverance. 
Having correctly expressed his thought, he will be ready 
to state for what different purposes the words and ele- 
ments that hold the most important place in the sen- 
tence are used. 

3. Clear knowledge of the thought expressed, 
the foundation of correct analysis. 

Thus is laid the foundation for analysis. A perfect 
understanding of the thought is essential to correct 
analysis ; hence, the first step should be to prepare the 
children to analyze sentences they themselves have con- 
structed. 

When they shall become quite expert at this exercise, 
let them analyze the language of others, sentences ex- 
pressing some simple fact, some important truth, some 
deep emotion. Let the sentences be such as embody, 
ideas of the good, the pure, the beautiful, the grand in 
Nature and in human life. Train the pupils to search 
for the thought behind the words, until their young 
minds grasp it, their warm hearts swell with the same 
feelings. Let them strive to express the same thoughts 
and feelings in their own language. Then they will be 
ready to analyze the sentences into their parts ; to point 
out the relation of one to another, and to describe the 
peculiar use of each element and word. 

4. Why Grammar is so distasteful to Chil- 
dren. Another redson why children so often dislike 
Grammar is that they are hurried along so rapidly, taking 
up subjects that are so entirely nw to them, and devot- 
ing only one or two lessons to their consideration, that 
they become bewildered and utterly discouraged with 
the attempt to master the subject. 

Time is a necessary dement in the attainment of pro- 



172 



THE TEACHER'S HAITD-BOOK. 



of North America to be the subject of the lesson. An 
abstract similar to that which follows should be furnished 
by the teacher, and each pupil required to collect, arrange, 
and write the subject matter under the proper headings. 



Temperature. 



It would be well to require each pupil to keep a note 
book, in which the topics and the subject matter of each 
should be carefully and systematically arranged under 
the supervision of the teacher. The labor and study 
necessary iu the compilation of the matter under these 
abstracts will be very useful and important to the pupils, 
aud the books will be exceedingly valuable for reference 
in reviews. 



ABSTRACT. 


'Northern, or cold 


Coast. c 


region. 


Interior. Eastern. 


Middle, or tem- 


Northern. Central. 


perate region. 


Temperate. 4 Western. 


Southern, or 
warm region. 


Coast and Northern. 
Islands. Southern. 
Highlands. ^ 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTER XXVI, 

GEOGRAPHY. 

(1) Improved methods; old methods unsatisfactory; 'when 
properly studied, an interesting science; (3) More rational plans j 
Geography a .dependent science"; (3) The study of Geography a 
means to an important end ; a knowledge of the earth, its climate 
and productions in their relations to mankind ; (4) Study of physi- 
cal features not to be undervalued; to be considered as parts of a 
harmonious whole; (5) Outlines of course, an exhaustive analysis 
not attempted ; study to be preceded by oral lessons; (6) Geogra- 
phy proper first step, one year, first grade lessons include repre- 
sentations by map drawing ; practical suggestions ; (7) Second 
step the State, two years ; (8) Third step, one year use of globe ; 
mathematical geography; (9) A syllabus of topics presented ; (10) 
Syllabus of topics in mathematical geography; (11) Brief outline 
of methods ; abstracts. ' 



METHODS IK GBAM3IAJB. 185 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR CONTINUED. 

ILLTTSTSA-TITE LESSONS, JTDMBER TWO. 

I. Sentences classified according to their 
Propositions. 

ftubject matter, or that which is to be twght. 

1. A proposition is the union of a subject and predi- 
cate. 

2. A proposition by itself may or may not form a 
sentence. 

3. A single proposition is a sentence when it ex- 
presses a complete thought. 

4- A proposition may form an element of a sentence, 
in which case it is called a clause. 

5. Propositions are classified according to their rank 
in a sentence, as Principal, Subordinate, and Co-ordinate. 

6. Th,e principal proposition of a sentence is that 
which expresses the leading thought. 

7. A subordinate proposition is one that modifies the 
principal. 

8. Co-ordinate propositions are those of equal rank in 
the same sentence. 

9. Sentences are classified, according- to the proposi- 
tions they contain, as simple, complex, compound. 

10. A simple sentence is one composed of but one 
proposition. 

11. A complex sentence is one composed of a princi- 
pal and one or more subordinate propositions. 



386 THE TEACHER'S HASD-BOOK. 

12. A compound sentence is one composed of two or 
more co-ordinate propositions. 

METHODS. 

1. Proposition defined. Teacher asks each 
member of the class to form a sentence under the follow- 
ing conditions: Giving an affirmative unconditional 
answer to the question, "Is Mary going home ? " They 
give the subjoined sentence, which is written on the 
black board : " Mary is going home." The pupils are 
now asked to answer the same question affirmatively, 
but to add- to it a condition upon which her going 
depends. A pupil will say, perhaps, "Mary is going 
home, if it is pleasant." The teacher next takes one of 
two books and places it in' a chair; then asks for a sen- 
tence about the book that is in the chair. A pupil says, 
" The book that is in the chair is an arithmetic." In a 
similar manner several other sentences are composed and 
written. The sentences are then analyzed by the pupils, 
the use of each element being given as it is named. 
Thus "The book that is on the chair is an arithmetic," 
is a declarative sentence. " The book that is on the 
chair," is the complex subject; "is an arithmetic," is the 
simple predicate. To " book," the simple subject, are 
added "the" and "that is on the table," adjective ele- 
ments showing that some particular book is implied, and 
pointing out which particular book is intended. 

Teacher asks the pupils to define subject and predi- 
cate, which they do. They now perceive and answer, 
when questioned by the teacher, that some elements of 
these sentences have a subject and a predicate. Each 
subject with its predicate is then written separately as 
follows : 



METHODS IS GRAMMAB. 187 

Mary is going home. 

The book is an arithmetic. 

If it is pleasant 

That is on the chair. 

When the time arrives. 

In which the flowers are blooming. 

School will commence. 

That is a beautiful garden, &c., &c. The pupils now 
decide that each expression is a combination of a subject 
and predicate, but that some express a complete thought 
while others do not. 

The teacher may now call for combinations of subject 
and predicate that express complete thoughts. Pupils 
answer, " Birds sing," " Horses run," &c., <fcc. Also for 
those that do not express complete thoughts " If I go," 
" When it rains," &c. The pupils now learn that a com- 
bination of subject and predicate, whether forming a 
sentence or not, is called a proposition, and are ready to 
define a proposition and to make the statements found 
in 2, 3," "4" of Matter," the teacher giving .the 
term clause. 

2. Propositions classified. Sentences such as 
the following may be written on the board : " Children 
who persevere will succeed." "Flowers that grow in 
the woods are called wild-flowers," &o: 9 &c. 

The pupils being asked to select the propositions that 
express the leading thought, do so, and are taught to 
call them the principal propositions. Each member of 
the class now defines the principal proposition of a sen- 
tence, and illustrates his definition by giving a sentence 
and selecting its principal proposition. The teacher 
now writes only the principal propositions of the sen- 
tences that were first .written : 

Children will succeed. 



188 THE TBACHBE'S HAUD-BOOK. 

Flowers are called -wild flowers, <fcc., &c. Class 
decides the meaning to be all children and all flowers, 
and that the signification is changed by adding the 
propositions " who persevere " and " that grow in the 
woods." The term " modify " being given, they are 
ready to form sentences containing a principal and a 
modifying proposition. The term " subordinate " and 
its meaning being given they can define a subordinate 
proposition. A similar method may be pursued in 
teaching co-ordinate propositions. 
3. Classification of sentences. 
The pupils are requested to bring to the recitation, 
written upon their slates, sentences fulfilling the follow- 
ing conditions : (a) Three sentences, each composed of 
but one proposition, (b) Three, each composed of two 
propositions, a principal and a subordinate, (c) Three, 
each composed of three propositions, one principal and 
two subordinate, (d) Three, each composed of two co- 
ordinate propositions, (e) Three, each composed of three 
co-ordinate propositions. 

At the recitation the sentences are read, and the dif- 
ferent propositions pointed out The class discover that 
they have only three different kinds of sentences, for 
which the teacher now gives the appropriate names. 
The pupils recite and write the definitions of each kind 
of sentence, giving a sentence as illustration. They are 
now ready to make the abstract, which they do with the 
teacher's help. 

'1. Define. 

fl. Sentences. 

*. As to use. -j 2p Elemen1;s of 
L Propositions.-/ I Class. 



. Classes. H 

2. As to rank. ] SubwfSinate. 
( 8. Co-ordinate. 



(1. Principal. 
. 



METHODS IN GBAMMAB. 189 

( 1. Simple. 

II. Sentences as to Propositions. < 2. Complex. 
( 3. Compound. 

4. Suggestions. More than one lesson will be re- 
quired to teach all that is suggested in the preceding 
sketch. Indeed, it may require a distinct lesson for each 
separate point in the Matter. Much will depend upon 
the age and ability of the pupils. But whether one or 
two points are considered at a lesson, each must be copi- 
ously illustrated, and the sentences given as examples 
must be analyzed by the pupils, so that after classifying 
them, all that will need to be added to the analysis will 
be the kind of sentence, naming the principal and sub- 
ordinate propositions, &c., and analyzing the separate 
propositions. 



CHAPTER XXX. 
MOEB ADVANCED GRAMMAR 

Abstract. 
I. Orthography. 

1. Memmtary Sounds. Tonics or vocals \ Subtonics, 
or sub-vocals ; Atonies or aspirates. 

2. Jitters. 



(a) According to form. 



(5) According to sound. 



(c) Combination... 
3, Syllables. 



I 1. Diphthongs. - 
2. Triphthongs. - 



Capitals. 
Small letters. 

Yowels. 
Consonants. 

Proper. 
Improper. 
Proper. 
Improper. 



190 



THE TEACHER'S HASTO-BOOK. 



4. Words. 



(a) 



According to the num- ^ 
ber of syllables 

According to origin. 



Monosyllables. 
Dissyllables. 
Trisyllables. 
w Poly syllables. 
Primitive. 
Derivative. 



Compound. 

( For Primitives. 
() Spelling. Rules ............ ] For Derivatives. 

. ( For Compounds. 
(0) Rules for the use of Capital Letters. 
II. Etymology and Syntax of Words. . 

PARTS OP SPEECH. 

1. The Noun. 

( Define. 
(a) Definition, Object ] 



(&)" Classes.. 



(c) Properties. 
($) Declension. 

(e) Rules for 
Construc- 
tion. 



j Material. 
( Immaterial. 

' According to the nature j Abstract, 
of object represented, j Concrete. 

According to use < pJJ^ D ' 

According to meaning and form ; 
Collective. 

Define. 



Classes. . - 



'Singular. 

Plural. 

Rule for form- 
ing Plural. 

'Masculine. 

Feminine. 

Common. 

Neuter. 

First. 

Second. 
v Third, 
f Nominative. 
Case 4 Possessive. 
( Objective. 



Number. - 



Gender.. - 



Person. 



METHODS 



GEAMitAE. 



191 



2. The Pronoun, 
(a) Definition. 

(t>) Differences between it and the noun. 

( Personal. ( Q . , 

(c) Classes \ Relative. , . . . J p^^ 

1 / Interrogative. . . . . ( Compound. 

f Number. 
tf) Properties. . J 

[ Case. 
() Rules for Construction. 

3. 7%eX^ecw6. 
(a) Definition. 



(1) Classes. . . * 



Limiting Adjective. 
Pure Limiting 



Articles. 
Pronominal. 
Numerals. 
( Cardinal. 

Numerals -< Ordinal. 

( Multiplicative. 

'Why adjectives have this prop- 
erty. 

(Positive. 
Comparative. 
Superlative. 
Formation of Compar- 
ative and Superlative. 

(d) Rules for Construction. 



192 



THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 



4. The, Verb. 




(a) Definition. 






According to{tive. 






nature. ] 


Copulative. 






According to ' 


Regular.' 






form. i 


Irregular. 








f Transitive. 




(5) Classes. < 


According to^ 


Intransitive. 






use. 


Auxiliary. 








Impersonal. 






According to 


* Affirming, the Verb. 




manner of 








stating the"* 
relation. 


Assuming. \ j r 


irticip 
finitiv 



(c) Properties. 



. .(Active. 
llce i Passive. 
'Indicative. 
Potential. 
Subjunctive. 
Imperative. 

( Present. 
Absolute. ] Past. 

( Future. 
Present perfect. 



Voice 



Mode. 



Tense.- 



Relative. 



Past perfect. 
Future perfect. 



NUHBEB AND PERSON. 

(d) Conjugation. 

(e) Rules for Construction. 
5. The Advert. 



(a) Define. 



- Illustrate 
added to a 



fVerb. 
Participle. 
. < Infinitive. 
" ' Adjective. 
[Adverb. , 



GBA3IMAB. 



193 



(o) Classes. 



(c) Compari- 
son. 



Pure. 

Conjunctive. 
Of Place, 
Time, 
Cause, 



According to 
nature ..... 



According to 
attribute... 



According to Expletives. 

use Interrogative. 

1. Why adverbs have this property. 



2. Degrees. 



(d) Rule for Construction. 
6. The Preposition. 

(a) Define. Relation 



( Positive. 

4 Comparative. 

( Superlative. 



C Define. 






["Adjective. 
J Adverbial. 
| Indirect, 
[ Objective. 



<* 

(c) Rule for Construction. 
7. Jfte Conjunction. 
(a) Definition. 





' 


Pure. 




As to nature 


Conjunctive 






words. 






** 


Copulative. 


() Classes. - 


As to 
rank of 
elements < 


Co-ordinate. 


Adversative. 
Alternative. 
1 Substantive. 




con- 
nected. 


Subordinate. 

. 


Adjective. 
Adverbial. 


(c) Rules for Construction. 


8. The Interjection. 


(a) Definition. 


(b) Rule for Construction. 


9 



194 TUB TEACHER'S HAKD-BOOK, 

III. Syntax: of Sentences and their Ele- 
ments. 

1. Sentences classified according to their use as a 
whole. 

(a) Declarative, (I) Interrogative, (c) Imperative, 
(d) Exclamatory. 

2. Sentences classified according to their propositions. 
(a) Subject and Predicate, (b) Proposition. 

C Principal 

(c) Classes of Propositions as to rank. ] Subordinate. 

( Co-ordinate. 



(d) Classes of Sentences, as to Propo- ( 

sitions. J Compound. 

3. ^Elements classified according to office. 

(a] Subject, (b) Predicate, (c) Adjective, (d) 
Adverbial. 

( Direct. 

(e) Objective ..... < Indirect. 

( Double. 

4. Elements classified according to Rank. 



(b) Subordinate. . . 



Adjective elements. 
Adverbial elements. 



( Objective elements. 
5. Elements classified according to Form. 

(a) Simple of the First, Second, and Third Classes. 

(b) Complex of the First, Second, and Third Classes. 

(c) Compound of the First, Second, and Third Classes. 
6, Character of the elements peculiar to the different 



(a) Elements of Simple ( Words, 
sentences. . , (Phrases. 



METHODS IN GBATVnVTAB. 195 

f Words. 

(b) Elements of Complex I Phrases, 
sentences. 1 ni i Principal. 

[ Clauses 'i Subordinate. 

(Words. 
Phrases. 
Co-ordinate. 
Clauses Principal. 

7. Contracted Sentences, (a) Partial Compounds. 

(b) Sentences with abridged propositions, or Contracted 
Complex. 

8. Mgures. (a) Of Etymology. (5) Of Syntax. 

(c) Of Rhetoric. 

9. Punctuation, (a) Principal marks : comma (,), 
semicolon ( ;), colon (:), the dash ( ), the parenthesis 
(), the period (.), interrogation point (?), exclama- 
tion point ( ! ). Rules for the use of each. 



NOTES ON THE FOREGOING SYLLABUS. 

Object of the Course. The object of this course 
is twofold : To teach those things which. are omitted in 
the previous courses, and at the same time present the 
subject of Grammar as a harmonious whole, composed 
of separate parts, it is true, but each following the other 
in a natural sequence and sustaining its own peculiar 
relation to the whole. 

It is also a partial review, in that subjects before dis- 
cussed are again considered; but those that were then 
left incomplete are now finished, and those that need no 
addition are fitted each into its appropriate place. 

METHODS. 

The class should use some standard text-book on the 
subject. The teacher should assign a definite lesson 



196 THE TEACHES^ HAND-BOOK. 

in the book, with definite instructions in respect to the 
manner in which it is to be prepared. For example, the 
first lesson might be the definition of Grammar, its di- 
' visions, and their definitions and the first topic under 
Orthography, Elementary Sounds. The pupils are told 
to read the lesson through carefully first, so as to get a 
general idea of the lesson as a whole. Then they are to 
take up each separate definition, read it, understand it, 
illustrate by an example not given by the author, and 
express the same without the book. Finally, they should 
classify the knowledge they have obtained. 

Or, suppose the subject to be Nouns; the lesson 
assigned may be merely to read the matter through care- 
fully and thoughtfully, preparatory to forming an out- 
line of the subject under the direction of the teacher. 
An entire recitation may be occupied in this preparatory 
work, after the subject has been so read by the class. 
The teacher develops the main topics in their proper 
order, and leaves the outline to be filled in by the pupils. 
Thus, as left for the pupils to finish, the abstract on 
Nouns might appear as follows : 

f Define. 
Define Object, j { 



The Noun. < 



f As to nature. 



Classes As to use 



1. 
2. 
1. 
2. 

[ As to meaning and form. 

f Define. - 

Properties, 4 [ * 



- METHODS IN" GRAMMAS. 197 

The next lesson might be to 11 in the outline as far 
as " properties," and be prepared with definitions and 
illustrations so far. There are many subjects that will 
need special instruction on the part of the teacher, while 
there are others that the pupil can, by careful study 
prepare entirely by himself. Of the first class may be 
mentioned the Properties of the Koun, Pronoun, and 
Verb; the Relative Pronoun; Comparison of Adjectives 
and Adverbs; Participles and Infinitives; Abridged 
Propositions, &c. It seems to me better that the rules 
for construction should follow each part of speech as 
soon as it is considered, although they are not so placed 
in all Grammars. As soon as a part of speech has been 
thoroughly studied, before passing to the next, fix that 
one firmly in the mind by requiring sentences containing 
it to be analyzed, and the words, so far as they have been 
learned, parsed. 



SUMMARY OP CHAPTERS XXVII. TO XXX. INCLUSIVE. 

GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE COURSE. 

I. Introduction, language lessons. II. Elementary Grammar, 
the course outlined. III. Advanced Grammar, the course out- 
lined. Notes. Time of introducing lessons ; use of words, &c. ; 
object Of language lessons ; syllabus of language lessons; sentences 
considered ; parts of the sentence ; kinds of sentences ; uses of 
capital letters ; of punctuation marks ; outline of course in com* 
position ; methods for language lessons presented. 

xxvm. 

SYLLABUS OF TOPICS. 

I. The sentence and its classes. II. Farts of speech; their 
uses and definitions. Notes on language lessons. 



198 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

XXIX. 
ILLUSTBATIVE LESSONS. 



I. Methods proposed; classification of sentences as to proposi- 
tion?; practical suggestions. 

XXX. 

ADVANCED COURSE IS GRAMMAS. 

Detailed outline of the course. (1) Orthography; (2) Ety- 
mology and syntax of words ; (3) Syntax of sentences and their 
elements; notes on this syllabus; methods presented. 



OHAPTEE XXXI. 

THE FORMATION OF HABITS AND THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF CHARACTEB AT SCHOOL. 

1. General Remarks. " Give TLS something 
practical," says the teacher of the period. The days of 
mere theorizing in education seem to be passing away. 
The leading desire of true educators everywhere, is to 
learn how to do their work wisely and well. Hence our 
professional organs are largely engaged in the discussion 
of methods and, incidentally^ of the principles which 
underlie them. This is -well. There is iro doubt that, 
under the impulse of this agitation of modes and princi- 
ples, the average skill of the great mass of teachers will 
be increased, and that better results will be achieved ia 
the domain of intellectual culture. This will be -an im- 
portant point gained. For one step, and .perhaps the 
first toward the elevation of man, is to improve him 
intellectually. 



FORMATION OP CHABACTEB. 199 

2. Practical Education. But there is a practi- 
cal education, and there are practical methods for the 
school-room that do not pertain exclusively to Eeading 
and Grammar, Arithmetic and Geography, the Calculus 
or the Anabasis. There is a species of training that, in 
importance and utility, surpasses them all, because it 
undertakes to deal with the character, and hence it has 
more to do with true success in life than has the power 
of computation or expression. That training relates to 
the formation of right habits and the development of a 
virtuous and nolle character. 

3. Thought and action Knowing and 
doing. This is a work more comprehensive in its scope 
and influence than mere intellectual instruction and, 
indeed, than any other teaching whatsoever. It lays 
hold of the whole being, physical, intellectual, social 
and moral. It supplements the knowing with doing. It 
attends to the repetition of good thoughts, feelings and 
actions until as a consequence of such repetition that 
which at first perhaps, was difficult or irksome, becomes 
easy and agreeable. It is one thing to know, and still 
another thing habitually to do the right. There are 
thousands, both in the school of childhood and the far 
greater school of active life, who know their duty but do 
it not. This fact is indisputable. All will admit it, 
and yet too many of us actually close our eyes to the 
impressive lesson that it ought to convey. 

4. A Grave Defect. It reveals the gravest 
defect in our system of teaching that can possibly force 
itself -upon our attention. To teach the youth of our 
land to know, and still not lead them a step farther to 
the practice of that which is just and true, is to increase 
their capacity for evil, while.it does not necessarily 
induce the corresponding action. Not to supplement at 



200 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 

every step the knowing with the doing, the thought 
with the action, the knowledge with its practical appli- 
cation, is as unwise in manners and morals as it would 
be in a school of mines or engineering, a commercial 
college, or a military academy. Of what avail would 
be a system of military tactics if taught from a hook, 
without the actual drill in. movements ? How vain to 
attempt a mastery of the science and practice of 
accounts without the actual drill of the day-book, cash- 
book, journal, and ledger ? And yet this is too often 
precisely the way in which we attempt the formation of 
habits and the development of character in the school- 
room, if indeed we attempt them at all. "We are apt to 
give line upon line, precept upon precept, theory upon 
theory, without much heed to the character of the 
actions by which a, knowledge of duty ought ever to be 
hal ituctlly fottwoed. 

5. An Uncultivated Field. It is manifest 
that here is a field that lies almost entirely unculti- 
vated before us. Ought we not to reflect that a human 
being in this life, and indeed, in the great hereafter,, will 
be precisely that which his character makes him, no 
more, no less? Man is emphatically a creature of 
habit. It is the chief end of education to form good 
habits, to develop a perfect character. The character 
of any individual may be said to be the sum total of 
his habits. 

6. Habits defined.-~But what are habits ? They 
are thoughts, feelings, and actions repeated until they 
become easy, pleasurable, perhaps unconscious. On the 
theory that all our powers, physical, mental, and moral, 
are conjointly, not equally, concerned in every act of 
life, our actions must thus possess a three-fold quality. 
There must be a moral element even in what might be 



FORMATION OP CHABACTER. 201 

called a purely physical or mental act, if such w.ere possi- 
ble, in the sense that the act is either right or wrong, 
useful or hurtful. And again, in every physical or moral 
action there must, in the conscious mind, be a correlated 
mental manifestation and an impulse of the will 

7. Influence of good actions. If the truth of 
these positions be conceded, it will be admitted further, 
that, not only may good actions spring from right intel- 
lectual perceptions, but that such actions may by reci- 
procity of influence, lead to noble thoughts and virtuous 
resolves. No thinking person will probably deny the 
reflex influence of outward actions upon the mental and 
moral states. An act which at first is distasteful, if 
often repeated, will soon become agreeable, and event- 
ually ripen 'into a fixed habit, an element of character. 
Whether the action be good or evily.the result will be a 
corresponding habit. The law is invariable and the 
consequence inevitable. Thus, it is by repetition that 
actions ripen into habits ; habits become fixed and exer- 
cise complete dominion over us. They determine the 
character. 

8. A pertinent Question. "Now the simple 
question is, How can these principles be applied in the 
daily practice of the school-room? What can we 
actually accomplish? What methods may be specifi- 
cally employed to form desirable habits and thus assimi- 
late the characters of our children and youth to that 
standard which marks the perfect man ? 

This subject should receive the most careful attention 
at the Teachers' Institute and in those more permanent 
agencies where teachers are prepared for their work. In 
the subjoined sketch, an attempt is made to suggest a 
few methods looking to a solution of the important 
problem under consideration. 
9* 



202 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

9. Habits that may be cultivated at school. 

Among the habits that fall within the scope of school 
influences, and that may be cultivated through its 
special appliances, the following are suggested : 

Promptness and Regularity. 

Obedience. 

Order, System. 

Self-respect. 

Respect for the persons, property, and rights of 
others. 

Scrupulous Carefulness. 

Neatness of person and surroundings. 
Courtesy. 

Kindness. 

Justice. 

Industry. 

Economy. 

Attention. 

Many others might be mentioned, but the foregoing 
will suffice for the present purpose. It can not be neces- 
sary for a moment, to dwell upon the importance of 
these habits to the pupil or the school, to the citizen or 
society; merely to make mention of them is to offer a 
conclusive argument for their necessity in every well- 
regulated life and well ordered community. To neglect 
their careful cultivation in that precious seed-time of life 
which the school-going days represent, is almost a crime 
against the peace, good order, and well-being of society, 
to say nothing of the future success and happiness' of the 
individual 

Let us briefly consider the importance of some of 
these habits. 

Promptness and Regularity. This is one of the 
cardinal virtues. So valuable is it as an element of 



FOKMATION OP CHAEACTEB. 203 

character that it has heen declared, on high authority, to 
be the foundation of all other virtues. Its opposite may 
with equal truth, be said to be the parent of innumerable 
evils and vices. The child that is not carefully and 
persistently trained always to be at the right place, 
ready to perform the right duty at the right time, must 
almost inevitably become the man who is always too 
late too late at church, too late at the public meeting, 
too late in his business engagements, too late to com- 
mand the confidence or respect of his fellow citizens, too 
late to win success in the worthy and noble pursuits of 
an honorable and upright life. 

Obedience. A disobedient boy is the "logical ante- 
cedent " of a lawless man. An undisciplined, disorderly 
school is the natural precursor of a law-defying mob. 
To obey promptly and willingly, is the first lesson in the 
school of preparation for a position of command even 
of self-command. Disobedience and self-government, as 
applied to the same individual or community, are con- 
tradictory terms. Hence, the most dangerous foe of a 
free people is a system of schools devoid of the whole- 
some restraints of a well-ordered and efficient discipline. 

Order, System." Order is heaven's first law." Its 
cultivation, therefore, is man's first duty. Confusion and 
disorder in the management of affairs, ought to be 
regarded as but little less than criminal, since 'they lead 
to disaster, disgrace, crime, and misery. This habit, like 
many others of the better class, is rarely acquired spon- 
taneously, or without special incentives. There seems 
to be in most persons a positive disinclination to a sys- 
tematic method of doing things. Some seem able to 
acquire it only through long and patient practice. 
These facts render it the more necessary that special 
efforts should be put forth to counteract the tendency 



204 TUB TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

to disorder in the individual, and hence in the com- 
munity. 

Self-respect. Where self-respect is lost, all is lost. 
In its absence there is little room for honor, virtue, or 
manliness. This is the hopeless stage in a career of deg- 
radation. Self-respect is the foundation of most of the 
personal virtues. It is a powerful defense against the 
inroads of vice, and its assiduous cultivation is a duty 
of the highest importance. 

Respect for the persons, rights, and property of others. 
This means good manners, a courteous bearing in per- 
sonal and official intercourse. It implies a deep sense of 
justice and its faithful exercise at all times. So impor- 
tant are good manners that in many respects they do, 
in truth, make the man. Nothing can fully compen- 
sate for their absence. They are indispensable to com- 
plete success in life. There is no adequate excuse for a 
neglect to employ appropriate and efficient means to hab- 
ituate our children and youth at school to the constant 
practice of good manners.. 

Scrupulous Carefulness ; in the use of property 
whether our own or belonging to others ; in the use of 
language, that it be concise and accurate ; in the exer- 
cise of our powers of thought and emotion, that we 
<hink no evil, and do no wrong. The opposite char- 
. icteristic is recklessness, or, to use a milder terra, heed- 
iessness, either of which is criminal, and in its greater 
manifestations at least, should be so treated in law and 
in fact. More property is wasted by carelessness than 
is saved by prudence. More valuable human lives are 
sacrificed from this cause than from malice afore- 
thought. 

Neatness of person and surroundings. Cleanliness 
has been affirmed to be closely allied to godliness. 



FOKMATION OF CHABACTER. 205 

How can it be possible for a pure heart and filthy habits 
to co-exist in the same individual ? On the other hand, 
who can deny that neatness of person and surroundings 
must in the nature of things tend directly to pure 
thoughts and a guileless heart ? 

It is not necessary to speak further of the value of 
these good habits. That may be safely taken for 
granted. The great question is how most effectually to 
cultivate them by any motives and appliances within the 
ordinary scope of the school influence. 

10. The foregoing syllabus not intended to 
be exhaustive merely illustrative. The habits 
referred to in the preceding discussion constitute but a 
small proportion of the number that it is possible, by 
the direct and skillful employment of the means at 
school, to instill into the daily life of our children. The 
list is merely illustrative, not exhaustive. Indeed it 
should be regarded as one of the chief functions of the 
school, so to direct its enginery of motives and methods 
as to make of each child "a bundle of good habits," 
physical, mental, social, moral. The teacher who has 
failed to learn this important lesson, is scarcely prepared 
to enter the vestibule of his high vocation. The course 
of studies, so called, ought to be regarded only as one of 
the means to this noble end, and not as an end unto 
itself. To supplement the knowing with the doing, the 
conception with the execution, until good deeds with 
their antecedent motives ripen into the golden fruits of 
fixed habits and a symmetrical character, this,' and this 
alone, best meets the demands of a complete and gen- 
eroua education. 



206 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



CHAPTER ZXXIL 

FORMATION OF HABITS AND DEVELOPMENT OF 
CHARACTER CONTINUED. 

11. Methods suggested. But how may these 
things be done ? A few methods will.now be suggested. 
The intelligence and ingenuity of the conscientious 
teacher will, however, readily devise others suited to his 
peculiar circumstances. This department of school duty 
should be made the mbject of special study and prepares 
tion. When this is done regularly and earnestly, there 
will be no lack of ways and means in the hands of 
teachers that have a heart for their business. Occasions 
will multiply and methods will spontaneously appear. 

Promptness and Begularity. These habits are to be 
cultivated in connection with School Attendance ; Class 
Movements ; the Preparation of Lessons ; Class Exer- 
cises; Regular hours of Study and Recreation ; and the 
general movements and exercises of the school as a 
whole ; such as, Gymnastics, Music, Recesses, and Dis- 
missal. 

School Attendance. -To be at school every day at 
the appointed hour is the duty of every child belonging 
to it, when in health. This duty is to be enforced, by 
appealing to the noblest motives that can influence 
human 'conduct : to the sense of justice ; to a regard 
for the rights of others ; to self-respect ; to a high sense 
of honor ; and to a love of the approbation of the wise 
and good. 

To be late at school, or in the discharge of any of its 
duties or to be absent without justifiable cause, is 



FOEMAHON OF CHARACTER. 207 

unjust to one's self and unjust to others. This is easily 



both upon teacher and pupils. It can he shown by the 
evil results to which it leads in future life. It can be 
shown to be rank disobedience to rightful authority. 
Disobedience of orders or a violation of regulations in 
the military and naval service is regarded and treated 
as a crime. It is really no lees such in civil life. Diso- 
bedience at home or at school is incipient crime. Its 
logical result is disobedience to the laws of the State and 
of God, the Righteous Euler of all. Strive to make 
your pupils feel and act upon this truth. 

Habits of promptness and regularity are to le en- 
forced "by subjecting delinquents to inconvenience, and to 
just and wholesome penalties for each and every case of 
failure Let the doors of the school house be closed 
at the time of opening the school. Let an assistant or 
one of the more trustworthy pupils be detailed as Offi- 
cer of the Day ; let it be understood that this officer 
will admit the tardy ones only at a particular entrance 
if there be more than one ; let him detain them in the 
entry or waiting room until the opening exercises of the 
school are ended. Then let the delinquent squad be 
subjected to the inspection of the principal teacher, and 
to such admonition or penalties as he may deem it best 
to administer. If the admonition be given in presence 
of the school, the pride and self-respect of the offenders 
will be touched, and they may be induced to turn from 
the error of their ways. It, is sometimes customary to 
recompense tardy pupils in Jtind; that is, to detain " 
them at the close of school for a sufficient time to exact 
an adequate recompense. There is no injustice in this, 
and if the plan be wisely and rigorously carried out, it 



208 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

may have a happy influence in abating a great evil and 
forming a desirable habit. 

Promptness and regularity may be greatly encour- 
aged ly commending those who practice them. Speak 
often and highly of the virtue. Cite such illustrious 
examples as Washington, who waited for no man beyond 
tbe appointed hour. Extol it as one of the noblest 
attributes of true manhood and womanhood. 'Above all, 
faithfully exemplify it in your own life and conduct. 

In class movements. Let your classes be moved in all 
cases by gentle signals addressed either to the sight or 
hearing. The signals should be quiet, though quick, and 
your pupils should be trained to obey them with all the 
precision of a military drill. Among the higher grades 
of a school there may be an officer for each class. He 
should be selected on account of his general good con- 
duct and his fitness to command. When the time of a 
recitation has closed, the exercises should stop at once. 
The class officer, being charged with^the duty of keeping 
the time, should, at its expiration, instantly arise, com- 
mand the class to stand and pass, when each mem- 
ber, in perfect order, passes to his regular seat. Too 
much stress can not be placed upon these prompt and 
orderly movements.' They influence the whole charac- 
ter; and since habits are gregarious, they generate 
orderly practices in other directions. 
' The preparation of lessons in study hours. Let your 
programme define the study hours of each class, and the 
particular branches that are to be attended to during the. 
given time. This leaves your pupils with no idle mo- 
ments. It provides useful work for every portion of the 
day. It thus conduces to promptness and regularity as 
well as to thorough preparation. The fuU employment 
of the time should oe insisted upon. 



FORMATION OF CHAEACTEE. 209 

In all class exercises. -TL&re the teacher must be the 
inspirer and motive power. He must be master of the 
subject and of the occasion. He must have a plan of 



to every observer. His own part must be performed 
with promptitude and precision, and he will then be in a 
position to compel corresponding action among his 
pupils. Let him ever remember that whatever course 
secures the practice of right habits, confirms and makes 



In the general movements and exercises of the school 
Allow no confusion under any circumstances. Let your 
school be so thoroughly and wisely organized that you 
can move at will the whole or any part of it with celerity 
and precision. Let your classes be formed as companies, 
with an officer for each. Give special instructions to 
the officers, and drill them when necessary. When a 
general movement is to be made, let it be done by com- 
panies, at the word of command, or by signal, according 
to circumstances. Occasionally, say once a week, drift 
your classes to rally rapidly by companies to previously 
assigned positions, at a moment's warning. Precision, 
promptness, and regularity come by practice. They do 
not appear spontaneously, nor are they acquired by spas- 
modic and inefficient efforts. Such drills develop true 
executive power. The teacher needs this. Everybody 
needs it, everywhere. Therefore it should, like the other 
powers, be developed at school. Every school, particu- 
larly every large school, should be organized and con- 
ducted on a systematic, or modified military plan. If 
masses, either of children or adults, are to be handled with 
facility, and moved rapidly jand safely, there is but one 
general plan, and that is the systematic, or, if you please, 
the military plan. This system implies neither unkind 



210 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

ness nor severity. On the contrary, it is perfectly com- 
patible with mutual kindness and respect between teacher 
and pupils, and it conduces to both. The best system is 
capable of mismanagement and abuse. But no system, 
or a half-way system, is an abuse in itself. That disci- 
pline which does not secure precision and promptness is 
a misnomer. It is worthless, because it is slipshod and 
demoralizing. In no country is strict discipline at school 
more needful than in our own ; for nowhere is the lesson 
of exact and willing obedience more important than in a 
country whose watchword is LIBERTY UNDER LAW. 
System in all things is to be cultivated by the methods 
already suggested. The well-ordered school will impress 
the lesson ande;?/0rcdthe joraeft'ceof order at every step. 
Orderly movements, whether of individuals, classes, or 
masses ; orderly studies systematically pursued ; orderly 
recitations and exercises of every kind, will necessarily 
develop orderly habits in all who are subjected to their 
influence. Here, also, the consistent example of the teacher 
is of the greatest importance. He should never neutral- 
ize his precepts by the influence of a false ezample. 

Neatness of person and surroundings. It can scarcely 
be necessary to occupy much space in the detail of plans 
for encouraging and enforcing habits of neatness. They 
must be too obvious to require a formal statement. 
Nothing can be more inexcusable or out of place than 
filthiness in the school-room or among its occupants. It 
costs nothing to be neat, if we except the price of a little 
labor and patience. Begin, then, by exemplifying neat- 
ness of person, and follow it up by enforcing it, if need 
be, upon your pupils. Provide the necessary aids to 
this work, or see that they .are provided. Require the 
free use of clean water, clean towels, clean drinking 
utensils. Keep the schoolroom^ the furniture, and grounds 



FORMATION OF CHARACTEE. 211 

clean at aU hazards. Is it necessary to suggest how this 
may be done ? The teacher who has not yet learned the 
ways and means to neatness has not completed his 
preparation for his duties, and should he sent to a good 
laundry, thence to a bath-house, and thence to take les- 
sons of a tidy housekeeper ! If your pupils come to 
school with dirty hands and faces, send them home with 
clean ones. If they appear to you with dirty clothes 
and unkempt hair, dismiss them at night with a kind and 
gentle hint. A school-room, its appurtenances and sur- 
roundings, kept scrupulously neat and orderly, will ever 
be a silent yet powerful incentive to every child to go 
and be likewise. 

Carefulness. It is not speaking too strongly to 
declare that carelessness is, in most cases, closely allied 
to crime, and that in its larger manifestations it should 
be treated as such. There may sometimes he excuses 
for ignorance, but for carelessness, never. Nothing 
should be more assiduously cultivated at home, at school, 
and everywhere, than its opposite, carefulness, fore- 
thought, attention. Whatever is attempted to be done 
at all should be well done. If worth doing, it deserves 
well doing, care. Hence, let forethought be religiously 
enjoined and exacted in every exercise, physical or men- 
tal, oral or written. Let a repetition of the act be de- 
manded in case of negligence or inattentionuntilthe duty 
assigned is performed with care. By persistent atten- 
tion to what each child does, and to his manner of doing 
it, any teacher who is so disposed will find abundant 
opportunities, not only for eradicating bad habits, but 
imitating good oues, carefulness as well as others. 

Respectful deportment. The practice of good man- 
ners should be systematically enforced in every school 
and household. All of the customary tokens of respect 



212 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

should be observed, not only in the intercourse between 
teachers and pupils, but among the pupils themselves. 
The practice of formally passing the salute on the school 
grounds, in the street, and elsewhere, by the pupils on 
meeting in the morning, istO 1 be commended and encour- 
aged, if not insisted upon. Boys and young men should 
be taught to give the military salute easily and grace- 
fully. They may, indeed, be required to practice it to- 
ward all with whom they associate while under the 
immediate authority of the teacher. A particular time 
may be set apart occasionally for considering and put- 
ting in practice those rules of conduct which govern 
rational beings in cultivated society. It is a legitimate 
part of the school work, no more to be neglected than the 
lessons in language, or the demonstrations of mathematics. 
TJte jweservation of property. One of the most 
lamentable indications of the day is the growing reck- 
lessness in the use of property, and the wanton waste- 
fulness thai grows out of it. This practice is literally 
encouraged, because permitted and unconnected at school. 
Our costly school buildings and other public edifices, 
with their furniture, are often no sooner opened for use 
than the spirit of vandalism seems at once to be let loose 
upon them for injury and destruction. The fact is noto- 
rious, and our schools should everywhere lay a stern and 
unrelenting hand upon so grave an abuse. The duty of 
guurding against such flagrant wrongs should be pressed 
home by precept, by example, and, when necessary, by 
the summary punishment of all offenders. In practices 
of this kind, and kindred evil habits, are to be found the 
sources of crime, and they can not be too severely rebuked. 
Attention. This habit of the mind lies at the founda- 
tion of all good teaching and intelligent practice. It is 
to be cultivated in connection with every study, move- 



POEMATI02T OP CHABACTEB. 213 

meiit and exercise of the school. It should be made the 
condition precedent to e^v ery event in the power of the 
teacher to guide or control. Is a movement signal to be 
given? Attention is the first in order. Is a rule to be 
promulgated, .a lesson assigned, a question asked or 
answered, a recitation heard ? Let nothing be attempted 
until attention is secured, and when that ceases let your 
work cease ; for otherwise it will be in vain. 

In a word, since attention is the basis of all progress 
and success, seize upon every occasion and legitimate 
device for arresting and holding it until it becomes in- 
deed a habit, fixed and wrought into the very being of 
your pupils. Remember that nothing profitable can be 
done where there is inattention. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTEES XXXI. AND XXXII. 

(1) General remarks principles and methods ; (2) Practical 
educationthe formation of habits; (3) Thought and action, 
knowing and doing ; (4) A grave defect in education noticed ; (5) 
An uncultivated field development of character; (6) Habits 
defined ; (7) Influence of good actions ; (8) A pertinent question 
What can the school do toward forming good habits? (9) Habits 
that may be cultivated at school : promptness and regularity, 
obedience, order, system, self-respect ; respect for persons, rights, 
and property ; scrupulous carefulness ; neatness of person and 
surroundings; courtesy, kindness, justice, industry, economy, 
attention ; importance of these habits considered seriatim ; (10) 
This syllabus not intended to be exhaustive, but merely illustra- 
tive and suggestive; (11) Methods detailed; promptness and 
regularity, how made habitual ; by regular attendance ; by sub- 
jecting delinquents to proper penalties; by commending those 
who practice them ; through class movements ; through regular 
preparation of lessons ; through dags exercises ; through prompt 
general movements and exercises ; system to be enforced by same 
means and by example of teacher ; neatness, how made habitual ; 
careful habits, how .formed; respectful deportment; the preser- 
vation of property ; attention. 



214 THE TEACHER'S HAIOHBOOK. 



PART TV. 

OHAPTEE XXXIII. 

MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE. 

1. General Remarks, The origin, objects, organ- 
ization, and, to some extent, the Course of Instruction of 
the Institute have been considered. The next step is to 
make some practical suggestions concerning its manage- 
ment All previously described conditions may have 
been fulfilled, and yet, without intelligent and judicious 
control and direction, failure must be inevitable. No 
agency, whether material, social, or moral, however im- 
portant its objects or perfect its organization, can accom- 
plish its beneficent purposes without wise and efficient 
guidance. Neither the institute nor the school, nor any 
other human instrumentality, is exempted from the opera- 
tion of this law. 

2. The management should be energetic. 
Time is precious. The session of the institute is to be 
brief. It must be assiduously devoted to the promotion 
of the objects contemplated. To this end everything 
should be done decently, in order, and with as little delay 
as maybe compatible with well-doing. The example 
that a prompt and earnest method of conducting its 
affairs will present, should not be lost upon a body of 
young and comparatively inexperienced teachers. Let 
it be such that they will carry with them its inspiration 
to their respective schools, and thus redeem them from 



MANAGEMENT OF THE INSTITUTE. 215 

the reproach that they seem to be devices for killing 
time. A due degree of deliberation should, of course, 
characterize the exercises, so far, at least, as may be 
necessary to secure clear and accurate thought and ex- 
pression ; but let it not degenerate into that slow and 
easy movement which converts so many schools into 
dormitories for drowsy children, or contrivances for the 
promotion of dullness and stupidity. If earnestness and 
enthusiasm are needed anywhere, it is in the school-room. 
The order of exercises, if properly prepared, has provided 
a time for everything. Hence, let everything be done in 
its time, and let the changes from one event to another 
be effected without any unnecessary delay. 

3. It should be cheerful and vivacious. So 
far as the circumstances will allow, it may be reiterated, 
the institute should be made a pattern for the study and 
imitation of all who attend it, that their schools may at 
once feel the impetus and inspiration it is so well calcu- 
lated, to impart. A teacher with a cheerful and ani- 
mated style is a " pearl of great price " to any school. 
He diffuses a perpetual sunshine wherever he goes, and 
converts the class-room into one of the most delightful 
of resorts. This spirit should ever prevail in the man- 
agement of an institute. The conductor and instructors 
should illustrate it in the presence of their pupils. A 
demure and surly style will be certain to impart its con- 
tagion to all subjected to its influence, and it can not 
fail to tell powerfully against the chances of a successful 
issue of the work in hand. 

4. It demands a responsible head. Since it is 
assumed that the institute should be organized and con- 
ducted as far as possible, like a school with a responsible 
head, and not like a deliberative body subject to the 



216 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

to and fro by conflicting opinions, it is manifest that it 
must be controlled and directed by one mind and spirit. 
This proposition is so evident as to require no discussion. 

5. Qualifications of the Conductor. It is fur- 
ther evident that the conductor should be a person of 
scholarly attainments, of broad views, generous sympa- 
thies, and eminent professional acquirements. He should 
be quick to perceive, prompt to decide, ready to execute, 
courteous yet firm in manner, and just in his intercourse. 
He should possess that keenness of discernment and 
ready tact which will enable him to adapt himself to the 
requirements of the occasion. In a word, his scholar- 
ship, executive abilities, manners, and professional attain- 
ments should be such as to challenge universal respect. 

6. Adhere to the Programme. If the order of 
exercises has been prepared with due care, it should be 
faithfully followed in all respects. To tamper with it 
leads only to confusion, dissatisfaction, and comparative 
failure. A convenient and rapid method of calling the 
roll at the commencement of each session has already 
been described. This is the first duty after the institute 
has been called to order. The roll of absentees may be 
reviewed at a subsequent time and explanations heard. 
This is a good practice. It stimulates regularity. It 
discourages tardiness and needless absence by appealing 
to the principle of self-respect. No person is so regard- 
less of his reputation as to be willing that his short-com- 
ings should be exposed to public view. The evils of 
irregular attendance upon our schools are so great that 
the most radical remedies for their removal may be easily 
justified. Unless teachers can be induced to be prompt 
and regular, there can be no hope of amendment In their 
pupils. Let them remember then that the reformation 
of this abuse must begin at home, with themselves. 



OP THE INSTITUTE. 217 

7. Devotional Exercises. No school of any 
description should omit appropriate religious exercises 
at the opening of the morning session. They should 
immediately follow the roll-call. In order to enlist the 
religious element of the community in behalf of the 
institute, the services of the local clergy should be 
secured to conduct the devotional exercises and to assist 
in the evening lectures. The former should be made 
impressive yet short, never exceeding five or ten min- 
utes in length. In the absence of the clergy, the exer- 
cises may be led by the conductor or one of the instruct- 
ors. The following plan will be found interesting and 
impressive, inasmuch as it aids in securing the hearty 
co-operation of all present. The devotional exercises 
should occur at the opening of the morning session only. 

PLAN FOR CONDUCTING RELIGIOUS EXERCISES. 

1. Music, chant or chorus by the entire body. 

2. READING- OF SCEEPTITEES, by the leader and the 
members responsively. 

3. CHANTING or RECITING in concert the Lord's Prayer, 
to be followed immediately by a short silent prayer, with 
bowed heads and in a sitting position. 

4. CHORUS by the entire body. 

That seems to be the best method of worship which 
heartily and reverently enlists the attention and sym- 
pathy of the assembly. As this method has been found, 
after a long experience, to be very satisfactory, it is cor- 
dially commended to the consideration of institute con- 
ductors and the teachers of our public schools generally. 
10 



218 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK.' 



CHAPTER XZXIY. 

MANAGEMENT OF TEE INSTITUTE CONTINUED. 

8. Class Movements; Whenever the institute 

is divided into classes under separate instructors, and in 

different rooms as heretofore indicated, a simple, prompt 

and effective method should be devised for moving these 

classes when necessary in a quiet and orderly manner. 

The object of this is to save time and afford a good 

example to the young teachers. It will be a potent 

lesson Iti school management. Order is not only heaven's 

first law, but it is the first law of the school-room, where 

habits are to be formed and character developed that 

are to be as enduring as life itself. The classes may be 

trained in a few minutes to move in a certain order at 

the light tap of a bell, the word of command, or other 

gentle signal. The members should be seated in the 

class- room in the order in which they enter it, and leave 

it in reverse order. By observing a few simple rules like 

these, which are soon learned and reduced to practice, 

time may be saved, order preserved, and a wholesome 

precedent established of great value to the teachers 

present. In this drill, as in all others of whatever 

nature in the school-room, precision and promptness 

should be insisted upon at all times. The truth is that 

these two characteristics are the soul of good discipline^ 

and good discipline has more to do with the formation 

of character than aU the studies of the most elaborate 

curriculum. There is a moral power in a wisely-con- 



MANAGEMENT OP THE INSTITUTE. 219 

ceived and effectively-administered discipline that no 
other agency can supply. 

9. Recesses and intermissions. These inter- 
ruptions should be regular but brief } and not too fre- 
quent. A general recess of ten or fifteen minutes at the 
middle of each half day's session will be amply sufficient. 
When they do occur, all the members should be encour- 
aged to participate in them. They offer an excellent 
opportunity for agreeable social intercourse between the 
members. It would be well for the instructors also to 
take special pains on such occasions to mingle with the 
members and bring themselves into hearty sympathy 
with them. 

The acquaintances and personal friendships thus 
formed constitute some of the most valuable results flow- 
ing from these meetings of teachers and friends of edu- 
cation. Such opportunities should by no means be 
neglected. At the close of the recess period the proper 
signal should promptly be given, and no unnecessary 
delay should be allowed to occur in the resumption of 
business. 

10. Choice of instructors. In the selection of 
instructors it will be wise to look at the question of 
their adaptation to the particular branches they are to 
teach, and the other special duties they are to perform. 
For instance, if we wish to secure the best attainable 
results in reading, language, and their related subjects, 
we must assign them to the teacher who has special gifts 
in that direction rather than to one who is indifferent to 
them. The same principle will apply to the teaching 
of mathematics, the sciences, and the more distinctively 
professional subjects that may engage attention. Teach- 
ing a subject con amore is very different in its results 
from compulsory or distasteful work. This is one of the 



220 THE TEACHBIi'S HAffD-BOOK. 

best methods of avoiding stale platitudes and the weari- 
some practice of talking around subjects, arising from 
the attempt to teach what is imperfectly understood. 
Our institutes in many cases, have been brought into 
disfavor, if not into positive discredit, by a surplus of 
this style of talking against time. It is in no proper 
sense, teaching. 

11. Day and Evening Exercises. A refer- 
ence to the programme heretofore presented, will dis- 
close the fact of a marked difference between the exercises 
of the day and the evening. During the morning and 
afternoon drill, exercises are mainly carried on with par- 
ticular reference to professional objects. Some of them 
may be regarded as academical, yet they are designed 
to be conducted in such a manner as to develop princi- 
ples and methods of instruction. One of the best modes 
of teaching how to teach, is by example. We should so 
teach as to illustrate the best methods. Example is more 
impressive than precept. The practice of an accom- 
plished teacher at an institute will generally make a 
deeper impression, upon his hearers, than the precepts 
with which it is accompanied. 

The evenings, so far as they are occupied, should be 
set apart for work of a more general nature. A leading 
object of the institute, let it be remembered, is to a/rouse 
and inform the people. While it is necessary to educate 
the children and youth, it should not be forgotten that 
there is an education of the people to be secured, with- 
out which, none of our measures to promote the former 
can succeed. Public sentiment must be prepared to 
accept and sustain the plans for school work. Hence, 
the proceedings of the evening meetings should be so 
shaped as to meet this want. Lectures and essays upon 
practical educational subjects, with pointed discussions 



MA3TAGEMEKT OF THE INSTITUTE. 221 

in which the people should he freely invited to join, 
ought to form the leading if not the exclusive feature of 
the evening work. Care must be taken to avoid long, 
prosy, and tedious lectures upon unimportant topics. 
On the contrary, the aim should be to secure those which 
are short, pithy, and suggestive, and to allow sufficient 
time to discuss the leading points developed by the 
speakers. With six hours devoted to the morning and 
afternoon sessions, not more than one hour and a half 
should be occupied in the evening. One evening in 
each week,' say on Friday, may be profitably used for 
purely social purposes. If more than two weeks be 
devoted to the session, not more than two evenings in 
each should be given to public exercises. While it, is 
wise to improve the time, it will be very unwise to over- 
tax the powers of the teachers by attempting to do too 
much. 

12. General Exercises. By general exercises 
we imply those in which the entire body of teachers 
shall take part. Vocal music, drills in elocution, simul- 
taneous answers to general questions, and calisthenics, 
,are examples. Such exercises should be regularly and 
-judiciously interspersed and vigorously conducted. 
They ought to be brief, and sprightly. Aside from 
being extremely useful per se, they give a healthful 
variety, introduce that change which is equivalent to 
rest, and thus enable the class to pursue its ordinary 
work with unabated interest and zeal. If wisely con- 
ducted at the institute, these exercises will afford valua- 
ble hints to the teachers, and enable them, with such 
wise modifications as the altered circumstances may 
demand, to introduce them into their schools. 

13. The Use of Apparatus. While the market 
is crowded with school apparatus and with multifarious 



222 THE TEACHEIl'S BAND-BOOK. 

forms of aids to illustration, it must be confessed that, 
as a whole, our common schools are lamentably deficient 
in the possession and application of them to the purposes 
of instruction. It is true that maps, globes, blackboards, 
<fcc., abound in many of the schools, while others, per- 
haps a great majority, are totally destitute in this re- 
spect. In a large proportion* of those supplied with 
material aids, these helps or most of them, are per- 
mitted to rust out unused, to suffer abuse, or if used at 
all, are handled to very little profit. The mere presence 
of apparatus in the schools is not enough; that does 
not guarantee its judicious and effective application to 
its intended purposes. It should not be forgotten that 
considerable tact and skill are required to use apparatus 
with effect. This is almost a specialty, in itself. The 
art of manipulating it dexterously and to the purpose, 
needs to le taught, not only ly example, lut by the actual 
practice of the future teacher ', if possible, under supervis- 
ion and criticism. Once learned, this art becomes a real 
pleasure and a fascination both to the teacher and 
taught. The institutes afford an excellent and indeed 
almost the only occasion to the majority of teachers, 
for acquiring the requisite skill in this important depart- 
ment. Hence, apparatus should be liberally supplied 
and faithfully used at these gatherings. Not only should 
the example of its skillful use be afforded, but as fre- 
quently as possible, the members of the institute should 
be called upon to repeat the illustrations and experiments 
under the direction and subject to the criticisms of those 
who are skilled in the art. So important is the ability 
to use material aids in teaching, that a certain speci- 
fied portion of time might be profitably employed daily 
in the work. Skill in this respect will tend more than 
anything else to draw teachers away from a blind adher- 



MANAGEMENT OP THE INSTITUTE. 223 

ence to text-books. It will give them, useful practice 
in oral instruction, and cultivate a'habit of self-reliance 
that is indispensable to real power and success in 
teaching. 

14. Technical Education. It is one of the most 
encouraging signs of the times that the number of phys- 
ical and chemical laboratories, art schools, and polytech- 
nic institutes is increasing throughout the country. 
Such facts indicate that educated people begin to recog- 
nize more than ever the utility of cultivating the hand 
and eye, as well as the memory of abstract ideas. It 
shows an increasing belief that things no less than words 
are educational instruments of immense importance. 
Seeing, touching, and handling, as well as hearing and 
speaking, must lead to understanding and believing. 
The teachers' institutes, as the principal means at pres- 
ent available for reaching the great body of the elemen- 
tary teachers, should recognize this truth, se.ize upon 
and endeavor to enforce it in the practice of the common 
schools everywhere. 

15. Maps, Globes, Black-boards, &c. Even 
as simple 'and common-place instruments as the black- 
board, wall map, and terrestrial globe are yet very im- 
perfectly employed as school helps. Hundreds of 
schools are not supplied, while other hundreds seem to 
harbor them only as appendages that are more orna- 
mental than useful, or leave them exposed to the ravages 
of time and youthful vandalism. It is insisted here, that 
the ability would create the desire to use and the disposi- 
tion to save them from the wear and tear of disuse, as 
well as the criminality of abuse. 

16. Open Questions. The Question Drawer. 
Many questions will arise in the minds of teachers 
during the discussions of an institute, and it is very 



224 THE TEACHER'S HAITO-BOOK. 

desirable that they should be satisfactorily answered. 
Some of the questions will be upon professional, and 
others upon general subjects. Ample provision should 
be made by which pointed and pithy replies may be 
given. It is sometimes customary to set apart a definite 
portion of time daily for this exercise. The last fifteen 
or twenty minutes of the afternoon session will afford a 
favorable opportunity. The questions may be proposed 
verbally iu open court, or deposited in a box or drawer 
designated for the purpose by the conductor. Inexpe- 
rienced and diffident teachers will prefer the latter method. 
Others will have no hesitation in proposing their ques- 
tions at the time appointed for their consideration. If 
wisely managed, this will prove to be one of the most 
interesting and profitable exercises in the series. Many 
of the teachers, by means of it, will be able to present 
the difficulties encountered in their professional experi- 
ence, and will profit by the solutions that older and 
wiser heads may freely offer. The time given to the 
question drawer is thus turned into an experience meet- 
ing, and lessons of wisdom that would require years 
to learn unaided, may here be mastered within a few 
well-spent minutes. Every encouragement ought to 
be afforded for the presentation of questions in one 
form or another, and the utmost freedom should be used 
in dealing with them concisely, practically, and in a 
kindly spirit. 

17. The Class Drills. In the management of 
classes at an institute, special pains should be taken to 
individualize the teaching, by drawing out as frequently 
as possible, each member of the class. It is not that 
which is heard merely, but that which is reproduced and 
digested that is truly acquired. The lecture, or pour- 
ing in process is not enough. But little of what is 



Off THE INSTITUTE. 225 

said in this way is actually retained and applied by the 
average teacher. The method of conducting the class- 
drills should be such as to secure the closest attention of 
all and draw out, in a correct anwer or apt illustration, 
each member as frequently as possible. An accomplished 
instructor will look carefully after this matter, and not 
allow himself to call upon the more forward and ready 
persons only. Questions calling for simultaneous an- 
swers and direct questions should be sparingly employed. 
The habit of calling out the members of a class in a 
uniform order should generally be avoided. Let each 
question be pointed and logical ; let it be asked promptly ; 
and let the person that is to answer be designated after 
it has been enunciated. This will secure attention, keep 
the class on the alert with expectation, and enable the 
instructor to accomplish the maximum of good in the 
minimum of time. 

18. Dictation Lectures, Lessons, &c. Expe- 
rience has shown that but few of those who attend the 
institutes are much profited by lengthy lectures embody- 
ing sustained arguments upon abstract subjects, or even 
a long array of facts and figures. The lectures delivered 
on such occasions should be brief, and given with a de- 
gree of deliberation that will enable the members to 
write out quite fully the leading thoughts developed. 
Indeed, dictation lectures so outlined and timed in the 
delivery as to enable their hearers to record the principal 
points, are by far the most permanent and beneficial in 
their influence. Such lectures become a positive acquisi- 
tion to the hearer, who derives much advantage from the 
practice of writing" out concise and systematic abstracts 
of the best thoughts of others. 
10* 



220 THE TBACHEE'S HAND-BOOK, 

SUMMARY OP TOPICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF 
INSTITUTES. CHAPTERS XXXIII. AND XXXIV. 

(I) Importance of good management ; (2) It should be ener- 
getic ; (8) It should be cheerful and lively ; (4) The Institute must 
have a responsible head; (5) Qualifications of the conductor pointed 
outj (C) Programme should be closely followed; (7) Devotional 
exercises recommended and outlined ; (8) Class movements, how 
conducted ; (9) Recesses and interruptions to be brief but regular ; 
(10) Choice of instructors to be characterized by a wise adapta- 
tion ; (11) Day and evening exercises to be varied to suit the 
needs of teachers and people ; (12) General exercises specified and 
recommended; (13) The use of apparatus strongly urged; (14) 
Remarks on technical education ; (15) Maps, globes, and black- 
boards, the importance of their free and judicious use ; (36) Gen- 
era! and professional questions recommended ; " experience meet- 
ings;" (17) Class drills, how conducted; necessity of individual- 
izing instruction ; personal power of the teacher in class work ; 
(18) Dictation lectures and lessons, their value considered. 



CHAPTEE XXXY. 

PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 

1. Value of Questions. Perhaps no form of 
composition is more suggestive of close thought than 
concise and pointed questions. If they refer to vital 
topics, they at once challenge attention and incite to in- 
vestigation. Thoughtful minds can not easily resist the 
force of such interrogatories. The art of judicious ques- 
tioning lies at the basis of thorough teaching. It is 
therefore worthy of careful study and assiduous practice. 
By means of the right kind of questions, put at the right 



PEOFKSSIONAL QUESTIONS. 227 

time and in the right order, a teacher may lead his pupils 
to any desired conclusion through the natural operation 
of their own faculties. The great advantage of such 
teaching is that the truths are received into the minds 
of the pupils with all the force of a legitimate convic- 
tion, instead of being passively accepted on the tes- 
timony of the teacher and the text-book. The true 
method of leading out and forming the minds of young 
children is the method of questioning carefully, logic- 
ally, thoroughly. Nor is this method devoid of great 
advantages to adults. Other modes are applicable, it 
is true, to minds more advanced, but the Socratic method 
is always in order. If the teacher would increase his 
power, let him imitate the example of his illustrious pro- 
totype of antiquity. The uses to which the subjoined 
series of questions may be applied are various, and it 
may be proper to indicate a few of them. 

2. The Self-examination of Teachers. Self- 
examination is no less profitable in intellectual and pro- 
fessional than in moral and religious culture. It may be 
' regarded as the key to true progress in every depart- 
ment of study. This introversion of the mind upon it- 
self is one of the most difficult as well as one of the most 
useful of mental exercises. It leads to the discovery of 
one's deficiencies. It defines clearly the limits of our 
knowledge, and discloses somewhat the extent of our 
ignorance. It thus becomes a powerful incentive to 
self-culture. 

A careful examination of the questions submitted, 
will, it is believed, lead to the conviction that there are 
none in the list that a teacher ought not to be qualified 
to answer intelligently. The answers to many of the in- 
terrogatories will be found in the Hand-Book, since they 
. relate to topics discussed herein. References to the 



228 THE TEACHER'S HAITO-BOOK. 

works indicated in connection with some of the ques- 
tions will afford the information necessary for their 
proper answers. The best method of using them in the 
process of self-examination will be, perhaps, to select one 
series at a time, and, having determined the answers, 
write them out systematically in connection with the 
questions, in a book provided for the purpose, leaving a 
blank space under each answer for such additions or 
annotations as further reading and reflection may suggest. 

3. The question indicates a course of profes- 
sional reading and study. By a little attention 
to the order of the several topics covered by the Ques- 
tions, as well as to the order of the latter themselves, 
it will be seen that they present an outline of a 
course of professional study. They are not, however, 
exhaustive ; others will be suggested to the thoughtful 
teacher as he advances. But they will serve to guide 
the course of his reflections, and lead him to some of the 
more important conclusions upon professional subjects. 
Following the series out to their legitimate answers, the 
reader can not fail to find himself reasonably well-in- 
formed upon a great variety of useful professional topics. 

4. The questions will be valuable to Su- 
perintendents in the examination of teachers. 
In the course of the author's observations in respect 
to the professional questions employed in the examina- 
tion of teachers, he has been especially struck with then- 
vagueness and want of breadth. Many of those pub- 
lished in official reports have seemed to be frivolous and 
of little practical use. Such questions can not stimulate 
to high professional attainments. They rather encourage 
mediocrity, and leacl to the impression that a fair Jsnowl- 
edge of the branches taught is the chief requisite in a 
teacher's qualifications. 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 220 

The subjoined series has been prepared in the hope 
of opening up a broader and deeper view of the profes- 
sional attainments necessary to the teachers of this 
country. The aim has been to propose no questions of 
an ephemeral character, but rather to prepare such only 
as refer to salient points of permanent and vital interest. 
They are not for a day but for all time, and it is be- 
lieved that their indirect or suggestive value will prove 
to be quite equal to their direct and immediate import- 
ance. 

The author suggests that these questions, with others 
of a similar character, might be so employed as to, effect 
a general and permanent elevation of the standard of 
professional attainments throughout the land, by mea.ns 
of uniform examinations according to clearly defined 
rules. This grand consummation might be reached by 
the general use of portions of the questions at successive 
examinations of teachers in the several States, selections 
being made from them and issued in advance, with the 
understanding that at the appointed time for the exami- 
nations, satisfactory answers would be exacted of all who 
desired certificates of a given grade. If this, or some 
similar plan, could, by concerted action, be followed up 
from year to year, it is submitted that an advance would 
be realized in the qualifications of teachers, and conse- 
quently in the character of our schools, not easily attain- 
able in any other way or at so insignificant a cost. 
Through the Bureau of Education, the National Associa- 
tion, the departments of Public Instruction, and the 
Teachers 9 Associations of the several States, such a plan 
could be inaugurated and successfully carried out, to the 
immeasurable advantage of the people. This plan 
accords with the conviction that education is based upon 
unchanging principles, essentially the same from age to 



230 THE TEACHEB'S EAJSTD-BOOK. 

age, their application only being modified according to 
time, place, and circumstances. Hence it is possible so 
to frame questions as to develop the principles and the 
methods growing out of them. That all who teach 
should master these principles and methods is a proposi- 
tion admitting of no argument. How to develop them 
in the minds of the two hundred thousand teachers of 
the country is an important problem. It is the convic- 
tion of the author of these pages, that no one step would 
be more conducive to the end in mew than the plan sug- 
gested. Whether it be undertaken as a national move- 
ment in the manner suggested, or not, the scheme is per- 
fectly practicable in the States possessing organized 
systems of public instruction, with their machinery of 
supervision and examination perfectly adjusted and 
under control. In any event, the scheme may be worthy 
of consideration, and its discussion can result in no injury 
to the great interests involved, while it may be product- 
ive of incalculable good. 

5. Many of the questions will afford fruit- 
ful themes for discussion at Institutes, Asso- 
ciations, &o. Much inconvenience is sometimes, expe- 
rienced through the lack of suitable topics for discussion 
at Institutes. A careful examination of the questions 
will disclose a great number of such topics, while their 
perusal will suggest others of vital importance adapted 
to these occasions. For the evening sessions, at which 
it is usually expected that the people will be present, 
questions relating to the " Location and Construction of 
school houses;" "Ventilation;" "The relations of 
Parents and Teachers;" "The State and Education;" 
and kindred subjects will be the most appropriate. In 
the series presented, will be found a great number and 



. PBOFESSIOWAL QUESTIONS. 231 

variety of this class of questions, to which attention is 
especially directed. 

It has not been deemed expedient to present any 
questions upon the subjects taught in the schools, since 
that course would have extended the series far beyond 
the limits assigned to this portion of the work. Ques- 
tions of this kind are more easily prepared, and may be 
indefinitely varied according to the individual views of 
the examiner. That a systematic and thorough course, 
especially upon the methods of teaching the elementary 
branches of study, would prove highly useful in many 
ways, there can be no doubt. Such a series, superadded 
to those annexed, with suggestive answers and copious 
references, is in course of preparation, and may hereafter 
be submitted to the profession in a separate volume, 
should there be a demand for it. 

QUESTIONS ON THE NATURE OF EDUCATION. 

1. 'What do you mean by Education? 

2. Give the etymology of the word (Webster's Un- 
abridged). 

3. How does Webster define the term? 

4. What is the difference between education and 
learning ? Between education and instruction ? 

5. What was Milton's conception of education ? 

6. What was Kant's idea of it ? 

7. What do Dr. Whewell, Lord Bolingbroke, John 
Locke, Addison, Bishop Butler, Fellenberg, Marcel^ 
Sidney Smith, Cicero, Dugald Stewart, and Buskin say 
of Education? 

8. Who was Pestalozzi ? Give a summary of his 
educational principles. 

9. Who were John Locke, Addison, Sidney Smith, 



232 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

Cicero, Dugald Stewart, and Fellenberg ? (See Ameri- 
can Encyclopedia or Biographical Dictionary.) 

10. "What was Horace Mann's idea of Education ? 
David P. Page's ? W. E. Channing's ? 

11. Who was Horace Mann? Dr. Channing? David 
P. Page ? 

12. State what you know of Fellenberg, Kant. (See 
American Journal of Education, Vols. IIL, V., VHI., X., 
and XIII.) 

13. Why should teachers possess a clear conception 
of the true ends of education ? 

NOTE. For concise answers to questions 5, 6, 7, 8, 
and 9, see report of the United States Commissioner of 
Education for 1867-8, pp. 833 to 848, both inclusive. 
Also Barnard's American Journal of Education, Ypl. XL, 
pp. 11-20 ; Yol. XIII., pp. 7-16; and Yols. IE. p. 401, 
IY, p. 65, &c. 

THE PRINCIPAL AGENCIES IN EDUCATION. 

1. Name the three most potential agencies in the 
promotion of education. 

2. "Which of the three do you regard as the most im- 
portant? Why? 

3. Whose personal influence is the earliest felt by the 
child ? 

4. What do you think of the power of this influence ? 

5. At what age does the child begin to be affected 
by it? 

6. What is the office of the family in the education 
of the child prior to the school age ? What during the 
school period ? 

7. Name some of the more prominent duties of the 
parent toward the school. 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 233 

8. How may a teacher influence parents to discharge 
these duties ? 

9. How would you induce parents to visit the school? 

10. Why ought a teacher to visit the parents of his 
pupils ? 

11. Name some of the advantages of these mutual 
visitations. 

THE SCHOOL. 

1. At about what age should a child first enter school ? 

2. How far advanced in intellectual culture ought the 
child to be previous to entering the school? 

3. Name some of the more important moral habits 
to be formed in the child before entering the school. 

4. Which of these do you regard as the most im- 
portant? Why? 

5. What personal habits should the child possess be- 
fore admission to the school ? 

6. What is the most important lesson in the child's 
life? 

7. How would you habituate your pupils to Obedi- 
ence? Order? Industry? Promptness? Neatness? 

8. Which do you regard as the more potent agency 
in education, the family or the school ? Why ? 

9. Do you think the school in any case more influen- 
tial than the home ? If so, under what circumstances ? 

10. For how many hours per day ought children 
under ten years of age be kept in school ? 

11. How many recesses, and of what length, would 
you allow such children ? 

12. What employment would you provide for them ? 

13. For how many minutes ought primary pupils to 
be engaged in a class exercise? 



234 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 



OHAPTEE XXXYL 

PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED. 

THE STATE AKD EDUCATION. 

1. Why should not the education of the young "be 
left exclusively to the family ? 

2. Why should it not be confided to the church and 
the family alone ? 

3. Give what you conceive to be the best reasons why 
the state should exercise control and supervision over 
education. 

4. What do you mean by the state ? 

5. Why is knowledge the universal right of man ? 

6. Why is education the universal interest and duty 
of man ? 

7. How is man's inalienable right to liberty and the 
pursuit of happiness best secured ? 

8. Why are ignorant men not free men ? 

9. Why is ignorance a menace to free institutions ? 

10. Do you think the mere ability to read and write, 
a sufficient qualification for the exercise of suffrage? If 
so, why ? 

11. What were Thomas Jefferson's views of the rela- 
tions of education to the welfare of the state and the 
happiness of the people ? 

12. What were the words of President George Wash- 
ington in his farewell address ? 

13. What were the views of William Penn, Presidents 
Madison and John Quincy Adams ? 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 235 

14. What did De "Witt Clinton assert to be the first 
duty of government? 

? 15. What distinguished jurist was the author of the 
following sentiment ? " The parent who sends his son 
into the world uneducated, defrauds the community of a 
lawful citizen and bequeaths to it a nuisance." 

16. What were the views of Horace Mann as to the 
qualifications of an American citizen ? 

17. What were the views of Daniel Webster, as ex- 
pressed in his discourse at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 
1822? 

18. Who was the author of this sentiment? "You 
will confer the greatest benefit on your city, not by rais- 
ing the roofs, but by exalting the souls of your fellow- 
citizens j for it is better that great souls should live in 
small habitations than that abject slaves should burrow 
in great bouses." 

19. Why may not the promotion of education be left 
to the operation of the law of demand and supply ? 

20. What were the views of John Stuart Mill upon 
this subject ? 

21. On what occasion did Lord Brougham give utter- 
ance to the following sentiment? "Let the soldier be 
abroad if he will, he can do nothing in this age. There 
is another personage abroad, a person less imposing in 
the eyes of some, insignificant. The school-master is 
abroad ; and I trust to him, armed with his primer, 
against the soldier in full imiform array." WTio was 
Lord Brougham? 

22. What do you think of this sentiment of Montes- 
quieu? "Education makes the man, that alone is the 
parent of every virtue j it is the most sacred, the most 
useful, and, at the same time, the most neglected thing 
in every country." Who was Montesquieu ? 



236 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 

23. What distinguished statesman and philosopher 
uttered the following truism? "Liberty can never be 
certain and complete unless among a people sufficiently 
enlightened to listen in eveiy emergency to the voice of 
reason." 

24. What do you think of the standard of education 
suggested in the following paragraph ? 

The education required for the people is that which 
will give them the full command of every faculty, both 
of mind and of body ; which will call into play their 
powers of observation and reflection ; which 'will make 
thinking and reasonable beings of the mere creatures 
of impulse, prejudice, and passion ; which, in a moral 
sense, will give them objects of gnrsuit and habits of 
conduct favorable to their own happiness and to that of 
the community of which they will form a part ; which, 
by multiplying the means of rational and intellectual 
enjoyment, will diminish the temptations of vice and 
sensuality ; which, in the social relations of life, and as 
connected with objects of legislation, will teach them 
the identity of the individual with the general interest ; 
which, in the physical sciences, especially those of 
chemistry and mechanics, will make them masters of 
the secrets of nature and give them powers which even 
now tend to elevate the moderns to a higher rank than 
that of the demi-gods of antiquity. All this and more 
should be embraced in that scheme of education which 
would be worthy of a statesman to give, or of a great 
nation to receive j and the time is near at hand, when the 
attainment of an object thus comprehensive in its char- 
acter, and leading to results the practical benefits of 
which it is impossible for even the imagination to exag- 
gerate, will not be considered an Utopian scheme. 

25. "Did I know the name of the legislator who first 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 237 

conceived and suggested the idea of common schools, I 
should pay to his memory the highest tribute of rever- 
ence and regard. I should feel for him a much higher 
veneration and respect than I do for Lycurgus and Solou, 
the celebrated lawgivers of Sparta and Athens, I should 
revere him as the greatest benefactor of the human race; 
because he has been the author of a provision, which, if 
it should be adopted in every country, would produce a 
happier and more important influence upon the human 
character than any institution which the wisdom of man 
has devised." 

What do you think of the estimate placed upon the 
value of common schools by the learned jurist that 
uttered the above sentiments ? 

26. Upon what does the value of the common schools 
depend ? 

27. Name the agencies by means of which their qual- 
ity is to be improved and raised to the required standard, 

28. How extensively should good common schools be 
established in this country ? 

29. Give an outline of what you conceive to be 
necessary to a complete and efficient system of common 
schools. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOL. 

1. What is meant by the organization of a school ? 

2. State what items of business should be transacted 
between the teacher and the school officers, prior to the 
commencement of the school. 

3. Enumerate the more important duties to be per- 
formed on the first day of school. 

4. Why should a teacher strive to make a pleasant 
first impression upon his pupils ? 



238 THE TEACHER'S HANDBOOK. 

5. How many grades or classes ought to be estab- 
lished in a district school ? 

6. State what, in your opinion, is the proper basis of 
classification iu such a school. 

7. What are the chief advantages of a programme of 
daily exercise and study ? 

8. State the principles upon which a programme 
should be formed. 

9. What reasons can you urge in favor of carefully 
adhering to the programme ? 

10. What items of information should be embraced 
in the daily record of a school ? 

11. How would you determine the average daily 
attendance ? Monthly ? Yearly ? 

12. How would you determine the " average number 
belonging " ? 

13. State the advantages and disadvantages of daily 
class records. 

14. What are the advantages of written examina- 
tions ? What of oral ? Which do you prefer, and why ? 

15. By whom should the seating of. the pupils be 
determined, and why ? 

16. In what manner ought all the movements of a 
school to be made? What reasons can you give for 
your opinion ? 

17. How often and in what manner should the roll 
be called ? 

18. In what manner ought the records of a school to 
be kept ? 

19. What should be done with the records at the 
end of the teacher's engagement ? 

20. Of what use are school statistics of attendance ? 
Upon what does their value depend ? 

21. In organizing your school what provision would 
you make for securing order ? Neatness ? Industry P 



PEOFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 239 

OHAPTEE XXXVIL 

PBOFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED. 

MENTAL PHILOSOPHY. 

1. WHAT is the difference, if any, between the soul or 
mind and the intellect ? 

2. Under what three divisions is it most convenient 
to consider the mind or soul ? 

3. What is meant by the sensibilities ? 

4. What by the intellect? 

5. What by the will? 

6. Name some of the sensibilities. 

7. Mention some of the means by which teachers 
may injure the sensibilities of children. 

8. What do you regard as the strongest incentive to 
good actions by young children ? 

9. What is the difference between capacity and sus- 
ceptibility. 

10. What is a faculty? 

11. How many and what are the classes of the intel- 
lectual faculties ? 

12. Explain what you mean by each. 

13. To which of these classes does memory belong? 
Reason? Judgment? Imagination? What is the dis- 
tinction between recollection and memory ? 

14. What is consciousness ? 

15. What is sense-perception ? 

16. What do you mean by observation ? 

17. What faculties are the earliest developed in the 
child? 



240 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

18. How may these test be cultivated ? 

19. By what means would you aim to cultivate the 
imagination ? 

20. What relation does the cultivation of the imagi- 
nation sustain to moral character ? 

21. "What is the relation of attention to memory? 
Kame some of the abuses of memory. 

22. How would you seek to form the habit of atten- 
tion in your pupils ? . 

23. What do you mean by a concept ? 

24. What relation does association sustain to memory ? 

25. In what ways may a teacher cultivate the power 
of association in his pupils ? 

26. What can you say of the importance of this fac- 
ulty in its relations to other mental phenomena ? 

27. Upon what does the vividness of mental impres- 
sions depend ? 

28. Upon what does their permanence depend ? 

29. Why ought not students to study late at night ? 

30. What are some of the consequences of over exer- 
tion in mental labor ? 

81. What rules would you give respecting the dura- 
tion of mental labor ? ^ 

82. Why ought vigorous physical exercise to accom- 
pany severe mental labor? 

MORALS AND MANNEKS.- 

3. What do you understand by the moral faculty? 

2. What is the nature of conscience ? 

3. Name several of the moral sentiments. 

4. How would you endeavor to form the habit of 
truthfulness in your pupils ? 

5. By what means would you seek to correct the 
practice of falsehood ? 



PBOPESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 241 

6. How can a teacher best lead his pupils to the 
practice of kindness ? 

7. By what methods would you seek to correct pro- 
fanity ? 

8. Why are you bound to keep your promises ? 

9. How would you lead your pupils to an habitual 
respect for the property of another ? 

10. What would be your treatment of cases of 
hypocrisy and deception? 

11. How would you inculcate the spirit of patriotism ? 

12. What would be your method of treating a quar- 
relsome disposition ? 

13. How may courteous manners be best cultivated? 

14. What is the difference between reputation and 
character? 

15. Would you attempt to reform an inordinately 
conceited pupil ? If so, how ? 

16. Mention some of the more prominent evils result- 
ing from carelessness. 

17. WTiat proportion of the accidents of life do you 
conceiye to be the result of carelessness ? 

18. Have you any well-matured plans for breaking 
up this habit, and replacing it by the opposite charac- 
istic ? 

19. Do you think that this kind of culture comes 
within the sphere of the teacher's duties and respon- 
sibilities? If not, please state the reasons. 

20. Please state what is implied by symmetrical 
development in education, with moral culture omitted. 

21. How may the power of conscience be strength- 
ened? 

22. In what way may a teacher wound the sense of 
justice of his pupils ? 

23. Name some of the more serious consequences of 

11 



242 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

neglecting the cultivation of the morals and manners of 
the young. 

SCHOOL STUDIES PRIMABY. 

1. What branches of study are best suited to the 
wants of a primary class ? 

2. What reasons can you offer in support of your 
conclusion ? 

3. Which of these branches would you give the 
greater prominence ? Why ? 

4. What method, or combination of methods would 
you adopt in teaching a class of beginners to read ? 

5. On what considerations do you base your plan ? 

6. How would you prevent children from using lan- 
guage mechanically in reading or otherwise ? 

7. Name some of the evils arising from -the use of 
words by children, without attaching to them their 
proper signification. 

8. Why should ideas precede the use of language ? 

9. At what stage of progress would you permit the 
use of a reading book ? 

10. What aids to teaching reading should precede 
the use of books by the children ? 

11. How would you employ the blackboard in teach- 
ing reading? 

12. In what manner would you make use of cards, 
charts, pictures, and objects in teaching primary read- 
ing, and for what purpose ? 

13. When and how would you aim to cultivate an 
easy and natural expression in reading ? 

14. How would you develop emphasis? 

15. How would you secure accurate enunciation ? 

16. At what stage and how would you introduce 
Writing into a primary school ? 



PEOPESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 243 

17. What objections can you urge against teaching 
writing as a merely imitative art ? 

18. What use can be made of blackboards and slates 
in teaching writing ? 

19. In what manner shoulds slates be prepared for 
the purpose ? 

20. How would you connect writing with the read- 
ing lessons? 

21. At what stage of progress would you. introduce 
Spelling, and how? 

22. What are the advantages of written exercises in 
spelling ? 

23. What are the disadvantages of requiring children 
to spell words with the meaning and use of which they 
are unfamiliar, either by the oral or written methods ? 

24. With what other exercises would you connect 
the spelling of words? 

25. What are the objections to the mere oral spell- 
ing of words arranged in word columns ? 

26. What use would you make of geometrical forms 
and solids in a primary school ? 

27. State some of the advantages of construction 
blocks in a primary class or school. 

28. At what stage and how would you introduce 
Drawing into a primary class ? 

29. What kind of lessons should precede and accom- 
pany those in drawing? 

30. When and how should Botany be introduced into 
this grade ? 

31. Give an outline of the course. 

32. When would you introduce lessons in Number, 
and in what manner ? 

33. Give an otftline of a course of lessons in number 
for a primary school. 



244 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

34. What material aids should be employed in teach- 
ing primary number lessons ? 

35. In what cases and to what extent should text- 
books be used in a primary school ? 

36. For what purpose should lessons in Place be 
introduced into the primary school ? 

37. Give a list of the terms whose meaning it is one 
object of these lessons to develop. 

, 38. For what regular study do lessons in place pre- 
pare the pupil, and how ? 

39. Can you name any other primary lessons leading 
directly to the same study? 

40. What are the advantages of systematic lessons 
on Color and Form ? 

41. What class of faculties should it be the special 
aim of the primary teacher to develop ? 

42. In what way and how often should a teacher test 
the accuracy of the pupil's mental impressions ? 

43. For what length of time should an exercise in a 
primary school be allowed to continue daily ? 

44. During how many hours per day should a pri- 
mary school be continued in session ? 

45. How many recesses and for what length of time 
per day ? 

46. Name such physical exercises as you deem advis- 
able in such a school. 

47. In what manner would you aim to promote the 
Moral and Eeligious training of the children ? 

SCHOOL STUDIES-SECONDARY. 

1. Give an outline of a course of study for a sec- 
ondary grade. 

2. At what point should each of these studies be 
taken up at this stage ? 



PBOFBSSIONAIi QUESTIONS. 245 

3. State what branches of knowledge you deem the 
most important to qualify an American citizen for the 
proper discharge of his- duties both public and private. 

4. State what you deem to be the proper use of text- 
books. What their abuse. 

5. What qualifications are necessary in a pupil to 
enable him to use profitably a text-book on Arithmetic? 
Grammar ? Geography ? 

6. Name such of the foregoing studies as you deem 
suited to pupils of the secondary grade. 

7. How far ought arithmetic to be carried in this 
grade ? 

8. State why pupils should be confined to processes 
at this stage. 

9. Why would you not demand the reasons for these 



10. What should be the main objects in teaching 
arithmetic at this stage ? 

11. By what means would you aim to secure accu- 
racy and rapidity of calculation here? 

'12. What use would you make of the blackboard in 
teaching arithmetic in this grade ? 

IS. How would you lead your pupils to do their slate 
and blackboard work in a neat and symmetrical man- 
ner? 

14. What powers of the mind is arithmetic calculated 
to call into exercise when properly taught ? 

15. How would you lead your pupils to an intelligent 
knowledge of the rules for the various processes ? 

16. What are the objections to requiring a memo- 
rizing of the rules laid down in the text-books, by the 
pupils ? 

17. What are the advantages of teaching mental and 
written arithmetic in connection with each other ? 



246 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

18. What are the objections to teaching Mental 
Arithmetic as an independent study ? 

19. What are some of the abuses in teaching this 
branch to young children ? 

20. Give an outline of a course of Language lessons 
suitable for a secondary class. 

21. What would be your aim in such a course ? 

22. What would be your general method of con- 
ducting these lessons ? 

23. How would you employ the slate and blackboard 
in this course ? 

24. At what time and in connection with what stud- 
ies should a teacher attempt to cultivate a ready and 
correct use of language on the part of his pupils ? 

25. Give an outline of the plan you would pursue in 
connection with these studies. 

26. What do you consider to be the best evidence a 
pupil can give of his knowledge upon any subject ? 

27. When and in what manner would you introduce 
the Writing of Compositions ? 

28. What branch of natural science should be taught 
in a secondary school, and in what manner ? 

20. Name some of the more important advantages of 
Botany, as a study for children when properly taught. 

30. Why should the Geography of the region imme- 
diately surrounding a pupil be first taught ? 

31. State why a text-book should not be used in the 
early stages of, this study. 

32. Give a brief outline of the course you would pur- 
sue before using the text-book. 

33.- Explain what use you would teach your pupils 
to make of a text-book on geography. 

34. What are the advantages of map drawing ? 

35. Why would you lead your pupils to a knowledge 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 247 

of the geography and resources of their own State before 
taking up that of remote regions ? 

36. When would you introduce the globe ? What 
facts would you teach from it ? 

37. When and how would you employ wall maps ? 

38. What are the most important objects of the study 
of geography ? 

39. What works of reference are necessary for a class 
in geography ? 

40. How would you seek to cultivate language in 
teaching geography ? 

SCHOOL STUDIES. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL GBADE. 

1. Give a general outline of the studies suitable for a 
grammar school, or for a class of similar grade in a 
country school. 

2. How should the methods of teaching in this grade 
difer from those below it ? 

.3. State generally how you would conduct a class in 
Beading in this grade. 

4. What preparation for such an exercise would you 
require of your pupils ? What preparation would you 
deem necessary for yourself ? * 

5. Name some of the advantages of a thorough study 
of the subject-matter of a reading lesson. 

6. What kind of a drill would you prescribe as a 
means of cultivating distinctness of articulation and 
compass of voice ? 

7. How would you stimulate your pupils thoroughly 
to study the subject-matter? 

8. What are the advantages of occasional concert or 
simultaneous reading by a class ? 



248 THE TEACHER'S HAOT>-BOOK, 

9. Describe your method of teaching Spelling in this 
grade. Why do you prefer this plan ? 

10. How should the method of teaching Arithmetic in 
this grade differ from that of the class below ? 

11. Why may the consideration of principles and 
reasons be brought forward here? 

12. What should be the leading object in a common 
school course in arithmetic. 

13. Why should not an elaborate treatment of prin- 
ciples be entered upon in the common school ? 

14. What use should be made of the blackboard in 
teaching arithmetic at this stage? 

15. Give an outline of a course in Geography suitable 
for a grammar school. 

16. What serious objections can you urge against 
the memorizing of lessons in geography from a text- 
book? 

17. What works of reference would you deem neces- 
sary in connection with geography in this grade? 
What use should be made of them ? 

18. Why should map drawing be required in all the 
stages of geographical study ? 

19. What use would you make of wall maps ? 

20. What topics in mathematical geography would 
you teach here ? What facts in physical geog'raphy ? 

21. Give outline of a course in Language and Gram- 
mar. 

22. What use do you make of the text-book here ? 
What of the blackboard ? 

23. How would you connect Composition with the 
lessons in language ? 

24. What use, if any, would you make of parsing 
exercises, and why ? 



FBOFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 249 

25. Do you deem the analysis of sentences or pars- 
ing the more important, and why? 

26. What are the two more important objects of the 
study of grammar? 

27. What branch of natural science, if any, would 



28. What are the peculiar advantages of the study 
of Botany ? How far would you allow your pupils to 
use a text-book in this study ? 

29. What part of the course in Writing should be 
taught in the grammar grade ? 

30. How should the Discipline of a grammar school 
differ from a primary or secondary grade ? 

31. What general exercises should be here intro- 
duced ? 

32. Why may topical recitations and reviews be 
more frequent in the grammar school? 

33. What should be the length of the recitations? 

34. To what extent may the Etymology of words be 
introduced? 

35. 
tory be conducted here ? 

36. 
can citizens ? 

37. In connection with what other studies ought 
some knowledge of the structure of our government to 
be taught? 

11* 



250 THE TBACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 

CHAPTER XXXYIIL 

PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED. 
CONDUCTING RECITATIONS, 

1. 3Jame four of the more important objects of the 
recitation. 

2. Which of these objects do you regard as first in 
the order of time? 

3. What is meant by the development of ideas ? 

4. What is the best method of developing thought? 

5. Upon what basis alone is it possible to develop 
new ideas in the mind of the child ? 

6. State what you consider to be the true order of 
nature in this respect. 

7. Explain the terms concrete and abstract, and give 
an example of each. 

8. Give an illustration of reasoning from the known 
to the unknown. 

9. Give an example of the mental process of passing 
from the simple to the complex. 

10. To what extent should a teacher aim to cultivate 
the use of language or the power of expression in a 
recitation? 

11. What valuable purposes are subserved by spend- 
ing a portion of a recitation in reviewing previous 



12. How may the power of association be cultivated 
in the recitation? Memory? Comparison? Judg- 
ment? 

13. How are the extent and accuracy of the attain- 
ments of the pupils tested in the recitation ? 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 251 

14. Upon what does the value of our knowledge 
depend ? 

15. How are the attainments of a class to be in- 
creased in the recitation ? 

16. Why should a teacher know much more of a 
subject than he is required to teach ? 

17. How are the habits of study of the pupils to be 
determined in the recitation? 

18. Why should a teacher make a careful special 
preparation for each recitation ? 

19. In what should this preparation consist ? 

20. What serious evils result from the failure of 
teachers to make such preparation ? 

21. What do you mean by a sketch of a lesson ? 

22. How would you aim to correct wrong habits of 
study in a pupil ? 

23. Give an example of a wrong method of study. 

24. Why is a persistent concentration of the atten- 
tion necessary to profitable study ? 

25. What mental injuries result from the opposite 
habit? 

26. What is a direct question? A leading question ? 
An alternative question ? 

27. Why should they be generally avoided ? 

28. In what way would you cultivate self-reliance in 
pupils ? 

29. What opportunities are presented by the recita- 
tion for cultivating the moral faculties of the pupils? 

30. What should be the length of a recitation in a 
secondary or intermediate class ? 

31. What can you say of the value of judicious criti- 
cism in a recitation ? 

32. Why should a teacher encourage his classes? 
How may this be done ? 



252 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

33. For what purpose would you require frequent 
, topical recitations in advanced classes ? 

84. How would you prevent your pupils from recit- 
ing in the language of the text-book? 

35. What are the chief objections to class records ? 

36. In what manner would you require your classes 
to move to and from the recitation ? Why ? 

37. What are the benefits resulting from a vigorous 
style of conducting recitations ? 

38. To what extent should a teacher use text.books 
in the recitation? 

89. Why should talking in a loud tone of voice be 
avoided before a class ? 

40. Why should recitations be promptly closed at the 
expiration of the appointed time ? 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT. 

1. What are some of the serious evils of frequent 
changes of teachers? 

2. What evil consequences flow from a failure of 
school officers to visit the school and support the 
teacher? 

3. Why ought parents and school officers to visit the 
school often? 

4. At what time does the authority of the teacher 
over the pupil begin and end for the day ? 

5. Why is there no economy in the occupancy of 
old, inconvenient, and dilapidated school-houses ? 

6. What objections can you name to the use of school- 
houses for public meetings? 

. 7. How would you prevent your pupils from cutting, 
defacing, and destroying the school building, furniture, 
and other property of the school ? 

8. What are the good results flowing from a prompt 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 253 

and regular opening and closing of the school each 
day? 

9. Why should a teacher be prompt and orderly in 
his management of a school ? 

10. What are some of the had consequences of a 
contrary policy ? 

11. Name some of the more serious evils of a peevish 
and fretful temper on the part of a teacher in school. 

12. Why is self-control in a teacher the basis of all 
proper control over his pupils ? 

13. What influence has the bad management of a 
school upon the habits and character of its pupils ? 

14. Mention some of the more important means to be 
employed at school in the formation of good habits. 

15. To what extent is a teacher responsible for the 
habits of his pupils ? 

SCHOOL DISCIPLINE. 

1. What is the meaning of the word discipline? 
(See Webster's Unabridged.) 

2. What are the two leading objects of discipline in 
a school ? 

3. Which of these objects do you deem the more 
important,' and why ? 

4. What motives should be addressed as incentives 
to right conduct in the pupil ? 

5. In what manner and on what occasions especially 
would you appeal to these motives ? 

6. Mention some of the incentives to right actions 
that you conceive to be superior to the fear of punish- 
ment, and give reasons. 

7. Upon what does the moral quality of actions 
depend? 

8. What is the source of ail bad conduct ? 



254 THE TEACHEB'S ROD-BOOK. 

9. How would you aim to exclude evil thoughts from 
the minds of your pupils ? 

10." What relation does constant and useful employ- 
ment sustain to the good conduct of pupils and the good 
order of a school ? 

11. What relation does a comfortable and pleasant 
school-room sustain to good order ? 

12. Why ought the teacher to make the school-room 
and its exercises attractive to his pupils ? 

13. What relation does bad air sustain to the disorder 
of a school? 

14. What has the poor health, either of the teacher 
or his pupils to do with a disorderly school ? 

15. Why is a carefully-devised system of school 
management necessary, to secure good order ? 

16. Why are firmness and consistency of character in 
the teacher, indispensable to the same result ? 

17. How does a carefully- devised and faithfully 
executed programme of recitation and study tend to 
secure good order? 

18. Why is a noisy and boisterous manner in the 
teacher promotive of disorder ? 

19. pow does a firm and quiet demeanor tend to 
the opposite result ? 

20. Why should corporal punishment rarely be used ? 

21. Under what circumstances, if ever, would you 
employ corporal punishment ? Why ? 

22. Name such modes of punishment as you deem 
improper in a school. ' 

23. Mention such penalties as you deem to be proper. 

24. When should a penalty be imposed in private, 
and when in presence of the school ? 

25. Under what circumstances would you consider a 
school to be governed too much ? 



PBOPESSIOtfAl QUESTIONS. 255 

26. How much of a teacher's time should be devoted 
to government ? 

27. What are some of the direct and what some of 
the remote consequences of disorderly schools ? 

28. What do you think of the plan of detaining pu- 
pils at recess and after school for bad conduct or neglect 
of duty ? 

29. By what means would you seels to prevent tardi- 
ness and absence ? 

30. What are some of the evils of these bad habits ? 

31. To what extent are parents responsible for 
tardiness and absence? 

32. By what means would you seek to form studious 
habits in your pupils? 

33. Why should the aim of all government be to 
promote self-control ? 

34. What is the only sure foundation of self-govern- 
ment in the community or state ? 

35. How can a teacher who fails to control himself 
secure self-control in his pupils? 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS CONTINUED. 
LOCATION AtfD CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL HOUSES. 

1. Give some of the best reasons why a school build- 
ing should be placed in an elevated location. 

2. What extreme is to be avoided here ? 

3. Give some good reasons why such a building 
should not stand directly upon the street. 



256 TEE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

4. State the principal objections to a flat or a de- 
pressed location. 

5. What advantages result to the school from a pleas- 
ant location ? 

6. What influence have a pleasant location and sur- 
roundings upon the pupils ? 

1. Why should a school house not be located upon 
the immediate banks of a stream or pond ? 

8. Why ought the school grounds to be neatly 
inclosed and decorated ? 

9. About what should be the dimensions of a country 



10. What should be the plan of such a building, as 
to the number, size, and location of the rooms ? 

11. Why do you deem a separate cloak-room desira- 
ble for each sex ? 

12. How should such cloak-rooms be located as to 
the entrances ? What should be their sizes, and how 
should they be furnished? . . 

13. How should the grounds and out-houses be 
arranged in respect to the proper relations of the sexes ? 

14. What radical defects characterize the 



and outbuildings, in this particular. 

15. What is the influence of such defects upon the 
morals and manners of the pupils ? 

16. What valid excuse can you suggest for such 

ntsa A fvK fa nn *i rir, *) 



^* wuw \4.iy^LUL&U.UJLDO ; 

17. To what extent are teachers responsible for them ? 

18. What can competent teachers do to remedy such 
evils ? 

. 19. Of what value are moral precepts in school, in 
the face of such immoral realities ? 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 257 

20. What plan for seating a school "house would you 
" recommend to the people of a country district ? 

21. What are the relative advantages of single and 
double seats and desks ? 

22. Why should the children be so seated as to be 
able to rest their feet squarely on the floor? What 
should be the height of the seats and desks respectively, 
for a primary school ? 

23. What should be the least width of the aisles? 
Why? 

24. What evil consequences result from the desks 
being too high ? Too lo w ? 

25. Why should not a stove pipe pass directly over 
the heads of the children ? 

26. What extent of good blackboard should be pro- 
vided for such a school ? 

27. With what furniture should a blackboard be 
provided ? 

28. With what other furniture, other than that 
already named, should the school be supplied ? 

29. What precautions should a teacher take, so far as 
his influence and power extend, in arranging and fur- 
nishing a school house, to secure order, neatness, and 
comfort? 

30. Why should scrapers and door mats be furnished 
to every school ? 

31. Why should teachers be thoroughly informed 

upon these subjects ? 

* 

VENTILATION OP SCHOOL-ROOMS. 

1. What are the constituents of the atmosphere ? 

2. In what way are these constituents associated ? 

3. What is the oflice of oxygen in respiration ? 

4. What is the use of nitrogen in the atmosphere ? 



258 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

5. What would be the effect of breathing pure oxy- 
gen ? 

6. "What of inhaling pure nitrogen ? 

7. What is the composition of carbonic acid gas ? 

8. Name some of the more common forms of carbon. 

9. What are some of the more common sources of 
carbonic acid gas ? 

10. What causes tend to produce it in the school- 
room? 

11. Name some of the more injurious effects of the 
inhalation of impure air by pupils. 

12. What is the effect of carbonic acid upon the 
throat when present in quantity ? 

13. What are its effects upon the brain ? 

14. How does it affect the mind ? Why ? 

15. What other combinatious of carbon and oxygen 
are deleterious to health ? 

16. How does the effect of carbonic oxide upon the 
animal economy differ from that of carbonic acid ? 

17. Why is its presence more dangerous than the 
latter? 

18. What diseases are likely to be produced by foul 
air in the school-room ? 

19. How may you account for the frequently dull 
and stupid condition of children in school ? 

20.' How many cubic feet per hour of pure air are 
necessary to the health of an adult ? 

21. How many cubic feet of air space should be 
allowed for each child in a primary school ? 

22. What relation should the method of heating a 
school-room bear to the ventilation ? 

23. Why is a room heated by direct radiation alone, 
difficult to ventilate ? What is the best method of ven- 
tilation in the summer time ? 



PROFESSIONAL QUESTIONS. 259 

24. How would you aim to secure sufficient fresh air 
in case no system of ventilation were provided in your 
school-room ? 

25. What are the advantages of a small fire-place and 
chimney, or an air tube and register, leading from a 
school-room ? 

26. What are the disadvantages of lowering the 
windows during school hours? What are the objec- 
tions, if any, to opening the doors and windows at 
recess ? 

27. Why is it necessary to provide for the admission 
of pure air into a room, as well as for the expulsion of 
the foul air from it ? 

28. Why should not cold air currents be allowed to 
strike the children ? 

29. At about what temperature should the air of a 
school-room be held? 

30. What are some of the more injurious effects of 
too warm rooms ? 

31. Why should every school-room be provided with 
a good thermometer ? 

32. Why should some means for evaporating an ade- 
quate amount of water be provided in connection with 
the heating apparatus ? 

33. Why do candles, lamps, &c., burn dimly in 
crowded and ill-ventilated apartments ? 

34. Why is it dangerous to burn charcoal in an open 
vessel in a close room? 

35. Why is it dangerous to descend into old and 
unused wells, vaults, and other deep places? 

36. What precaution should always be observed 
before entering such places ? 

37. Why should the exit for the foul air of a room 
be near the floor rather than the ceiling ? 



260 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

38. Why should the -warm and pure air be admitted 
near the floor ? 

39. On -what condition is it possible to expel foul air 
from an apartment ? 

40. Why is it better slightly to lower the upper sash 
than to be deprived of pure air ? 

41. Upon the operation of what law of gases does 
this method of ventilation tend to improve the quality 
of the air in a room ? 

42. Explain what is meant by the diffusion of gases ? 

43. What proportion of deaths among the human 
race do you suppose results either directly or indirectly 
from foul air ? 

44. How far are teachers responsible for the proper 
ventilation of the school-room ? Why ? 

45. How far are they responsible for the prevalence 
of correct ideas upon the subject in the community ? 

46. To what extent should teachers be held respon- 
sible for the health of their pupils ? 

4Y. Wh.it excuse have teachers for ignorance upon 
these subjects ? 

48. What is your opinion of those who assume the 
responsibilities of the teacher without properly qualify- 
ing themselves for their duties ? 



INSTITUTE PBOGBAMMES. 261 



PA.BT V. 

CHAPTER XL. 

INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES AND COURSES OP INSTRUC- 
TION. 

1. Preliminary Observations. Experience in 
the teac'her is of the highest importance. In every 
effort to promote the cause of education, we should 
avail ourselves of its lessons. In this, as in every other 
important work, it is mainly through experience that 
we are finally guided to the most satisfactory results. 
The programme of an institute or of a school usually 
sets forth the subjects discussed, the order of exercises, 
the time devoted to each, and, to some extent, the 
methods of work employed. The plan that it embodies 
is such as the observation and experience of those who 
prepared it have shown to be the wisest, after a complete 
survey of the whole field. For this reason it is the best 
attainable record of that experience and of the character 
of the work performed in any given case. 

2. Value of Programmes. The study of these 
programmes is the study of experience. Besides repre- 
senting the subject-matter of instruction, they teach a 
lesson of forethought, of careful preparation, and of a 
wise adaptation of means to enda. The work of an 
institute should never be left to be devised and executed 
on the impulse of the moment. It should be carefully 
considered and wisely planned in advance. The excite- 



262 THE TEACHER'S HA^D-BOOK. 

ment and the pressing demands of the actual session are 
unfavorable to skillful preparation. The programme 
should not only be arranged, but printed and distributed 
to the teachers for two or three weeks previous to the 
assembling of the institute. This course will enable 
them, in a measure, to prepare for the exercises, and thus 
to realize the greatest amount of benefit. 

3. Organization of Institute Work. Another 
lesson to be learned by a study of some of the programmes 
submitted, is the importance of a thorough organization 
and supervision of the work as a whole. This lesson 
may be drawn especially from the examples of New 
Hampshire, Wisconsin, and Iowa. Not only is the most 
complete supervision established over the operations of 
the institutes in these States, but the work itself is care- 
fully laid out and a faithful account is exacted of the 
manner in which it is performed. Not until such thorough 
organization and supervision are generally secured, shall 
we be able fully to realize the advantages of this agency 
for improving the qualifications of the great body of our 
teachers. Spasmodic and disconnected efforts may be 
productive of some good in localities of limited extent. 
But to move an entire State there must be a complete and 
harmonious plan and concert of action, such as only a wise 
organization and an intelligent supervision can secure. 

4. State of New Hampshire. 

The following is an example of a Programme for 
Teachers' Institutes prepared and issued under the direc- 
tion of the Department of Public Instruction of the State 
of New Hampshire. 



INSTITUTE PBOGBAMMES. 263 



ORDER OF EXERCISES. 



MONDAY APTEENOON. 

2,00-Devotional Exercises, .................................. 

2.15 Organization ............................................ Superintendent 

2.30-Arithmetic-Introduction, ............................ ' Prof.E.K. 

8.15-Beading-Introduetion, ................................ Mrs.H.M.M. 

EYESING. 

LectTire-The Brain, .................................... Mr.C.C.L. 

Select Beadings ......................................... Mrs.H.M.M. 

TXTESDAY POBENOON. 

9.00 Devotional Exercise, ................................... 

9.15-Arlthmetic-FnndamentaJ Rules, ...................... Prof.KK. 

Questions, .............................................. 

10.00 Business Arrangements of the School, ................. Superintendent 

10.46 Temperaments, ......... . .............................. Mr. L. 

11.80-Drawing, ............................................... Mrs.M. 



1.30 Penmanship, ..... ...................................... 

2.00-Qualiflcation of Teachers, .............................. J.E.V. 

2.45-Natnral Sdences In School, ............................ Mr.L. 

8.15-Beading-Objectrteachlng. Word method, Elements, Mrs. !, 

EVENING. 

Pree Discussion How Improve our Common Schools ? 
7.00-Duties of Parents, ...................................... Prof.K. 

7.20-Employ Better Teachers, ............................... Mr. V. 

7.40-Fnrnish Blackboards, Maps, Dictionaries, Ac. ......... Mrs.M, 

8.00~Beq[nire better Snperrision, ............................ Si 



WEDNESDAY POBOB1NOON. 

9.00 Devotional Exercise, ................................... 

9.15-Arithmetic-Fractions, ................................. Prof.K. 

Questions ....*........*...>*........ 

10.10-Geography, ............................................. Mr. V, 

11.00 School-Room Arrangements, ....................... .... Mr.L. 

11.4&-Book-Keeping .......................................... Mr.V. 



264 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



AFTERNOON. 

1.30 Pure Air Ventilation, Mr.L. 

2.00 Grammar Elements, Oral mstrnction, B. W. C., A.M. 

Questions, 

100 Reading Articulation, T. E..V., A. M. 

EVENING. 
Lecture A Forming World Mrs. M. 

THURSDAY FORENOON. 

9.00 Devotional Exercise, Rev. Mr. 0. 

9.15 Arithmetic Interest, Prof.K. 

Questions, 

10.00 Moral Instruction, Mr. 0. 

10.30 Health of Teachers, Mr.L. 

11.15 Composition, Mr.V. 

11.45-General Questions, 

AFTERNOON. 

1.80 Grammar Mr. C. 

Questions, 

2.30- Spelling-Primary Classes Mr. J.M.F 

3.00 Astronomy, Mr.V. 

3.45 Logic of Teaching, Mr. 0, 

4. 16-JEteading Pronunciation, 

EVENING. 
Lecture School Management, Prof. H. 0. 

FRIDAY FORENOON. 

9.00 Devotional Exercise, Rev. Mr. C. 

9.ia-Proportion, Roots, Prof. E. 

Questions, 

10.10 Grammar Analysis, Mr. C. 

11.10 School Government, 

AFTERNOON. 

1.80 Map Drawing, Mr.F. 

2.00- Head Work, HeadRest, Mr.L. 

2.30 School Law, School Register, Superintendent 

8.45 Spelling Advanced Classes, Mr.F. 

8.10 How Interest and Teach Primary Classes f Supt. J. G. E. 

8.45 Reading Expression, Mrs. M. 

EVENING. 

Lecture Discipline, J. G.E. 

Select Readings Mrs.M. 



INSTITUTE PROGBAMMES. f 265 

This was substantially the plan pursued in each of 
the different counties of New Hampshire for the year 
1873. It was modified in some of its details according to 
the circumstances of the locality or the convenience of 
the instructors. The publication and distribution of 
such programmes in advance are highly advantageous 
in many ways. The example may be imitated with 
profit wherever institutes are maintained. 

5. State of Wisconsin. 

Allusion has already been made to the very generous 
and complete provision made for the instruction of 
teachers in Wisconsin. The fund from which her insti- 
tutes are supported is munificent, and the appropriations 
from its annual income are made by the Board of Re- 
gents of the State Normal schools, under whose general 
supervision the institutes are conducted. So elaborate 
are the preparations for these annual convocations of 
teachers, and so minute are the instructions under which 
they are operated, that it has been deemed advisable to 
give the details in full. For permission to do so the 
author is indebted to the courtesy of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction. The fullness of these details ren- 
ders it unnecessary that any comments or explanations 
be added. They speak for themselves and are eminently 
worthy of study by all who are interested in this work. 
12 



266 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

INSTITUTE PROGRAMME FIRST WEEK. 



TIME. 


EXERCISE. 


MONDAY. 


TDESDAT. 


ft dS i it 


Opening Exercises 






9 00 


Class work 




Arithmetic Fun- 








damental rules. 


q AS. 


Methods* 




Primary Arith- 








metic. 


10.30 




RECESS. 


RBCHSS. 


1045 


__ , 




Heading and Spell- 


11 30 


Methods 




Ing. 
Primary Reading- 


12.00V. 




ItfTEBMISSIOtf. 


INTERMIS SION 


1.30P.M.,;.. 


Class -work. 


Organization and 


Geography of Wis- 


2.15 


School manage- 
ment. 


Spelling. 
Art of Teaching. 


consin. 
Organizing mixed 
Schools. 


3.00 




REOHSS. 


RECESS. 


3.15 


Model Class. 


Teacher appointed 
by Condnctor. 


Teacher appointed 
by Conductor. 


4.00 




MISCELIAW.BOTTS. 


MZSOBliAJIEOTTS. 



SECOND WEEK. 



845A.K.... 


OoeninE Exercises 






9.00 


VSU'3UJ.Ug J-IA&l.\jU30B 

Class work. 


Arlthmetic-Re- 


Q. C. D. and L. C. 








M. 


9.45 


Methods. 


Penmanship. 


Penmanship. 


10.80 




RECESS. 


RECESS. 


10.45 


Class work. 


Reading and ex- 
ceptions to rules 


Reading and use 


11.30 


Methods. 


for Spelling. 
Composition. 


Letter Writing. 


12.00 M. 




lOTlBMISSIOir. 


INTERMISSION. 


1.30 P.M 


Class work. 


Geography of 
united States. 


History of U. S., 
Spanish Colonies, 








Claims and Settle- 








ments. 


3.15 


School manage- 


Recitation-Meth- 


Reviews. 




ment. 


ods and Objects. 




8.00 




RECOESS. 


REOSSS. 


ais 


Model Class. 


Teacher appointed 
by Conductor. 


Teacher appointed 
by Condnctor. 


4.00 




MISCELLANEOUS. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES* 
INSTITUTE PROGRAMME FIRST WEEK. 



267 



WEDNESDAY. 


THURSDAY. 


FRIDAY. 








Mental Arithmetic. 

Drill in Mental Arith- 
metic. 


Notation and Numera- 
tion and Definitions. 
Number Lessons. 


Classification of num- 
Factoring. 


RECESS. 


RECESS. 


RECESS. 


Reading and Spelling. 
Intermediate Reading. 


Reading and Spelling. 
Language Lessons. 


Reading and rules for 
Spelling. 
Language Lessons. 


iNTEJmiSSION'. 


IXTEBMISSKW. 


IKTBIUHS SION. 


Outline Map of Wiscon- 
sin. 
Programme. 


Geography of North 
America. 
Warming and ventila- 
tion of school-room. 


Outline of Map of North 
America. 
Seating, movements of 
Classes Records. 


RECESS. 


RECESS. 


RECESS. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


MlSCELLAltEOUS . 


MlBGELLANEOUS. 



SECOND WEEK. 









Common Fractions. 


Common Fractions. 


Percentage. 


Oral instruction Gulf 
Stream. 


Drawing. 

"ftvnvaa 


Drawing. 

pfrBe 


RECESS* 

Reading and use of Dic- 
tionary. 


JtCECEBS. 

Reading and Word Anal- 
ysis. 


JtusCEBS. 

Reading and word Anal- 

ysis. 


Calisthenics. 


Calisthenics. 


Calisthenics. 


INTERMISSION. 


TOTEJODBSIOH. 


IJKTEBXISSIOH'. 


United States History-- 
Treaties. 


Causes and events lead- 
Ing to the civil war. 


Closing exercises. 


School Government. 


Qualifications of Teach- 
ers. 




RECESS. 


RECESS. 


RECESS. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


Teacher appointed by 
Conductor. 


tJ T8OTBT.T. A TrtRffftft - 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


MlSCBLLANEOUS. 



THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



INSTITUTE WORK, 1874. 

TO THOSE PERSONS WHO CONDUCT AND THOSE TOO ATTEND 
INSTITUTES. 

The work of training the youth of this State to habits 
of thought, industry, and usefulness is one of grave im- 
portance. 

Properly to lay the foundations of true greatness, 
broad and deep, so that good citizenship shall result, is 
worthy of careful attention. 

Considerable time and money are being expended by 
the State in order to prepare teachers for their duties. 

A meeting of gentlemen interested in the work was 
called at Madison, July 10-14, to mature the Institute 
work for the State, that there might, if possible, be unity 
of effort. After careful consideration, the accompanying 
schedule has been prepared to guide you in your duties. 
While considerable time ought to be given to methods 
of presentation and detail of plan, yet much class work 
is needed, so that the subject taught, as well as the 
manner of teaching, shall be well understood. In this a 
clear comprehension of a subject does not necessarily 
involve minuteness of detail. 

The quality and not the quantity should be the aim, 
in the short time allowed. To accomplish this, the In- 
stitute must be, as far as possible, a model school. 

The recitations should be models; the manners, 
deportment, and punctuality, models. Thus the spirit 
emanating from these meetings will permeate the subse- 
quent life of each teacher. 

As a great amount of work is laid out, it is recom- 
mended that the class be numbered, and divided into 
two sections by the even and odd numbers. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 269 

.No. 1 reciting one day in Reading, Geography, 
Grammar, and No. 2 listening; the same day, No. 2 re- 
citing in Arithmetic, Spelling, and History, while No. 1 
is listening. The next day, No. 1 recites in Arithmetic, 
Spelling, and History, and No. 2 in Reading, Geography, 
and Grammar, 

In this manner a healthy competition will secure in 
recitations a fair standard of perfection, while the pupils 
will not be overburdened with so much work as not to 
do any well. 

In case the Institute numbers less than fifty members, 
it shall be in the discretion of the Conductor to make 
one class and diminish the number of branches. 

It is recommended that the conductor and assistant 
shall prepare each day a scheme of the work they wish to 
accomplish, so that there may lie point and freshness in 
the recitation. 

Also, that but one evening lecture per week be given, 
as the evenings should be devoted to study and prepara- 
tion for the daily work. 

Also that one daily exercise in class work be conducted 
as a model, by a pupil, to be followed by criticism from. 
critics previously appointed. 

Each conductor shall cause a full record of attendance, 
deportment, and. plan of daily work to be made, and at 
the close of the institute, forward to the State Superin- 
tendent at Madison. Conductors will also prepare and 
forward to Madison, reports covering, as far as possible, 
the following points : 

(I.) Any modifications of syllabus, and reasons. 

(II.) Measures taken to secure punctuality, good de- 
portment, and attention, with results. 

(III.) Recitations: 

(a.) Means to secure accuracy and promptness. 



2VO THE TEAOHEE'S 

(#.) Result as regards (1) Memorizing. (2) Original 
thought. 

(c.) Topical and Individual. 

(d.) Catechetical and Individual. 

(e.) What co-operation allowed on the part of class or 
teacher. 

(/.) What aid given before recitation. 

(IV.) Alternation of sections results. 

(V,) Average age of teachers. 

(VI.) Average experience of teachers. 

(VIL) Proportion of sexes. 

(VIII.) Proportion of old and new members. 

(IX.) Amount of time devoted to study, 

(X.) Moral and social condition of members: 

(1.) In class room. (2.) At recesses. (3.) In the 
community. 

To this schedule is appended a programme of study 
and recitation in mixed schools, not as a pattern but as 
a suggestion. Also a scheme for the study of botany for 
one term. 

SYLLABUS. 

SCHEDULE 07 DAILY WORE. 

h.m. 

1. Beading 45 min. per day 3.45 per week. 

2. Arithmetic. 46 " " 3.45 

3. Geography 85 2.55 

4. Spelling and Analysis of 

Words.- 85 " " 2.20 

5. Penmanship and Drawing... 20 " " 1.40 

6. Grammar 35 2.55 

7. History and Constitution.... 40 " " 3.20 

8. Opening Exercises, Roll-call, 1^ " 1.15 

Recesses 26 " " 2.30 



INSTITUTE PBOGBATVTTVfES. 271 

ji.Tn. 

9. Vocal Music, if practicable; min. perday. per week. 
if not, the time to be given 
one-lialf to Physiology, one 
quarter to Botany, and one 
quarter to Biography..... 15 " " 0.50 

10. Critical Class Drill, Criticism, 30 " " 3.30 

11. Methods of Teaching, Theory 

and Art, Lecture or Discus- 

sion ..................... 30 " 3.30 " 

Morning session begins at 9 o'clock. 
Afternoon session at 1.30 o'clock. 

BEADING. 

Time, 45 minutes divided into two parts (a) first part, 25 min- 
utes, (6) second part, 20 minutes. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Second Day. First Part. Lecture on importance of 
Reading, and on the manner of treating cases of Defect- 
ive Articulation. 

Second Part. Powers and Markings of a. 

Third Day. Mrst ParkMethod of conducting reci- 
tations in Primary reading (1) with reference to begin- 
ners; (2) with reference to First and Second Reader 
Classes. 

Second P&rt. Powers and Markings of e and i. 

Fourth Day. First Part. Continuation of third 
day's work. 

Second Part. - Powers and Markings of o and u. 

Fifth Day. First Part. Drill in Spelling by sound. 

Second Part. Written review of above second-part 
work, with^e words to illustrate each vocal element. 



SECOKD 

First Part. During the remainder of the term, give 
attention in every exercise to analyses of thought, and 



272 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

let that be followed by reading, with reference to the 
laws of expression. Confine the reading this week to 
one descriptive or narrative selection, with special atten- 
tion to Pitch. 

Second Part The letters representing Vocal Sounds^ 
called Vocal Substitutes, with five illustrative words for 
each sound. 

THIRD WEEK. 

First Part Read an argumentative piece, giving 
attention to Rate and Force. 

Second Part. Classification of consonants, Powers, 
and Markings. 

FOtTBTH WEEK. 

First Part. Read one piece in Verse or one in Dia- 
logue, giving attention to Qualities of Voice and to 
manner of breathing, Iffiusive, Expulsive, sadJfaplosive, 
with written Review of the whole. 

/Second Part. Powers of vowels in unaccented sylla- 
bles, with drill on accent, with written Review of whole. 

ARITHMETIC. 

45 minutes daily, 

% 

FIRST WEEK. 

Primary Arithmetic. 

Development of the idea of number, by Addition, by 
Subtraction, by Multiplication, and by Division, using 
objects. 

Fundamental principles established. Especial atten- 
tion given to verification. Abstract numbers. Drill 
exercises in Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and 
Division. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 273 

Beading written abstract of work for the week. In 
this abstract, specific illustration to be required. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Mental Arithmetic. 

Practice in performing fundamental operations with 
rapidity, giving results only. 

Problems involving Addition only. 

" " Subtraction " 

" " Addition and Subtraction. 

" " Multiplication only. 

" " Addition and Multiplication. 

" " Subtraction and " 

Add., Sub., and 

" u Division only. 

" * Combinations as above with 

Division. 
Beading of written abstract of work for the week. 

NOTE. After a problem given by the teacher has been 
solved, let the pupil make and solve one of similar structure. * 

THIRD WEEK. 

Practical Arithmetic. 

Definitions, Notation and Numeration. 
Classification of numbers. 
Addition and Subtraction : 

1. Simple Numbers. 

2. Decimals. 

3. Common Fractions having same denominator. 

4. Compound Denominate Numbers, not involving 
fractions. 

Factoring. Divisibility of Numbers. 
12* 



274 THE TEAOHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

Greatest Common Divisor and Least Common Mul- 
tiple of whole numbers and fractions. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Reduction, ascending and descending, of Denominate 
numbers and of Common Fractions. 

Multiplication and Division of Denominate numbers 
and of Common Fractions. 

Change from Common Fractions to Percentage; 
Problems in percentage. 

Note. When the solution of a problem requires several opera- 
tions, let one member of the class give the verbal analysis, another 
put this in proper form on the blackboard, and a third find the 
result in its simplest form. 

GEOGBAPHT. 
Time, 35 minutes. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Facts of Personal Observation. 

Monday.- Land Features ; as, hills, valleys. Water 
Features ; springs, brooks, rivers, lakes. 

Tuesday. Productions Vegetable ; herbs, trees. 
Animal ; domestic, wild. Mineral ; rocks, soils. 

Wednesday and Thursday. Direction and Distance, 
Cardinal points. Development of the conception of 
linear units; foot, rod, mile. Application in school- 
room; school grounds. 

Friday. Definition and distinction of Town and 
Township. Illustrate by reference to the county map. 

SECOlfD WEEK. 

Monday. County; Surface, land, water. Produc- 
tions ; vegetable, animal, mineral. 



INSTITUTE PBOGBAMMES. 275 

Tuesday. Form of the Earth, proofs. 

Wednesday. Mathematical Geography ; Principal 
Lines, their position and use. 

Thursday. Definition and length of a degree, Lati- 
tude, Longitude. Determine relative lengths in Wisconsin. 

Friday. Motions of the Earth ; Alternations of 
day and night, change of seasons. Causes. 

THTBP "WEEK. 

Monday. Draw map of Wisconsin (outline). 

Tuesday. Complete Map of State, fixing its Lati- 
tude and Longitude, locating chief rivers and railroads, 
ten chief cities and the county. 

Wednesday. Discuss Surface; Land, water, soH 9 
climate. 

Thwrsday. Vegetables, Animals, Minerals. JEk- 
ports, imports. 

Friday. Population ; Amount, race, character. 
Civilization ; Wealth, intelligence, education^ morality. 



^Monday. In one or more squares, 20 inches on a side 
equaling 400 miles, place outline sketches of Islands, 
Lakes, States, as tests in comparative area. 

Tuesday. Outline map-work on United States. 
Boundary Features. Natural, arbitrary. 

Wednesday. Surface ; Mountain systems, plateaus, 
rivers and river systems. 

Thursday. States, territories, capitals and chief 
cities. 

Friday. Review. 



276 TEGS TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Time, 25 minntes daily. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Lists of 25 words in common use to be written each 
day ; the words selected to be those not spelled according 
to rule, but frequently misspelled. One or more of these 
lists may consist of geographical names often used. Oral 
review, each day, of the previous lesson. 

SECOND WEEK. 

Eide of Spelling. "$\\&& e final, of a word, is 
dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel." Spell 
lists of words falling under the rule, and of exceptions. 
Require pupils to bring in short lists of words exempli- 
fying the rule, and each law of exception to the rule. 
Oral reviews as in the previous week. 

THIRD WEEK. 

Word Analysis. Some of the more common and 
useful prefixes, suffixes, and roots to be learned each day. 
Derivatives to be formed, observing the rules of spelling, 
and definitions to be derived. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Word Analysis. continued foi three days. 

Fourth day. Lecture on the use of the Spelling 
Book, use to be made of the lists of words of similar and 
opposite meanings, &c. 

Mfth Day. General spelling-down exercise, no 
words to be used but those given in the lessons of the 
Institute. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 27Y 

PENMANSHIP. 
Daily Exercise Time, 30 minutes, 2 weeks. 

First Day. Specimen of Penmanship secured from 
each member of Institute. Attention given to position 
of hands, feet, body, and manner of holding pen. Move- 
ment drill 5 minutes. 

NOTE. TMs movement drill for 5 minutes should precede 
each day's work. 

Second Day. SLANT ; Make lines 1, 2, and 3 units in 
length, a portion of the class at the board. "Write on 
board and paper. Criticisms confined to slant. 

Third Day. HEIGHT; Comparative height of letters, 
u taken as the standard. Scale formed. Writing on 
board and paper. Criticisms confined to slant and height. 

Fourth Day. FOBM ; Analysis of small letters i, u^ w. 

Fifth Day. FORM ; Analysis of small letters, 0, Z, g,f. 

Sixth Day. FOBM ; Capital principles and analysis 
of capitals. 

Seventh Day. Right and wrong forms of letters illus- 
trated. Tests applied to specimens presented the first 
day. Methods of criticisms exemplified and applied. 

Mgheh, Ninth, and Tenth Days.Gla&& drill to repre- 
sent ordinary school work. 

DRAWING. 
Time, 20 minutes. 

FIRST WEEK. 

1. Monday. Lines ; vertical, horizontal, oblique. 

2. Tuesday. Measurement of lines. Scale taught 

8. Wednesday Combination of two lines to form 
angles, right angle, obtuse angle, acute angle. 

4. Thursday. Combination of three lines to form 



278 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

triangles, right-angled, equilateral, isosceles, and scalene. 
(Particular attention given to equilateral and isosceles 
triangles.) 

5. Friday. Formation of designs from triangles, by 
arrangement around a common center. (Work inventive.) 

SECOND WEEK. 

6. Monday. Quadrilaterals, names. (Work in- 
ventive.) 

7. Tuesday. Formation of designs by arrangement 
of quadrilaterals around a common center. (Work in- 
ventive,) 

8. Wednesday. Formation of designs from triangles 
and quadrilaterals combined. (Work inventive.) 

9. Thursday Outlines of familiar objects by the 
use of straight lines. (Class work imitative.) 

10. Outline of curved-line drawing. 

GRAMMAR. 
Time, 35 minutes, daily. 

FIRST WEEK. 

Mrst Day. State the province of Grammar; show 
what may be taught to young pupils, and how to teach it. 

Second Day. Have class bring in different kinds of 
sentences and analyze, chiefly with reference to the 
thought. 

Third Day. NOTTN ; Its functions, forms, positions, 
classification, treated orally in the class with blackboard 
illustrations. 

Fourth Day The teachers to bring in the same sub- 
ject properly arranged on paper with sentences illustra- 
tive of each point. The papers to form subject of that 
day's lesson. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 279 

Fifth Day.- ADJECTIVE ; Functions, classes, forms, 
position, with sentences illustrative, by teachers. Exam- 
ples of false syntax by conductor to be corrected by class. 

SECOKD WEEK. 

First, Second, and Third Days. PRONOUN ; Func- 
tions, classes, forms, positions, with illustrative sen- 
tences. Special attention to the different functions of the 
pron oun and correspondingly different forms. Examples 
of false syntax by conductor to be corrected by class. 

Fourth and Fifth Day. ADVERBS ; As before, with 
adjective and adverbial phrases and clauses. Sentences 
by conductor illustrative of false syntax, both in form 
and position, to be corrected by class. 



VERB ; Functions, classes with regard to form, with 
regard to signification j changes of form (in this and 
all other cases, the reason of the changes to be given) ; 
relation to and influence upon other words. Illustrative 
sentences by teachers ; sentences by conductor to be 
corrected by class, with reasons therefor. In all the 
papers by the pupils, strict regard to be had to neatness, 
order, penmanship, capital letters, spelling, and punctua- 
tion, that the grammatical exercises may be eminently 
practical exercises in composition. 

FOt/BTH WEEK. 

Phrases and clauses used as substitutes for the noun, 
adjective, and adverb. Special attention to the syntax 
of such. 

A paper -from each teacher embodying the salient 
points of all the previous work. One or more of these to 
be examined in class as text for an oral review. 



280 THE TBACHBB'S HAOT-BOOK. 

Consideration of a few of the principal rules for 
agreement and government. 

Iiast Day. Review the work. Bring to the notice 
of the class any difference of treatment that the sub- 
ject may require in school, from that in the Institute. 

HISTOBT. 
Time, 40 minutes daily, 2 weeks. 

L 1. Discovery, with historical causes. 

II. 2. Claims derived from discovery and settlement. 

3. Transfers of territory. 

4. The colonies ; royal, proprietary, and charter. 
IIL 5 and 6. Two administrations. (Jefferson's and 

Jackson's recommended.) 

IV; 7. Causes and events leading to the civil war. 

8. Analysis of campaigns in the East. 

9. Do. in the West. 

10. Kesults of the war up to the present time. 
Each lesson should be analyzed on the blackboard, 

and the Outline Map should be constantly in use. The 
main points only of each lesson should be held to, and 
minor .parts omitted. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 
Time, Same as History, 2 weeks. 

L Historical sources (1) English, (2) Colonial constitu- 
tions, and (3) Articles of Confederation. 

2. Citizenship and naturalization. 

3. Electorship, (the first process of representation.) 

4. JJegiskctive. Qualifications and manner of election 
of Senators and Representatives. Compare State 
legislatures. 



INSTITUTE PKOGRAHAEES. 281 

5. Process of law-making, in Congress and Legislatures. 

6. Jfixecutive. National and state. 

7. Administrative officers, foreign and domestic. 
Compare State officers. 

8. Judiciary, national and State. 

9. County and town organization. 
10. General review. 

ALGEBBA. 
Time of recitation, 45 minutes, outside of regular institute work. 

First Day. Connection of Algebra and Arithmetic. 
Illustrations. 

Second Day. Connection of Algebra and Arithmetic. 
Illustrations. 

Third Day. General Definitions ; Classify Symbols. 

Fourth Day. Review; Idea of Positive and Nega- 
tive Quantities. 

Mfth Day. Addition; Relation to Arithmetic. 
Cases. Axioms or Principles. 

Sto&hday. Subtraction ; Cases, law of Signs, Axioms 
or Principles. 

Seventh Day. Multiplication; Law of signs, relation 
to Arithmetic. 

Eighth Day. Multiplication; Law of Exponents. 

Ninth Day.- Multiplication of Binomials. 

Tenth Day. Multiplication, Theorems L, II., IEL 

Eleventh Day. Division, Laws of Signs. 

Twelfth, Day. Division, Laws of Exponents. 

Thirteenth Day. Theorem x=l. 

Fourteenth Day. Theorem H*=-JL 

H.-~* w 

Fifteenth Day. Factoring ; Monomials, Binomials. 
Sixteenth Day. Factoring, Binomials. 



282 THE TEACHER'S HAJSD-BOOK. 

Seventeenth Day. Greatest Common Divisor and 
Least Common Multiple, 

Eighteenth Day. Fractions; Reduction, ascending, 
descending. 

Nineteenth Day. Symbols of 0, oo, -J-. 

Twentieth Day. Review. 

GEOMETRY. 

Mrst Day. Introduction; idea of line, surface, solid. 

Second Day. Definition and classification of lines 
and angles, and formation of polygons, especially 
triangles. 

Third Day. Review; axioms. 

JFburth Day. Theorem treating of straight lines and 
their intersections. 

Mfth and Sixth Days. Same subject. 

Seventh Day. Triangles and their classification. 

Eight, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Days. 
Theorems (1 per day) relating to triangles. 

Thirteenth Day. Quadrilaterals ; classification. 

Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth 
Days. Theorems relating to quadrilaterals. 

Eighteenth Day. Polygons; classification and 
theorems. 

Nineteenth. Day. Theorem or problem. 

Twentieth Day. Review. 

NATURAL SCIENCES. 

In view of the difficulty attending the introduction 
of new branches of study into mixed schools of the State, 
it is recommended that work be done upon Botany and 
Physiology only ; the former in the summer months, and 
the latter in the winter. 



INSTITUTE PBOGBAMMES, 



FLAK OF WOKE FOB BOTANY. 

L leaves. 

(1) Parts. 

(2) Form. 

(3) Venation. 

(4) Margin. 

(5) Kinds. 

(6) AiTangement on stem. 

(7) Use. 

II. Flowers. 

(1) Parts, (a) Sepals, (b) Petals, (c) Stamens. 
(d) Pistils. (Seed vessel.) 

(2) Form, color. 

(3) Arrangement on stem. 
(4; Purpose of. 

(5) Adaptation of parts to purposes. 

IE. Stm 

(1) Parts. 

(1) Modes of growth. 

(3) Kinds. 

(4) Uses. 
IV. JRoots. 

(1) Parts. 

(2) Kinds. 

(8) Uses. 

NOTE. In nearly every advance step in term or classifi- 
cation, let the specimen be in the pupil's hand. Let a constant 
rmew be kept up by a description of leaves and flowers previ- 
ously presented by the pupil, naming the plant described, where 
known; e. g. "The leaf of the elm is ovate, doubly serrate, 
rough, &c." 



284 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

PROGRAMME FOR MIXED SCHOOLS. 
A. If. Recitation. Studies. 

9.00 Opening Exercises. 
9.10 General Exercise. 

Number. 
9.15 Primary Class " A " Arithmetic j 1st, 2d, and 8d 

Reader. 
9.25 First Reader " A " Arith. : Primary Class 

print ; 3d and 3d Reader. 

9.35 Second Reader " A " Arith. ; 3d Reader. 

9.50 Third Reader "A" Arith.; Recess for 2d 

Reader class. 
10.05 "A" Arithmetic "B" Arithmetic; 1st and 3d 

Reader write numbers. 
10.25 Penmanship. 
10.45 Recess. 
11.00 " C M Arithmetic (Oral). . " A " Geography ; " B " Arith. 

11.15 "B" Arithmetic r fA" Geography. 

11.35 Primary Class "A" " Language Class. 

11.45 " A " Geography Language Class. 

P.M. 

1.00 Language Lesson State Work for Primary Class ; 

Fourth Reader. 
1.15 First Reader State Work for Primary Class ; 

B"Geog.;2d Reader. 

1.25 Second Reader State Work ; " B " Geog. 

1.35 Fourth Reader "B" Geography ; 1st and 2d 

Reader draw. 

1.55 Primary Class " B " Geography ; Grammar. 

2.05 " B " Geography Grammar. 

2.20 History and Constitution. B " Spelling. 
2.40 Recess. 

2.55 Grammar "B"Spelliug. 

3.15 " B " Spelling (Oral) " A " Spelling. 

8.25 "A" Spelling (Written). Sd and 3d Reader classes prepare 

for general exercise. 
3.40 General Exercise : 

Biography 1 day in each 
week ; Botany or Phy- 
siology, 2 days ; outline 
maps, 2 days. 



nrSTITTJTE PROGRAMMES. 285 

THEORY AND PKACTICE. 
Time, 30 minutes daily. 

1. Certificate ; contract ; care of school-room ; care of 
school grounds. 

2. Classification. Programme. 

3. Seating and movements of classes. 

4. Records. 

5. Warming and ventilation of school-room. 

6. Recitation : (1) objects ; (2) methods ; (3) errors to 
be corrected ; (4) aid. 

7. Study : (1) adaptation to age and mental power ; 

(2) methods ; (3) incentives to thought, observation^ and 
study. 

8. Reviews : (1) how often j (2) of what character j 

(3) examinations. 

9. Culture in manners and morals. 

10. Oral Instruction : (1) when advisable ; (2) sub- 
jects thus best taught ; (3) methods best adapted. 

11. Government : (1) authority whence derived; (2) 
legal and moral aspects ; (3) influence of different modes 
upon the character of pupil and teacher; (4) causes of 
disobedience ; (5) peculiar obstacles and aids ; (6) influ- 
ence of enthtmasm, energy, and integrity in teacher, upon 
government ; (7) rights and duties of teachers, pupils, 
parents, and school officers. 

12. Manners of teachers in school. 

13. Teacher's employment of time out of school: (1) 
rest ; (2) recreation ; (3) mental and social culture. 

14. Care of pupils in regard to food, dress, recreation, 
Bleep, labor. 

16. Specific modes of teaching : 

(1) Reading. Primary, Intermediate. 

(2) Arithmetic, Primary, Intermediate. 

(3) Language. 

(4) Geography. Primary, Higher. 



286 



THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



INSTITUTE BLANKS. 
(WISCONSIN.) 

To be filled by Teachers and those preparing to teach, on becom- 
ing Members of Institutes. 



1/Name in full,- 



. Age,- 



3. Residence,,. 



4. Post-office Addreps,- 



5. How many months have yon taught ?- 



6. What is the length of time, in months, you have received 
instruction in 



Common 
Schools. 


Graded 
Schools. 


Academies. 


Colleges 
Universities. 


Normal 
Schools. 













7. How many Institutes have you already attended? 

8. What is the length of time you have heretofore spent in 

attendance upon Institutes ? 

9. Are you teaching, or do you intend to teach, during any part 

of the ensuing year? -__ ______ 



10. Do you hold a Teacher's Certificate ?- 
grade? ... 



-If so, what 



INSTITUTE PBOGEAMMES. 287 



CHAPTER XLL 

INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES CONTINUED. 

6. State of Iowa. The plan of institute work in 
Iowa is nearly identical with that in Wisconsin. The 
State Department of Public Instruction, acting in con- 
sultation with county superintendents and others prom- 
inently connected with education, prepares, publishes, 
and distributes a pamphlet containing a programme of 
exercises and an elaborate syllabus of topics in each of 
the branches to be taught during the session. The 
precise work of each day and of each hour of the day is 
clearly specified, leaving nothing to be provided for on 
the impulse of the moment. As the result of this care- 
ful forethought, the operations of the institute are clearly 
and sharply defined, leaving no opportunity for that 
desultory and pointless teaching that yields no valuable 
result and that is likely to bring the institute into 
positive disrepute. 

Since the identity of plan in these two north-western 
States is so marked, it has not been deemed necessary 
to reproduce in full that of Iowa. The programme of 
daily exercises, the abridged syllabus of topics, an out- 
line of the course in Didactics, and the instructions of the 
State Superintendent, are, however, submitted for study 
and comparison. 

DIDACTICS. 

Mrst Week,- School Organization and Classifica- 
tion. 

1. Preparatory work ; Certificate, contract, neces- 



288 

sity and use of blackboard, dictionary, maps, apparatus, 
call-bell, thermometer, &c. 

2. Organization ; Opening, grading, and classifying 
mixed schools. 

3. Programme of study and recitation. 

4. School Regulations; Seating of pupils, movement 
of classes, recesses, rules, &c. 

5. School Records and Reports; class, deportment, 
attendance, &c. 

Second Week? School Discipline and General Hfoercises. 

1. Recitations ; Objects and methods, reviews. 

2. School Discipline ; Means of securing order and 
industry. 

3. Rewards and Punishments ; Proper and improper. 

4. Singing; Rhetorical and other general exercises. 

5. Oral Instruction ; Calisthenics, morals and man- 
ners, care of school property, &c. 

Third Week, Methods of Instruction. 

1. How to teach reading in primary grades. 

2. How to teach reading in intermediate and gram- 
mar grades. 

3. How to teach spelling and writing. 

4. How to teach arithmetic in primary grades. 

5. How to teach arithmetic in intermediate grades. 

Fourth Week, Methods of Instruction. 

1. How to teach geography. 

2. How to teach grammar to beginners. 

3. How to teach grammar to advanced pupils, 

4. How to teach history. 

5. Industrial expositions in the public schools. 



INSTITUTE PBOGBAMMES. 289 



COURSE OF STUDY FOK THE NORMAL INSTITUTES, 
1874. 

The law providing for NTormal Institutes, having im- 
posed upon county superintendents additional labors, it 
was thought best to give special consideration to these 
Institutes in the recent conventions of county superin- 
tendents. At four of the six conventions held in May 
last, courses of study designed for the Institutes to be 
held the present year, were prepared by committees, sub- 
mitted to the conventions and adopted, together with 
resolutions requesting the Superintendent of Public In- 
struction to prepare, from them, a course of study suit- 
able for a' four weeks' session, for the use of county 
superintendents and conductors in preparing their 
schemes of work 

With the aid of these, and such suggestions as I could 
get from other sources, I have prepared a course of study, 
and send it out in the hope that it may serve, in some 
measure, to unify and systemize the work and aid in 
securing the best possible results from these brief training 
schools for the present year. 

The work here mapped out will require, of both in- 
structors and students, thorough preparation, close study, 
and hard work. This course of study will, doubtless, 
need to be modified to meet the wants of different locali- 
ties, but the amount of work undertaken to meet the 
present pressing wants of our teachers, will, necessarily, 
be large in every county. Whenever, in the opinion of 
the county supperintendent, any one of the branches has 
been sufficiently developed, it may be dropped, and the 
time thus gained devoted to such part of the work as 
may be deemed of immediate importance. 

The whole plan of work should be arranged before- 
13 



290 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

hand so that students may be able to prepare for every 
lesson before going to the class room. Every class 
exercise should be a model lesson, so that methods of 
teaching shall be constantly illustrated by example. 

Provision should be made for one or two lectures 
per week, and the remainder of the evenings should be 
devoted to study. 

The names of the instructors engaged should be for- 
warded for approval along with the application for the 
appointment of the Institute, designating who is to act 
as conductor, whether the county superintendent or 
another. At the close of the Institute the blank report 
forwarded from this office, with the appointment and 
State warrant, should be promptly filled and returned. 

(Signed) STTFEBINTENDEITT OF PUBLIC INSTBUCTIOBT. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 
SYLLABUS OF COURSE OP STUDT. 



291 



DAILY EXEB- 
CISES. 


TTEIST 'WEEK. 


SECOND WEKK.. 


THIRD WEEK. 


J"OUBTH WEEK. 


Orthography 
1st naif. 
Writing- 
3d half? 
80 minutes. 


Class drill in 
Spelling, 
Rules for 
Spelling. 


Word Analy- 
sis, Diction- 
ary Exer- 
cises. 


Position, Prin 
ciples, Move- 
ments. 


Practice Les- 
sons, Letter 
Writing, 
Business 
Forms. 


Reading 
45 minutes. 


Classification 
of Element- 
ary sounds. 
Markings of 
Tonic Ele- 
ments. 


Quality, Force, 
Stress and 
Pitch. 
Class drill. 


Quality, Move- 
ment, Inflec- 
tion, Circum- 
flex and 
Pause. 
Clttfes Drill. 


Melody, 
Transition, 
Personation, 
Position 
and Gesture. 
Class drill. 


Arithmetic- 
45 minutes. 


Fundamental 
Rules and 
Properties of 
Numbers. 


Fractions- 
Common and 
Decimal. 
Compound 
Numbers. 


Percentage 

and its Ap- 
plications. 
Interest. 


Ratio and Pro- 
portion, 
Partnership, 
Involution 
and Evolu- 
tion. 


Geography 
45 minutes. 


General Geog- 
raphy. 


United States, 
with Special 
Study of 
Geography 
of Iowa. 


Remainder of 
Western 
Hemisphere. 


Eastern Hemi- 
sphere. 


Grammar-^ 
45 minutes. 


Language Les- 
sons? FOriu- 
ing and An- 

tences. Rules 
for the use of 
Capitals. 


Farts of 
Speech and 
their Proper- 
ties. 


Inflection of 
Parts of 
Speech. 
Parsing. 


Syntax and 
Composition. 


Physiology 
45 minutes. 


Bones and 
Muscles. 


Food, Diges- 
tion and 
Absorption. 


Circulation 
and Respira- 
tion. 


Nervous Sys- 
tem and Spe- 
cial Senses. 


History of U.S. 
45 minutes. 


Discoveries, 
Claims and 
Settlements. 


French and 
Indian War. 
Revolution- 
ary War. 


The Constitu- 
tional period 
to 1835. 


Decent Events 
and Consti- 
tutions. 


Didactics 
45 minutes. 


Schodl Organi- 
zation and 
Classifica- 
tion. 


School Disci- 
pline and 
general Ex- 
ercises, 


i 

Methods of In- 
struction. 


Methods of In- 
struction. 



292 



THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 



ri 

I 



INSTITUTE PBOGEAMMBS. 293 

7. The State of Illinois. 

The theory of this treatise is that the institute should 
be a school ; that, so far as the circumstances will allow 
it should he a model school in respect to its organization, 
management, and methods of instruction. It is assumed 
that its instructors should he persons of recognized ability 
and fitness for their duties, and that the views and 
experiences of the members "should be drawn out inci- 
dentally as a part of the regular exercises under the 
guidance of the instructors. If this theory be correct, 
then a self-instructed institute must be comparatively as 
inefficient as a self-taught school, save the difference in 
the experience and wisdom of those who compose the 
former. But the more advanced the learners, the more 
wise and skillful should be the teachers. It should be the 
aim of the institute to avail itself of the highest talent 
and the ripest experience that it can command, in its 
corps of instructors. Under the guidance of such, it will 
be more profitable to draw out the views of the members 
for the benefit of the whole, than to commit the entire 
work to those who need themselves to be instructed by 
the highest available talent and skill. 

There may, however, be localities where the mutual 
or monitorial plans may be made practicable aud success- 
ful. There may be other places in which it will occa- 
sionally be impracticable to secure the higher order of 
talent. Again, in a community where education is far 
advanced, and where the teachers as a class are highly 
cultured, the mutual plan can be made eminently 
useful. As a suggestion in the direction of such a 
method of conducting an institute, the subjoined pro- 
gramme, prepared for the teachers of Ogle county, Il- 
linois, and kindly furnished by the superintendent, ifl 
submitted. It will be seen that the session was but four 



THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 293 

7. The State of Illinois. 

The theory of this treatise is that the institute should 
be a school ; that, so far as the circumstances will allow 
it should be a model school in respect to its organization, 
management, and methods of instruction. It is assumed 
that its instructors should be persons of recognized ability 
and fitness for their duties, and that the views and 
experiences of the members 'should be drawn out inci- 
dentally as a part of the regular exercises under the 
guidance of the instructors. If this theory be correct, 
then a self-instructed institute must be comparatively as 
inefficient as a self-taught school, save the difference in 
the experience and wisdom of those who compose the 
former. But the more advanced the learners, the more 
wise and skillful should be the teachers. It should be the 
aim of the institute to avail itself of the highest talent 
and the ripest experience that it can command, in its 
corps of instructors. Under the guidance of such, it will 
be more profitable to draw out the views of the members 
for the benefit of the whole, than to commit the entire 
work to those who need themselves to be instructed by 
the highest available talent and skill. 

There may, however, be localities where the mutual 
or monitorial plans may be made practicable and success- 
ful. There may be other places in which it will occa- 
sionally be impracticable to secure the higher order of 
talent. Again, in a community where education is far 
advanced, and where the teachers as a class are highly 
cultured, the mutual plan can be made eminently 
useful. As a suggestion in the direction of such a 
method of conducting an institute, the subjoined pro- 
gramme, prepared for the teachers of Ogle county, Il- 
linois, and kindly furnished by the superintendent, is 
submitted. It will be seen that the session was but four 



294 THE ITEACHEK'S HAITD-BOOK. 

days long. Up to the present time the State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction has not exercised direct 
supervision over the institutes, nor has it prescribed for 
them a general plan of operations. 

In the subjoined programme the initials of names are 
retained in order to exhibit the plan more clearly. 

PKOGEAMMB OF EXERCISES. 

TUESDAY, OCT. 3D. 

9.00A.M., Opening exercises: Rev. J. H. 9.15, Busi- 
ness. 9.30, Teacher's First Week in the School- 
room : P. R. W., L.W., Nellie W. 10.30, Recess. 
10.45, Best Methods of Oral Instruction: Miss P. 
R/C., John M. K, Miss M. W. 11.45, Business. 

2.00 P. M., Best Methods of Teaching Mental Arith- 
metic: J. A. H., MaryL. M., D. C. S. 3.00, 
School Laws: Co. Supt. 3.30, Recess. 3.45, 
Best Methods of Teaching Beginners to Read-: 
Ada S., Mrs. L. M. G., Ed. E. R. 4.45, Business. 

Evening, Lecture : Reformatory Work : George W. P., 
principal of Illinois State Reform School. 

WEDNESDAY, OCT. 4ffS. 

9.00 A.'M., Opening Exercises: Rev. R. P. 9.15, Business. 
9.30, Best Methods of Teaching Grammar to 
Beginners: Misses C. R. V., J. A. B.,F. E. H. 
10.30, Recess. 10.45, How to Teach Writing : 
Mary J., M. S. B., Henry T. 11.45, Business. 

2.00 P. M., Best Methods of Teaching Composition and 
Declamation: Sophia M. H., Florence A. B., 
S. D. F. 3.00, County School Report; Co. Supt. 
3.30, Recess. 3.45, Best Methods of Teaching 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 295 

Spelling: M. L. S., Yeraie B., Aggie K. 4.45, 
Business, 

Evening, Lecture: China and the Chinese: W. P. J., 
President of the North- western Female College. 

THURSDAY, OCT. 5*FH. 

9.00 A. M., Opening Exercises : Rev. P. G. B., 9.15, Busi- 
ness. 9.30, How to use Black-boards and Slates: 
H. S. W., Laura M., Julia W., 10.30, Recess., 
10.45, How to use School Maps: Miss J. F. H., 
D. S., J. R. L. 11.45, Business. 

2.00 P. M., How to use Text-books : A. J. B., J. W. A., 
Geo. M. N. 3.00, School Work: Co. Supt. 3.30, 
Recegs. 3.45, floral Instruction in Schools: 
J. H. F., L. H., R. C. G., 4.45, Business. 

Evening, Lecture: Education in China, The Land 
where none but Graduates hold Office: Pres. 
W.P. J. 

FRIDAY, OCT. 6TH. 

9.00 A.M., Opening Exercises: Rev. N. F. R. 9.15, Busi- 
ness. 9.30, How to Use Globes : C. D. M., Addie B., 
L P. A, 10.30, Recess. 10.45,' How to Teach 
Physiology to Young Pupils: E. B., Nellie M., 
Anna M. 11.45, Business. 

2.00 P. M., Discussion: Resolved^ That this State ought 
to make and enforce a Compulsory Law of Attend- 
ance at its Public Schools: (Affirmative) R. B. 
(Negative) J. W. G. 3.00, Teacher's Capital 
Stock in Bank : Co. Supt. 3.30, Business. 

Evening, Reading : E. M. B., Professor of Elocution in 
Chicago Theological Seminary. 



296 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

The following syllabus of a course at an institute 
held in Ogle county, in 1873, is suggestive. The session 
was nearly four weeks in length. The announcement 
states that : 

Some of the best thinkers and workers of this, and 
other counties will be in attendance, and no efforts 
will be spared to make the drill of the greatest benefit} 
to its members, and through them to the schools of the 
county at large. 

There will be at least two sections of the members 
(more if necessary), one comprised of those who wish 
to begin the new branches, and prepare themselves to 
pass examination in them, and the other of those who 
wish to consider more thoroughly some of the principal 
topics of the several branches. Teachers desiring can 
take part of the work of each section. These sections 
may be subdivided if the attendance is sufficiently large. 
The forenoons will be devoted. to recitations as last 
year, the beginning sections following the same pro- 
gramme. The advanced sections will have three reci- 
tations each forenoon, and during the session, the fol- 
lowing topics will be studied and discussed by them : 

GEOGKAPHY. Day and Night; Seasons; Winds ; 
Ocean Currents. 

ARITHMETIC. Properties of Numbers ; Division of 
Common Fractions ; Decimal Fractions ; Longitude and 
Time ; Long, Square, and Cubic Measure. 

GBAMMAR. Personal, Relative, and Adjective Pro- 
nouns j Transitive and Intransitive Verbs; Infinitive 
Verb ; Signs of Tenses ; False Syntax Rules of Punc- 
tuation ; Rules of Spelling. 

ZOOLOGY. Differences between Animals and Plants ; 
Classification of Animals, Sponges, Corals, Spiders ; 
Circulation, Respiration, .and .Digestion of Birds and 
Reptiles. 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. - 297 

PHILOSOPHY. Specific Gravity; Laws of Motion; 
Air Pump; Steam Engine j Electricity; Telegraph; 
Heat ; Light ; Rainbow. 

BOTANY. Germination of Plants ; Food of Plants ; 
Circulation in Plants; Respiration in Plants; Leaf Ar- 
rangement ; Cryptogamia ; Fertilization of Plants ; Nat- 
ural and Artificial Classification of Plants; Botanical 
Analysis. 

PHYSIOLOGY. Blood ; how the Blood gains and loses ; 
workings of the Heart and Vessels j Respiration ; Cell 
Life ; Production of Yoice ; Touch ; Taste ; and Smell ; 
Hearing ; Seeing ; Spinal Cord and Brain ; Mind and 
Body. 

Teachers intending to enter this advanced section, 
are requested to study the above topics as much as pos- 
sible, before the commencement of the drill. 

The afternoon sessions will include -all of the mem- 
bers, and will be devoted to reviews, examinations, 
methods of teaching, oral instruction, class exercises by 
teachers and pupils of the Oregon Public School, dis- 
cussions of practical school questions, experiments, <fec. 

More time will be given to the " old branches," and 
to methods of teaching, than was possible last year. 

Teachers should bring a good supply of text-books 
for study and reference; also foolscap paper, pencils, 
knives, erasers, dictionaries, Bibles, and a large-sized 
geography, or atlas, to use while writing. 

Arrangements will be made to supply new books at 
introductory rates to those who desire them. 

Assistance will be given teachers in procuring board- 
ing places. Some have already engaged their board 
at same places as last year. Several, last year, hired 
rooms and boarded themselves. Assistance will be given 
to such as desire rooms without board. 
13* 



298 THE TBACHBE'S HAND-BOOK. 

All teachers that intend to be present as members, 
are requested to so inform me as soon as possible, and 
to be present at the opening of the session. 

The membership of this drill will decide whether 
teachers desire improvement, or circumstances force 
them to work to be able to pass the examination re- 
quired by law. 

8. The Illinois Teachers 9 Institute. In the 
year 1863, a suggestion was made in favor of a State 
Institute to be held at the Normal "University near 
Bloomington. A circular was accordingly issued, invit- 
ing all who desired, to meet at the University on the 
14th of September, for the purpose chiefly of " thorough 
drill in the' philosophy and methods of teaching the 
common branches of study." About fifteen teachers 
assembled under this call, and an institute of four weeks 
was held. 

At the tenth annual meeting of the Illinois State 
Teachers' Association, resolutions were passed in favor 
of an institute at the Normal University during the 
month of August. A circular was issued May 1st, pro- 
posing such a meeting, provided that seventy-five teach- 
ers would pledge themselves to attend. More than the 
requisite number of names having been obtained, the 
institute met August 1st, 1864. One hundred and 
twenty-seven teachers were in attendance. The next 
session was held in 1867, when two hundred and fifty- 
five members were present. In August, 1868, a session 
of two weeks was held, with two hundred and forty-eight 
members. In 1869 the attendance was 291 ; in 1870, it 
was 242 ; in 1871, 215, and in 1872, 300. The interest in 
these State gatherings was maintained from year to year, 
and they were productive of great good to the cause of 
education., 



INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES. 299 

We subjoin a copy of the constitution, in the belief 
that it may encourage similar organizations in other 
States. 

CONSTITUTION. 

ABTICLE 1. This Association shall be known as THE ILLINOIS 
TEACHERS' INSTITUTE. 

ART. 2. The object of the Institute shall be the improvement 
of its members in the Science and Art of Teaching 1 . 

ART. 3. All School Officers, Teachers, and those proposing to 
teach, that are in good standing-, shall be entitled to membership. 

ART. 4. The officers shall consist of a President, one Vice- 
President for each Congressional District in the State, a Secretary, 
an Assistant Secretary, and a Treasurer, who shall hold their of- 
fices for one year, or until their successors shall be elected ; and 
these officers, together with the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, shall constitute an Executive Committee. 

ART. 5. It shall be the duty of the President to preside over 
the meetings of the Institute, and to call meetings of the same at 
the request of the Executive Committee. 

ART. 6. In the absence of the President, it shall be the duty 
of the senior Vice-president in attendance to preside. 

ART. 7. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a record 
of the proceedings of the Institute. 

ART. 8. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive and dis- 
burse all funds, under the direction of the Executive Committee. 

ART. 9. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to 
determine the time of holding the sessions of the Institute, and to 
make all necessary arrangements for conducting them. 

ART. 10.. The sessions of the institute shall be held at the 
Normal University. 

ART. 11. This Constitution may be altered or amended at any 
regular session, by a majority vote. 



300 THE TEACHER'S EATO-BOOE. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS XL. AND XLI. . 

a> 

INSTITUTE PROGRAMMES AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION. 

(1) Preliminary observations; (2) Value of Programmes, as 
records of experience ; (3) Organization of institute work in the 
several States, necessary to its highest success ; examples of Wis- 
consin and Iowa ; (4) State of New Hampshire ; order of exer- 
cises presented ; (5) State of Wisconsin ; programme for an insti- 
tute of two weeks ; suggestions to conductors of institutes ; sched- 
ule of daily work for a four weeks' session ; Syllabus of course in 
Reading ; in Arithmetic ; in Geography ; in Orthography ; in Pen- 
manship ; in Drawing ; in Grammar ; i*i History ; in Civil Govern- 
ment ; in Algebra; in Geometry ; in Botany ; Programme of exer- 
cises for mixed schools ; theory and practice of teaching ; Institute 
blanks ; (6) State of Iowa ; Course of study for Normal insti- 
tutes ; Syllabus for four weeks ; Programme of daily exercises ; 
Course in Didactics for four weeks ; (7) State of Illinois ; Pro- 
gramme of exercises for institute of four days; Syllabus of course 
of four weeks ; (8) Illinois State teachers' institute ; brief his- 
tory ; constitution. 



CHAPTER XLIL 

INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 

1. General Observations. The teachers' insti- 
tutes are generally recognized by educators as an indis- 
pensable agency in the improvement of our elementary 
schools. Legal provision has been made in many of the 
States for their establishment and support. It is impor- 
tant that similar provision should be made wherever it is 
expected that education is to be efficiently promoted. To 
facilitate such legislation where it is needed, and to sup- 
ply the means of comparison where institute laws already 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 301 

exist, the enactments of several of the leading States, in 
this work, are herewith submitted. In view of the rapid 
development of the system during the past thirty years, 
and of its adaptation to meet a pressing necessity in the 
work of improving the great mass of teachers, it can not 
he doubted that its universal adoption is merely a ques- 
tion of time. The information supplied by these various 
legislative acts will be valuable in furnishing the ex- 
perience of localities that have been for many years 
engaged in the promotion of education. Attention is 
especially called to the different methods of providing for 
the support of the institutes. These methods may be 
referred to three classes: . 

(1.) Direct appropriations from the State Treasury. 
(2.) Appropriations from the income of permanent funds, 
as in Wisconsin. (3.) Appropriations from special funds 
created by levying a tax upon teachers' certificates, as 
in the cases of Ohio and Iowa. Much may be said 
in favor of each of these plans. Where permanent funds 
exist like the munificent Normal School endowment in 
Wisconsin, the problem of institute organization and 
instruction is one of easy solution, since the labor and 
embarrassment of wringing annual appropriations from 
unwilling legislatures are avoided. Nevertheless, it is 
well worthy of consideration whether the labor and dis- 
cussion necessary to secure favorable action in such 
cases are. not educating forces tending to raise the 
community to a higher appreciation of its duty in connec- 
tion with the great work. There is an education of the 
people no less important than the education of the chil- 
dren, and little can be accomplished for the latter without 
the former. If it be the duty of the State to establish 
and support schools for the education of the children, it 
is no less 'its duty to provide efficiently for the prepara- 



302 THE TEACHEE'S HAND-BOOK. 

tion of qualified teachers, in the absence of -which the 
schools must be a failure. 

The principle of taxing the teacher for his own pro- 
fessional advantage is undoubtedly sound and just. It 
is submitted wiiether a union of the two methods would 
not prove to be a salutary measure. The appropriations 
by the State will tend to foster and keep alive the public 
interest. The taxation of the teacher for this specific 
purpose will create a desire on his part to secure a 
legitimate return from his investment, while the two 
funds united will make a generous policy in procuring 
adequate instruction for the institute, possible. 



CHAPTEE XLIIL 

INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED. 

2. Laws of New York. This may be called the 
Pioneer State in the institute work. She has been en- 
gaged in it for more than thirty years. Her laws regu- 
lating the subject may be regarded as embodying the 
results of an extended and successful experience. In 
order to a proper understanding of the terms of the sub- 
joined act, it may be well to explain that in lieu of a 
superintendent in each county there is a commissioner 
in each assembly district, of which there are one hundred 
and twenty-eight in the State. No other State, probably, 
is supplied with so effective a system of school supervision 
as New York. The number of representative districts 
is more than twice the number of counties, so that the 
territory to be traversed by each commissioner is com 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 303 

paratively limited, and he is enabled to do his work 
thoroughly and well. 

Particular attention is invited to the incentives to 
attendance upon the institutes provided for in the law 
of Few York. 

TJEACHERS INSTITUTES. 

1. It shall be the duty of every school commis- 
sioner, at .least once in each year, in his own district, 
or in concert with one or more commissioners in the 
same county, to organize in and for the combined 
districts, a teachers' institute, and to induce, if possible, 
all the teachers in his district to be present and take 
part in its exercises. 

2. The commissioner or commissioners, subject 
always to the advice and direction of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, shall, in such form and manner as 
may be deemed most effectual, give public notice to 
the teachers of the district, or combined distiicts, and 
to all others who may desire to become such, of 
the time when and the place where the institute will be 
organized. 

3. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall 
advise and co-operate with the school commission- 
ers in fixing the times and places of holding the teach- 
ers' institute ; and he shall have power to employ, or 
cause the school commissioners to employ, suitable per- 
sons, at a reasonable compensation, to conduct and teach 
the institutes ; and he shall visit, or cause to be visited 
by persons employed in the department of public in- 
struction, such and so many of the institutes as he pos- 
sibly can, for the purpose of examining into the course 
and manner of instruction pursued, and of rendering 
such assistance as he may find expedient ; and he shall 



304 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

establish the bases upon which the yearly appropriation 
for the support of teachers' institutes shall be distributed 
to the several institutes, and term or terms during which 
the same may be held, having reference, in the estab- 
lishment of such regulations, to the number of teachers 
in the county, district or combined districts, and in 
attendance at the institute ; to the length of time during 
which they shall be held ; to the facilities for attendance 
upon them ; and to local disadvantages requiring espe- 
cial consideration. 

4. The superintendent of public instruction may 
establish such regulations in regard to certificates of 
qualification or recommendation, which may be issued 
by school commissioners, as will in his judgment furnish 
incentives and encouragement to teachers to attend the 
institutes ; and the closing of his school by a teacher for 
the time during which an institute shall be held in and 
for the county or school commissioner district in which 
his school is, and which institute he shall have attended 
during the time for which he closed his school, shall not 
work a forfeiture of the contract under which he is 
teaching ; and he shall be allowed to make up for the 
time spent in attending the institute, by teaching the 
school the same length of time immediately at the end 
of the term for which he contracted to teach. 

5. The trustees of every school district are hereby 
directed to give to the teacher or teachers em- 
ployed by them the whole of the time spent 'by such 
teacher or teachers in attending at any regular session 
or sessions of an institute in a county embracing the 
school district, or a part thereof, without deducting any- 
thing from his or their wages for the time so spent ; 
and whenever the trustees' report shows that a district 
school has been supported for the full time required by 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION 1 , 305 

law, including the time spent by the teacher or teachers 
in their employ in attendance upon such institute, and 
that the trustees have given the teacher or teachers the 
time of such absence, and have not deducted anything 
from his or their wages on account thereof, the superin- 
tendent of public instruction may include the district in 
his apportionment of the State school moneys, and direct 
that it be included by the school commissioner or com- 
missioners in their apportionment of school moneys, pro- 
vided always that such school district be in all other 
respects entitled to be included in such apportionment. 

6. The treasurer shall pay, on the warrant of the 
comptroller, to the order of any one or more of the 
school commissioners, such sum or sums of money as the 
superintendent of public instruction shall certify to be 
due to them for expenses in holding a teachers' institute ; 
and, upon the like warrant and certificate, to the order 
of any persons employed by the superintendent to con- 
duct and teach, any teachers' institute, his reasonable 
compensation as certified by the superintendent. 

7. The school commissioner or commissioners by 
whom any teachers' institute shall be organized, shall 
transmit to the superintendent of public instruction a 
catalogue of the names of all persons that shall have 
attended such institute, with such other statistical infor- 
mation, in such form and within such time, as may be 
prescribed by said superintendent. 



306 THE TBAOHBE'S HAND-BOOK. 



CHAPTER XLIY. 

INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED. 

3* Laws of Wisconsin. 

40. The board of regents of normal schools are 
authorized to use so much of the income of the Normal 
School fund, not exceeding five thousand dollars per 
annum, as in their judgment may be necessary to defray 
the expenses of conducting teachers' institutes in differ- 
ent parts of the State ; and such amount as the board 
may from time to time expend for such object is hereby 
appropriated from said income, and shall be drawn- from 
the state treasury in the same manner and under the 
same restrictions as money for the support of the State 
Normal Schools. 

41. It shall be the duty of said board, in the dis- 
charge of the duties imposed by this act in providing for 
holding teachers' institutes, to give the preference to 
those sections of the State that receive least direct ben- 
efit from the State Normal Schools. 

42. The said board, in order to carry out the object 
of this act, shall have power to make *uch rules and 
regulations as they may deem proper, and employ -an 
agent who shall organize and conduct teachers 5 insti- 
tutes, deliver educational addresses, and perform such 
other work as the board may require him to do in con- 
nection with the State Normal Schools, and who shall, if 
the said board choose, act as their secretary. The said 
board may also employ other persons to aid in conduct- 
ing teachers' institutes; but no person employed by said 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 307 

board in any position or capacity connected with nor- 
mal schools or teachers' institutes, shall act as the agent 
of any author, bookseller, or publisher. 

43. The district board of any school district are 
hereby authorized in their discretion to give to the 
teachers employed by them the whole or any part of 
the time spent by such teacher or teachers in attending 
any regular session or sessions of an institute in the 
county embracing the school district or any part thereof, 
without deducting anything from his or their wages for 
the time so spent : provided, such teacher or teachers 
shall furnish to the clerk of the district a certificate of 
regular attendance at such institute, signed by the person 
conducting the same ; and whenever the report of the 
district clerk shows that the district school has been 
supported for the full term of five months required by 
law, including the time spent by the teacher or teachers 
in their employ in attendance at such institute, and that 
the district board have given to the teacher or teach- 
ers the time of such absence, and have not deducted from 
his or their wages for the time so spent, such district 
shall be included in the annual apportionment of the 
income of the school fund : provided always, that such 
school district shall have complied with the laws in all 
other respects, and is entitled to share* in such appor- 
tionment. 

44. It shall be the duty of the said board to co- 
operate with the superintendent of public instruction, 
so far as practicable, in holding and conducting teach- 
ers' institutes, as provided for by this act.. 

45. All other acts and amendments thereto, shall 
to so construed as to enable the said board to carry out 
the provisions of this act, and all acts or parts of acts 
conflicting with this act are hereby repealed. 



308 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

NORMAL-INSTITUTBS 
(Chapter 18, General Lam of 1871.). 

1. Normal institutes for the instruction of teachers 
shall be held each year in such counties of the State as 
maybe designated by the State Superintendent, with the 
advice of the board of regents of normal schools, prefer- 
ence being given to such counties as receive least direct 
benefits from the normal schools. 

2. Each of said institutes shall be held for at 
least four consecutive weeks, under the direction of the 
county superintendent, assisted by such person or persons 
as the State Superintendent may appoint. 

3. The course of study pursued in said institutes 
shall, as far as practicable, be uniform, and shall be 
prescribed by the school superintendents of the counties 
in which said institutes are held, with the advice and 
approval of the State Superintendent. 

4. There is hereby appropriated out of any money 
in the State treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum 
not exceeding two thousand dollars per annum, for the 
purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act, the 
same to be expended under the direction of the State 
Superintendent and the board of regents of normal 
schools. 

5. All acts and parts of acts contravening the pro- 
visions of this act are hereby repealed. 

The subjoined excellent suggestions to county super- 
intendents concerning the management of institutes are 
from the volume containing the school laws prepared' 
under the direction of the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction : 

It is made the duty of the superintendent to hold 



LEGISLATION-. 309 

institutes, and at least one should be held each year. 
Such preparation should be made* as will secure a prompt 
and general attendance. A suitable room, well venti- 
lated, properly warmed, and furnished with desks, black- 
board, &c., is indispensable. By proper effort,' the co- 
operation of the people in the vicinity of the place where 
the institute is held, may be secured. Care should be 
taken not to tax the hospitality of the people for the 
benefit of those not engaged in teaching. In some 
instances, persons not interested in the objects of an 
institute attend it, for the purpose of enjoying, free of 
expense, the novelty of a visit to the town in which it 
is held. 

The notice forthe institute should suggest to teachers 
the necessity of bringing with them paper, pencils, note 
books and such school books as may be required. 

Arrangements should be made for addresses, and if 
the superintendent deems it advisable, some prominent 
teachers may be secured to conduct the institute exer- 
cises. Tor a few years past the board of normal regents 
has granted aid to institutes out of the income of the 
normal school fund. If preferred, an agent is furnished 
to conduct the institute. The law regulating this mat- 
ter will be found on a subsequent page.. 

The programme should, if practicable, 'be published 
with the notice, and should be strictly adhered to during 
the time the institute is held. A portion of each session 
should be devoted to discussion, and the superintendent 
should be prepared to answer such questions in regard 
to the school law, and school matters generally, as the 
teachers may wish to ask. Punctuality, regularity and 
good or'dor should be maintained, and an effort should 
be made to render the institute a model school in its 
methods' of recitation, instruction, and general arrange- 
ment and management. 



310 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

The county superintendent should preside, a secre- 
tary and business committee should be appointed, and in 
all respects the institute should be a well-ordered and 
business-like body, diligently doing its appointed work. 
No time should be frittered away in excursions, pic-nics, 
or parties. 

Particular attention, is called to the act of 1872, pro- 
viding for normal institutes of four or more weeks' dura- 
tion. This act is printed on a subsequent page, at the 
close of the laws relating to normals schools. 

4. Laws of Connecticut. In a brief sketch of 
the history' of the legislation of the State in regard to 
education, published by- authority of the General 
Assembly in, 1872, the following paragraph occurs : 

" In 1847, a resolution was passed directing the Super- 
intendent of Common Schools to employ four or more 
suitable persons to hold * schools of teachers for the pur- 
pose of instruction in the best modes of governing and 
teaching common schools, between the 15th of September 
and 31st of October of that year.' In 1848 this provis- 
ion was slightly changed and made permanent." 

The revised school law of Connecticut, chapter IL, 
relating to the State Board of Education, contains the 
subjoined section : 

19. The board may hold, at one or more con- 
venient places in the State, conventions of school offi- 
cers, teachers, and other friends of public education, 
for the purpose of instructing in the best modes of 
administering, governing, and teaching public schools ; 
but the expenses incurred for such conventions shall not 
exceed in any one year the sum of three thousand 
dollars. 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 311 



CHAPTER XLV. 

INSTITUTE LEGISLATION CONTINUED. 

6. Laws of Ohio. 

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. COUNTY INSTITUTES. 

112. In every county of this State, in which an 
association of teachers of common schools, called a 
teachers' institute, has been or may hereafter "be formed, 
the treasurer of said county is hereby required to pay over 
to the committee of said institute, upon the order of the 
county auditor, such sum of money belonging to therfund 
arising from the means and sources as provided in the 
ninety-first, one hundred and first, and one hundred .and 
eighteenth sections of this act, as may not have been ' 
previously appropriated j and it shall be the duty of the 
said committee of every such teachers' institute to report, 
within thirty days after every meeting of the same, to 
the State commissioners of common schools, the number 
of teachers in attendance, the names of the instructors 
and lecturers, an account of the moneys received and 
expended by them, and such other information relating 
to the institute as the said commissioner may require. 
Provided, that no part of the said moneys shall be 
ordered by the county auditor to be paid over, except 
upon the petition of at least thirty practical teachers, 
residents of the county, who shall therein declare their 
intention to attend such institute, nor until the said 
committee shall file with the said auditor their bond, in 
double the amount of- moneys to come into their hands, 
payable to the Slate of Ohio, for the use of the teachers' 



312 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

institute of said county, with sufficient sureties, to be 
approved by said auditor, conditioned for the faithful 
disbursement of said moneys, and that said committee 
shall make the report to the State school commissioner 
as hereinbefore provided ; and in case the said commit- 
tee shall fail to make said report as hereinbefore pro- 
vided, they shall forfeit and pay to the State of Ohio the 
sum of fifty dollars for such failure, to be recovered in 
an action on said bond as hereinafter provided ; and on 
forfeiture of such bond, it shall be the duty of 'the prose- 
cuting attorney of the proper county, in the name of the 
State of Ohio, to prosecute an action upon such bond and 
collect any such moneys which said committee may have 
failed to disburse according to law, or any penalty to 
which they may be liable under this act, or both, and 
pay the same into the county treasury for the use of 
such institute. 

113. No institute held under the provisions of 
this act, shall continue for a period of time less than 
four days. 

1H. Whenever there shall have been no teach- 
ers' institute held -within two years in any county, the 
State commissioner of common schools may hold, or 
cause to be held in such county, a teachers' institute, 
and is authorized to defray the expenses of said institute 
out of the county institute fund, and the county auditor 
shall draw an order on the treasurer in favor of the com- 
mittee chosen at such institute, said committee giving 
the same bond as required in this act. 

115. The clerk of the board of education, of a 
city district of the first class shall make the same report 
of any teachers' institute provided for by the board of 
education as is required of county teachers' institutes. 

116. Each teacher employed in the common 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION". 313 

schools of this State, shall have a right to dismiss his 01 
her school without forfeiture of pay, on New Year's day, 
Fourth of July, Christmas, and on any day set apart by 
proclamation of the' President of the United States, or 
the Governor of Ohio, as a thanksgiving or fast day. 

lliF. Any teacher in any public school is hereby 
authorized to dismiss the school in his or her charge for 
the week in which is held the county teachers' institute, 
for the pin-pose of attending the same, and such teacher 
shall not forfeit his or her pay for such week; provided, 
such teacher shall deposit with the clerk of the board a 
certificate from the secretary of the institute that he or 
she has been present at such institute for not less than 
four days; provided, that this privilege is not extended 
to teachers in city districts of the first class without the 
consent of the hoard of education thereof, and that no 
union or graded school shall be dismissed except when 
a majority of the teachers in such school are in favor of 
such dismission. 

CITY INSTITUTES. 

118. The board of education of any city district 
of the first class are authorized to provide for holding 
yearly an institute for the improvement of the teachers 
of the schools under their control, which institute shall 
continue not less than four days, and the board are here- 
by authorized in defraying the expenses of such institute 
to use the city institute fund arising from the examina- 
tion fees of teachers, or any other moneys under their m 
control ; provided, that if said board shall not hold one 
institute in any school year, that said board shall cause 
an order to be, issued on the treasurer in favor of the 
county treasurer for such institute fund, which the 
county treasurer shall place to the credit of the county 
14 



314 THE TBACHEE'S HA^D-BOOK. 

institute fund, in which case the teachers of such city 
district shall be" entitled to the advantages of the county 
institute. 

119. Whenever a teachers' association, formed for 
the professional improvement of the teachers of sev- 
eral adjacent counties, shall organize a teachers' institute 
for the specific purpose of providing for the professional 
instruction of the teachers of the graded schools in such 
adjacent counties, any and all boards of education of 
city districts of the first and second class, village dis- 
tricts, and special districts within said counties shall 
have power to contribute to such institutes from the 
institute and other funds under their control, and to per- 
mit the teachers employed by them to attend the same 
for one week without forfeiture of wages. 

90, 91, and 101 of the Ohio school code specify 
the mode in which the funds for the support of institutes 
shall be raised, and are herewith presented : 

90. It shall be the duty of the examiners to fix 
upon the time of holding the meetings for the examina- 
tions of teachers, in such places in their respective coun- 
ties as will, in their opinion, best accommodate the great- 
est number of candidates for examination, notice of all 
such meetings being published in some newspaper of 
general circulation in their respective counties ; and at 
such meetings any two of said board shall be competent 
to examine applicants and grant certificates ; and as a 
condition of examination, each applicant for a certificate 
shall pay the board of examiners a fee of fifty cents. 

91. All such fees received by the examiners 
shall be paid over quarterly to the county treasurer, 
with a statement made to the auditor of the number of 
applicants, male and female, examined ; and all moneys 
so paid over to the county treasurer "by the board of 



ItfSTTTTJTE LEGISLATION. 315 

examiners, shall, after paying, on the order of the county 
auditor, the necessary traveling expenses of said exam- 
iners, which, in no quarter, shall exceed one third the 
amount so paid to the county treasurer as examination 
fees, be set apart as a fund for the support of teachers' 
institutes, as hereafter provided in this act, and shall be 
used for no other purpose ; provided, that the number 
of meetings held by said board of examiners for the 
examination of teachers, shall not, in any one year,- 
exceed eighteen. 

101. The powers and privileges herein granted to 
city districts of the first class, with reference to boards 
of examiners, are hereby extended to city districts of 
the second class and village districts having a population 
not less than twenty-five hundred ; provided, that the 
boa'rd of examiners in such districts shall consist of three 
members; and provided further, that in any city dis- 
tricts of the second class, and in village districts (except 
in those localities where associations have been or may 
hereafter be formed as provided for in section 119 of this 
act), the fee of fifty cents which is required to be paid to 
the board of examiners by every person applying for a 
certificate to teach, shall be paid by said examiners to 
the county treasurer for the use of county institutes, and 
be paid out as other funds for the same purpose are 
ordered to be paid. The boards of education of said 
city districts of the second class, in the matter of attach- 
ing the annexed territory for voting purposes, shall be 
governed by the provisions of this act conferring like 
powers apon city boards of education of the first class, 
as provided for in section ten^ 

6. Laws of Iowa. Suggestions of the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction. The subjoined 
act of the Legislature of Iowa, passed in 1874, will be 



316 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

found of interest. The suggestions of the Department 
of Public Instruction growing out of this legislation 
possess a permanent value, and are inserted by permis- 
sion of the State superintendent. 

1. JBe it enacted ty the Q-eneral Assembly of the 
State of Iowa, That Section 1769, Code, is hereby 
amended to read as follows : The county superintendent 
shall hold annually a normal institute for the instruc- 
tion of teachers and those who may desire to teach, 
and with the concurrence of the superintendent of public 
instruction, procure such assistance as may be necessary 
to conduct the same, at such time as the schools in the 
county are generally closed. To defray the expenses 
of said institute, he shall required the payment of a fee 
of one dollar for every certificate issued ; also the pay- 
ment of one dollar registration fee for each person attend- 
ing the normal institute. He shall, monthly, and at the 
close of each institute, transmit to the county treasurer 
all moneys so received, including the State appropriation 
for institutes, to be designated the " institute fund ; " to- 
gether with a report of the 'name of each person so con- 
tributing, and the amount. The board of supervisors 
may appropriate such additional sum as may by them 
be deemed necessary for the further support of such 
institute. . All disbursements of the institute fund shall 
be upon the order of the county superintendent ; and no 
order shall be drawfc except for bills presented to the 
county superintendent, and approved by him, for services 
rendered or expenses incurred in connection with the 
normal institute. 

2. This act being deemed of immediate impor- 
tance, shall be in force and take effect immediately after 
its publication in the * Daily State Register " and u State 
Leader," newspapers published at Des Moines. 



INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 31 V 

Please note the following suggestions and ex- 
planations : 

1. Superintendents will be governed by the provis- 
ions of this law in the issuing of teachers' certificates, by 
requiring in all cases the payment of a fee of one dollar 
before issuing a teachers' certificate after the first day of 
April, when the law took effect by publication. 

2. It is suggested that superintendents transmit to 
the county treasurer on the last day of each mottfh, all 
moneys received by virtue of this law, to be accompanied 
by a carefully prepared report, upon blanks which will 
be sent from this office. This report will be a protection 
against all imputations of the improper use, or the reten- 
tion of any portion, of this fund by county superinten- 
dents. 

3. The law requires that the institute shall be held at 
such time as the schools of the county are generally 
closed. This will make it necessary to hold them during 
the summer vacations. July, August, and September are 
the most favorable months, except in those counties where 
the schools do not, generally, commence until October 
and November. As to the practicability of securing the 
attendance of teachers at this busy season of the year, 
it is, perhaps, sufficient to say that, during the year 1873, 
such institutes were held in not less than fourteen 
counties in the State, remaining in session' from three to 
eight weeks, and, when properly advertised and managed, 
there was no lack of attendance. The provision for hold- 
ing them at times when the schools are generally closed, 
will obviate the greatest objection that has ever been 
urged against institutes. 

4. Attendance upon the normal institute will be volun- 
tary on the part of teachers ; but young and inexperienced 
teachers will not expect to receive certificates, unless of 



318 THE TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

the lowest grade; without regularly attending the normal 
institute. By means of the larger fund, and the greater 
length of time, during which this institute will remain 
in session, it can, if the proper means are employed, be 
rendered invaluable to teachers. The benefits which 
they will receive will secure their voluntary and general 
attendance. Any schools that may be in session during 
the normal institute will not be closed, except upon the 
order of the board of directors thereof. 

5. The normal institutes will take the place of the 
teachers' institutes held under previous laws. It must 
be borne in mind, however, that in order to secure the 
fifty dollar State appropriation, application must be 
made in regular form to the superintendent of public in- 
struction, as it can only be drawn from the State treas- 
ury in strict conformity with the provisions of section 
1584, Code; see notes (A) and (B) to section 1762, 
School Laws 1873, viz., When the superintendent of pub- 
lic instruction appoints the institute on application of 
the county superintendent. In counties where teachers' 
institutes have already been held for 16.74, it will be 
optional with the-county superintendent whether or not 
a normal institute will be held the present year. It will 
not, generally, be advisable, as no further State appro-* 
priation can be secured for this purpose. 

C. The length of time during which the normal 
institute shall remain in session, is left to the discretion 
of the county superintendent. This will depend largely 
upon the amount of the institute fund. It is estimated 
that the average to a county, exclusive of what the board 
of supervisors may allow, will, after the present year, be 
about three hundred dollars. The institute can not 
remain in session less than one week of six days. Sec. 
1584. In most counties a session of three, four, or five 



INSTTTUTK LEGISLATION. 319 

weeks may be safely undertaken for the present year. 
It will not be best to undertake too much at first. 

7. The law requires superintendents, with the concur- 
rence of the superintendent of public instruction, to pro- 
cure such assistance as may be necessary to conduct 
the same. It is expected that superintendents will select 

, their own conductors and teachers, as far as practicable, 
and send the names to this office for examination and 
approval. Ordinarily, three or four instructors should 
be secured, all of whom should be superior teachers of 
recent experience. One of whom, at least, should have 
had experience in institute work, and be able to give 
plain, practical instruction in methods of school organi- 
zation and government, and theory and practice in teach- 
ing. The best results are usually secured by dividing the 
institute into three or more divisions for instruction in 
the several branches, leaving a portion of the time for 
general instruction before the whole institute. The 
teaching must be done, principally, by home talent. -In 
nearly every county, superintendents, principals, and 
teachers can be secured, that are well qualified to do this 
work successfully. One or more lady teachers should 
be secured, where it is practicable. 

8. The superintendent may assume the general man- 
agement of the institute, and act as conductor, assigning 
others their work, or may select another to act as con- 
ductor and take the place of teacher, or may simply 
assume the general oversight and direction. In no case 
will the superintendent receive for any service in con- 
nection with the institute any portion of the institute 
fund as compensation. He is entitled to his per diem 
for all time spent in connection with the Institute. 

9. For 1874, the institute fund will not be more than 
half as large as on any subsequent year, and it is sug- 



320 THE TEACHERS BAUD-BOOK. 

gested that application be made to boards of supervisors 
as early as their June meeting, to make a small appropria- 
tion for this year, at least, to inaugurate the normal 
institute ; another year the need for it will not be so great. 
An appropriation of from one to three hundred dollars 
will, ordinarily, be sufficient. It will be proper to use 
the fund for payment of fuel, stationery, &c., and for 
rent of rooms, -when the superintendent is not able to 
secure the rooms gratuitously. 

10. The greater portion of the fund is contributed by 
teachers themselves. It is believed they will contribute 
this amount willingly, as it is but a nominal sum, not 
exceeding two dollars a year from any teacher, and is all 
expended for their own instruction and the elevation of 
the profession. They will, in fact, very soon be more 
than repaid in the increased .wages given for better 
teaching. If this sum is wisely invested, the State will 
soon duplicate every dollar paid by the teacher. The use 
of the institute fund is left almost wholly to the judgment 
of the county superintendent. Let it be economically 
and judiciously expended ; for this, the people and 
especially the teachers, will hold him accountable. 

11. These normal institutes are meant to be short 
training schools ; their object is to reach and correct the 
greatest defects found in the schools. The superintend- 
ent, as he visits schools, consults with patrons and ex- 
amines teachers, should carefully note the defects, the 
errors, and the neglects, which are observable, and seek 
to provide such instruction in the institute as will cure 
the greatest and most prevalent. Do not permit time to 
be spent in useless discussions, the advocacy of fine-spun 
theories, or special 'hobbies. Conduct the institute for 
the benefit of the lower grades of teachers, and the ' 
higher will always receive their due share of the benefits. 



DSrSTITUTB LEGISLATION. 321 

Bear in mind that the great object is to instruct teachers 
how to teach children. Let superintendents commence 
at once preparations for the institute of 1874. Secure 
the requisite instructors early. Prepare for not less, in 
any case, than half the teachers in your counties, and 
secure a larger attendance if possible. Attention is 
called to remarks under "Teachers' Institutes" and 
"Normal Institutes," in the last report from this 
department. 

12. Section 1769 of the school laws of 1873^ and of 
the code, is wholly repealed. Tho repeal of this section, 
however, does not prohibit the superintendent from 
holding examinations on other days of the month. He 
shall examine at the county seat, on the last Saturday of 
each month, all persons applying, and may examine at 
such other times and places as the interests of the schools 
require and his other duties will permit. Examinations, 
other than on the last Saturday of each month, should 
not generally be encouraged, except in cases where 
appointments are made for different portions of the 
county for the convenience of teachers. For all examin- 
ations, he is entitled simply to his per diem. While 
the fees heretofore received for examinations were, to 
some superintendents, a source of considerable revenue, 
probably little, if anyj less will be received under 
the present law for the same service, and one of the 
sources of complaint of partiality in issuing certificates 
is removed. 

The duties of the office. are enlarged; its influence 
and value are increased. Let these duties be faithfully 
performed during the next two years, and it will not be 
difficult to secure for the office a salary commensurate 
with its real value. 

7. Laws of Pennsylvania. The following are 
14* 



322 THE TEAOHEB'S HAND-BOOK, 

the sections of the school law of Pennsylvania bearing 
upon Teachers Institutes : 

e 137. That the county superintendent of each 
county in this commonwealth is hereby authorized and . 
required once in each year, at such time and place as 
he or a properly authorized committee of .teachers acting 
with him, may deem most convenient, to call upon and 
invite the teachers of the common schools and other 
institutions of learning in his county, to assemble to- 
gether and organize themselves into a teachers' insti- 
tute, to be devoted to the improvement of teachers in 
the science and art of education, to continue in session 
at least five days, including a half day for going to,- and 
a half day for returning from, the place of meeting of 
the said institute, and to be presided over by the county 
superintendent or by some one designated by him, and 
be subject in its general management to his control." 

"138. That each county superintendent, upon the 
assembling of the teachers' institute of his county, shall 
cause a roll of members to be prepared, which roll 
shall be called at least twice every day during the session 
of the institute, and all absentees to be carefully marked, 
and from which, upon adjournment of the institute, he 
shall ascertain the exact number of teachers who were in 
in attendance, and the length of time each attended j 
and upon the presentation of a certificate at the close of 
the session of each annual institute, setting forth these 
facts 'and signed by the county superintendent, to the 
treasurer of the proper county, he is hereby authorized 
and required to pay immediately, out of any money in 
the county treasury not otherwise appropriated, to the 
county superintendent, one dollar for every three days 
spent by teachers of the county in attendance at the 
institute for that year, or as much of it as may be needed \ 



LEGISLATION. ' 323 

such money to be expended by the county superintendent 
in procuring the services of lecturers and instructors for 
the institute, and in providing the necessary apparatus, 
books, and stationery for carrying on its work ; 

"Provided, that the amount which may be drawn 
from the county treasury shall in no case be more than 
two hundred dollars, but may in all cases be sixty dollars ; 
if it shall appear from the vouchers presented by the 
county superintendent to the county auditors, as required 
by the fourth section of this act, that this sum has been 
actually expended for the purpose herein specified ; Pro- 
vided further, That all boards of directors may allow 
the teachers in their employ the privilege of attending 
such institutes without making any deduction from their 
salaries, and that any teacher who absents himself from 
the institute of his county without a good reason, may 
have his want of professional spirit and zeal indicated by 
a lower mark on his certificate in the practice of teach- 
ing, than he would otherwise have received." 

"139. That each 'county superintendent who may 
draw money from the county treasury for the purposes 
named in this act, shall file his account of all expendi- 
tures under the act in the office of the county treasury, 
with vouchers for the same, which shall be examined by 
the auditors of the county in like manner as other county 
expenditures ; and any misapplication of funds shall be 
punished in the same manner as collectors of State and 
county taxes for like offenses are now punished." 

" 140. That all county superintendents, upon the 
adjournment of the teachers' institutes held in their re- 
spective counties are hereby required to report to the 
superintendent of common schools, the number of 
teachers in attendance, the names of the lecturers or 
instructors who officiated, the subjects upon which the 



324 TUB TEACHER'S HAND-BOOK. 

instruction was given, and the degree of popular interest 
awakened by the proceedings." 

Eleven counties in Pennsylvania have special laws 
compelling boards of directors to grant their teachers 
the time to attend the county institute without reducing 
their salaries. . . 

8. Laws of New Hampshire. 

TEAOHEBS' INSTITUTES are provided for by the act of 
July 3, 1861, as follows : 

Be it enacted 6y tHe Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives in General Court' convened; 

1. There shall be held annually, in each county, 
under the supervision of the State Superintendent of 
public instruction, a teachers' institute. 

2. To defray the necessary expenses and charges, 
and to procure teachers and lecturers, for such institutes, 
the governor may draw his warrant upon the treasurer 
for a sum not exceeding three thousand dollars per 
annum. 

3. The said superintendent, by himself, or by 
such person as he may, with the consent of the board of 
education, delegate, shall appoint and give notice of a 
time and place for the meeting of such institute, and 
make suitable arrangements therefor. 

4. The said superintendent may, with the advice 
and consent of the board of education, determine the 
length of time during which a teacher's institute shall 
remain in session, which in no instance shall be less than 
eight days, and what portion, not exceeding three hun- 
dred dollars, of the sum provided for in the second sec- 
tion of this act, shall be appropriated to meet the 
expenses of any such institute, and the governor may 
draw upon the treasurer therefor, in favor of the said 
superintendent or other person delegated as aforesaid, 



BBLAHONS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 325 

his account having been previously approved by the 
board of education. 

5. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this 
act are hereby repealed. 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS XLII. TO XLV. 

INSTITUTE LEGISLATION. 

(1). General observations, financial provisions ; (2) Laws of 
New York ; (3) Laws of Wisconsin ; Normal institutes ; sugges- 
tions to County Superintendents ; (4) Laws of Connecticut ; (5) 
Laws of Ohio ; (6) Laws of Iowa ; suggestions of State Superin- 
tendent ; (7) Laws of Pennsylvania ; (8) Laws of New Hamp- 
shire. 



CHAPTER ZLYL 

RELATIONS OF NORMAL SCHOOLS, INSTITUTES, AND 
SUPERVISION TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 

1. Necessity of Improving the Common 
Schools. In the preceding pages, great stress has 
been placed upon the importance of improving the 
condition of the common schools, particularly in the 
rural districts. It has "been claimed that through them 
principally is it possible to reach the great mass of the 
people and bring them under the sway of educational 
influences. It has been affirmed that this agency should 
be established and perfected wherever,' in our vastly ex- 
tended country, there are rational beings to be trained 
to the duties of a responsible and noble citizenship. It 
has further been assumed that the principal factor in the 
work of reform and progress is the teacher ; that it is the 



326 THE TEACHER'S HAIO>BOOK. 

teacher that makes the school, and as a general rule, the 
careful special training that makes the teacher. This 
truth is regarded in all well-informed quarters as self- 
evident, as an educational axiom, requiring no demon- 
stration. Attention has been called to the fact that, to 
establish a system of schools, to create vast school funds, 
to build school houses, and then to send the children of 
the people to be taught by half-educated, unskillful, 
incompetent instructors, is a species of wastefulness not 
to say of folly, that would be tolerated in none of the 
material enterprises of life, where wealth is to be acquired 
by an intelligent adaptation of means to ends. The evils 
and dangers of this policy are the more aggravated on 
account of the peculiar character of the results that accrue 
from bad teaching. They do not at once appear. They 
are masked from common observation, while their subtle 
influences are at work slowly but surely undermining the 
character and blighting the prospects of our children 
and youth, until it is too late to apply a remedy. Neither 
good nor bad teaching yields an immediate material 
product by which its quality may be made -evident to 
ordinary observation. Only the instinct of a true moral 
penetration, re-enforced by a keen intellectual perception 
can at" once discover the good or evil tendencies of 
teaching. Error as well as truth may be taught at 
school. The mind and character may be injured by a 
bad method as well as benefited and blessed by a good 
one. These are truths of momentous importance, and 
they should be made as' familiar to all, parents, teachers, 
legislators, and statesmen, as household words. "We 
can not insist too strongly upon quality as we'll as quantity 
in providing ways and means for promoting the right 
education of our children and youth. 

While we are accustomed to regard the common 



RELATIONS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 327 

school as the corner-stone of onr civil and religious 
liberty, we must not fail to remember that the teacher is 
the corner-stone of the common school. If, therefore, 
the teacher be a failure, the school must be a failure, 
and its baleful influences must strike a fatal blow at 
the very life and prosperity of society. 

The foregoing considerations prepare the way for 
discussing the outline, of a complete system of means and 
agencies deemed essential to secure to the whole people 
such an education as the exigencies of the individual and 
of society alike demand. It is claimed that such a 
system should embrace : * 

1. A well organized, well equipped and thoroughly 
instructed common school within reach of every family, 
and extending its blessings freely to every child in the 
republic. 

2. A wise, liberal, and just scheme of finance, by 
means of which the entire system shall be adequately 
supported from year to year for not less than nine months. 

3. A complete and comprehensive system of Normal 
Schools or Teachers' Seminaries, capable of supplying 
every neighborhood with a well-educated, carefully- 
trained teacher, and every city and county with an able 
and efficient superintendent. 

4. A thoroughly organized system of Teachers' In- 
stitutes in every State, penetrating every county, reach- 
ing with its benign influences every teacher, and so far 
as possible, arousing the whole people to a deeper sense 
of their obligations and duties to the cause of education, 
and the proper training- of their children for the realities 
of life. 

5. A thoroughly efficient plan of supervision, by 
means, of which every school shall be visited, carefully in- 
spected and examined, not less than twice in each year, 



328 THE TEACHBB'S HAND-BOOK. 

to the end that its defects may be discovered, pointed out, 
and remedied. 

6. A high-toned and universally-diffused educational 
literature, in the form of papers, periodicals, and books, 
discussing in a broad and catholic spirit all the phases 
of the complicated problem of education in its relations 
to the individual and general welfare. 

It is not necessary that each of these propositions 
should here be considered at length. The first and sec- 
ond will be at once accepted by every intelligent friend 
of public instruction. That the common school is indis- 
pensable to the general welfare, and that ample provis- 
ion should be made for its support, none but an enemy 
of universal education will presume to deny. But the 
Third, Fourth and Fifth, are not so generally admitted ; 
and it seems necessary that the relations which the 
agencies for preparing teachers, and for supervision, 
sustain to the common-school system should be briefly 
pointed out. The last, or Sixth proposition, referring to 
the necessity of an elevated educational literature, needs 
no elaboration ; for that refers to an interest which may 
safely be left to the operation of the law of demand and 
supply. Private 'and professional interest', in a country 
where the press is not only free, but a colossal power for 
good, will eventually supply all that is required in this 
direction. 

2, Relations of Normal Schools to the 
Common School System. It is difficult to discover 
how those who admit the force of the axiom that the 
teacher makes the school, can deny the necessity of 
institutions for his special preparation. The maxim, 
Poeta nascitwr, nonfit, in its application to the teacher's 
profession, long Since became obsolete. There is no 
.longer any question in the minds of those that have 



BELmOffS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 329 

properly studied the subject, that every person has more 
or less of the talent requisite in the teacher. All are 
bom with the same order of faculties. No sound mind 
is wholly destitute of reason, judgment, memory, imagi- 
nation, association, &c. Firmness, decision, the power 
to communicate and to command, are vouchsafed in a 
greater or less degree to every .individual, and each of 
these powers is susceptible of cultivation. That which 
is weak, may, by a judicious course of exercise, be devel- 
oped and made comparatively strong. It is one of the 
functions of education to strengthen that which is weak, 
and to supply that which is wanting in the possibilities 
of our nature. Whatever may be regarded as the neces- 
sary natural endowments of a teacher, must be found to 
exist to some extent in all persons. Hence, by a proper 
system of special training, these natural endowments will 
be" strengthened and the individual will be made capable 
of more acceptable service, than would be possible in the ' 
absence of such culture. Not that all can be rendered 
equally capable. Some, indeed, there are, that can never 
be made fully successful in this calling, that, under .the 
most favorable conditions, may even utterly fail. The 
same will hold true in regard to all professions and 
occupations. But it is here insisted that by special 
training and preparation the average quality of the 
practitioners in any profession will be vastly improved, 
while those that have the requisite talents will be made 
capable of far higher achievements than if deprived of 
the facilities for a cultivation suited to their wants. 

But experience has settled what reason and common 
sense had previously affirmed. The Normal school is no 
longer an experiment. It is no -longer on trial. For 
more 'than a hundred and fifty years in Europe, and 
more than an entire generation in America, it has been 



830 THE TBACHBE'S E-OTD-BOOK. 

"bringing forth fruits meet for its justification, and it has 
already taken its place as an indispensable adjunct to a 
complete common school system. It only remains to per- 
fect and extend it, until it shall be able to yield a continu- 
ous supply of qualified teachers for all the schools of the 
nation. It may be said to stand to the common school, 
somewhat in the relation of a cause to its effect. The 
common schopl is nothing, or perhaps it may be worse 
than nothing, with an ignorant and unskillful teacher. 
It may be regarded as an engine, while the Teachers' 
Seminary supplies the right kind of power, without 
which the machinery, is useless, or is turned to evil 
account. The two are but parts of a symmetrical 
whole. There is, there can be, no competition, no antag- 
onism of interests. Both should be cherished as the 
promoters of the highest welfare of the people, because 
by their combined and harmonious action they are to 
' supply that mental and moral food that is the life and 
joy of a rational existence. 

It is sometimes claimed that a thorough knowledge of 
the subjects to oe taught is all that is necessary for success- 
ful teaching. But observation, reason, and experience 
alike concur in refuting this assumption. It is well 
known that many of the best scholars utterly fail as 
teachers. Why should this be the case, if mere literary 
attainments are sufficient ? And if scholarship were the 
only condition essential to success, how is it that our 
high schools, academies, and colleges have never been 
able to give us a supply of competent instructors ? It 
is admitted that scholarly attainments are indispensable. 

But other qualifications are equally necessary. The 
power to communicate; a keen insight into, and a*warm 
sympathy with the child's nature; a mastery of the art of 
questioning ; the ability to command, control, and influ- 



EELATICXNS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 331 

ence the young ; a knowledge of the history and nature 
of education ; of school organization and management, 
and of the best methods of conducting the compli- 
cated operations of the school, all these and many 
other things, are quite as important as high attainments 
in literature, science, and the arts. There are immu- 
table principles in. education, and there are methods based 
upon them that must be modified according to the 
circumstances 'of time, place, and persons, under which 
they are to be applied. And more than this, the young 
teacher must be trained by instruction, practice, and 
criticism to a knowledge of these principles and methods, 
and to their judicious application to the details of school 
work Education does not consist merely in imparting 
knowledge. It is rather the formation of character 
according to a high standard of manhood and woman- 
hood. This great work must surely be cpnsidered not 
only as an art, but as really the highest and most difficult 
of all arts, with its conditioning principles lying down 
deep in the nature of man. These principles can not be 
learned and applied by the great mass of teachers unless 
taught in institutions especially set apart for the work. 
Hence, Normal schools must not only claim, but conquer 
and hold, a place in a complete system of education. 
This, indeed, they have already done, and will continue 
to do, until there shall be left none to question their 
necessity, or deny them their rights as a co-ordinate 
branch of the system. 

It is not here assumed that all who are trained in a 
teachers' seminary will prove successful in the profession. 
To set up such a claim, would be not only to fly in the 
face of history, but it would be to claim more for the 
Normal school than for any other human instrumentality. 
Men fail in every profession and calling, even after hav- 



332 . THE TEACHER'S HATO-BOOE. 

ing made it a special study. There are lawyers without 
clients, clergymen without congregations, and physicians 
without patients. But no one will for this reason deny 
the necessity of the institutions that matriculated them. 
This may however be affirmed in every such case, that 
the quality of the work done with the training will be 
far superior to that produced without it. A large pro- 
portion of those specially-trained teachers who may not 
prove entirely successful in the work, would nevertheless 
have pursued it in the absence of such preparation. 
That the quality of their work is greatly improved by 
the advantages they have enjoyed, will hardly be ques- 
tioned by any who will give to the subject the consider- 
ation that it deserves. 

3. The Teachers' Institutes and Common 
Schools. The point that teachers need special prepara- 
tion for their work has already been established, both by 
reason and experience. The Normal school and the Insti- 
tute are among the results of this conviction. They had 
their origin in. a felt necessityfor greater learning, skill, 
and devotion in the work of the school. In the present 
stage of their development, however, the Normal schools 
can supply but a small proportion of the teachers actually 
required to meet the public wants. They are gradually 
raising the standard of education, wherever they have 
been established. The schools taught by their gradu- 
ates become new centers of influence radiating light in 
every' direction. Eventually, they must be made co-ex- 
tensive with the common school system of which they 
form a necessary part, and will be adequate to supply 
the demand for skilled labor in the educational field. In 
the meantime, the institutes must be brought into requi- 
sition to reach the great mass of teachers and afford them 
such special instruction as it may be practicable to sup- 



RELATIONS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 333 

ply. Their office is, to a certain extent, identical with 
that of the Normal schools, to make better teachers, 
while they sem the further valuable purpose of bring- 
ing together the members of a common profession, uni- 
ting them in the bonds of a common sympathy, and 
inspiring them with a generous enthusiasm in their 
great and important work. The amount of instruction 
that the institutes can impart is limited, it is true, but 
it serves a most valuable end in opening up to the 
teachers the avenues to professional improvement. Con- 
vened as they may be, each year, and at a different 
point in each county, every teacher who feels disposed 
to improve his professional qualifications may be brought 
under their influence. When thoroughly organized and 
wisely managed, they thus become invaluable as a means 
of elevating teachers and increasing the usefulness of 
the common schools. Their cost is trifling, while their 
influence upon public. sentiment, as well as upon the 
teacher, is most decided and salutary. Their relations 
to the elementary schools are thus as intimate, although 
perhaps not so important, as the more permanent Teach- 
ers' Seminaries. They can not fail to be eventually and 
universally recognized as an indispensable element in a 
complete system of public instruction. t . 

4. No School System complete without 
thorough supervision. One of "the most serious 
misfortunes attending the work of promoting the cause 
of public education is the fact that the masses of the 
people do not give the subject sufficient attention to 
enable them either fully to appreciate its importance or 
to comprehend the requisites to its complete success. 
The schools iu which, their children receive instruction, 
being close at hand, are the objects of their more especial 
care. If a school house has been provided, and a teacher 



334 THE TEACHEB'S HAND-BOOK. 

employed for a few months at a meager compensation, 
they give little thought to that which lies beyond the 
limited circle of their local interests. The qualifications 
of the teacher, the character of the school, and the con- 
ditions of its efficiency, are too often matters of indiffer- 
ence and neglect. The consequence is, that Supervision, 
and the special agencies for improving the teacher, like 
the Normal school and the Institute, are regarded as* 
excrescences upon the school system, not essential to its 
thorough working, "but as entailing upon the people a 
needless and burdensome expense. Hence, their exist- 
ence is constantly menaced with, if not destroyed by, 
opposition, and they are prevented from realizing that 
full measure of usefulness they are so well calculated to 
secure. In all material enterprises, in all. branches of 
business whose object is pecuniary gain, the necessity 
of intelligent and careful supervision is universally con- 
ceded. Deprived of it, no important undertaking can 
succeed. The 'merchant, the manufacturer, and the 
farmer, each wins the coveted prize of success in his busi- 
ness by carefully superintending its details. Our rail- 
way enterprises, our governmental machinery, our army 
and navy, are all organized and conducted upon the prin- 
ciple of subordination and supervision, such that each 
part and each person entering into the composition of 
the machinery is' held to the strictest line of duty. 
And experience has demonstrated conclusively, that a 
system of schools without the exercise of this function 
of supervision and control, without 'agencies for the 
special preparation* of teachers, is not a complete system, 
but merely a fragment, and, like a disordered machine, 
is incapable of fulfilling its beneficent designs. The 
utility of these adjuncts has been taught us by experi- 
ence, the best of teachers, T^ey are not merely a capri- 



BELATIOCTS TO THE COMMON SCHOOLS. 335 

cious invention, a " new-fangled notion," b.ut rather <m 
outgrowth of the necessities of a system of education, in a 
state of progress. So long as schools are needed for the 
education of the people, Normal schools, Institutes, and 
Supervision will be needed for perfecting the schools 
and enabling them to accomplish the purposes intended. 
As measures of economy, to secure a wise expenditure 
of the funds devoted to education, they more than 
justify many times their cost, while their moral and 
intellectual results are of a character to baffle all at- 
tempts at adequate computation. 

Every citizen should therefore accept the situation, 
cease his opposition, and give to the whole system, the 
common school and its related agencies, a cordial and 
hearty support. Until this policy shall have been- 
adopted and faithfully put in practice by the masses 
of the people, our schools can never adequately accom- 
plish their beneficent purposes, or command that confi- 
dence and respect to which, as the promoters of civiliza- 
tion and progress, 'they are so pre-eminently entitled. 



THE .END, 



' Of 



COMPLETE IN TWO INDEPENDENT PARTS. 



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PA1KEB & WATSON'S NATIONAL BEADEB& 

The salient features of these works which have combined to render them vQ 
popular may be briefly recapitulated aa follows : 

1. THE WOKD-BUILDIlirQ- SYSTEH. This famous progressive method fol 
Doting children originated and was copyrighted with, these books. It constitute 
a process with which the beginner with words of one letter is gradually intro- 
duced to additional lists formed ft 7 prefixing or affixing single letters, and is thus 
Jed almost Insensibly to the mastery of the more difficult constructions. This ia 
one ol the most striking modern improvements in methods of teaching. 

2, TBEATMENT OF PKONUNOIAUOIT. The wants of the youngest scholars 
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the student by this method need never be at a loss for a prompt and accurate ren- 
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3, ABTIOULATIOH .ABD ORTHOEPY are considered of primary importance. 

4, FUROTTJATIOlSr is inculcated by a series of interesting reading lessons, the 
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In constant use as manuals of literature, for reference as well as perusal 

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National Series of Standard School-Soofa. 

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TMs Series is designed to meet a general demand for smaller and cheapg 
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Times of the National Headers in large graded schools requiring more books than 
one ordinary series will supply. 



The most casual observer is at once impressed with the unparalleled 
mechanical beauty of Che Independent Headers. The Publishers believe that the 
aesthetic tastes of children may receive no small degree of cultivation from their 
very earliest school books, to say nothing of the importance of making study at* 
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view,-not lees than $95,000 was expended in their preparation before publishing, 
with a result which entitles them to be considered " The Perfection of Common 
School Books." 

Selections. They contain, of coarse, none but entirely new selections. These 
are arranged according to a strictly progressive and novel method of developing 
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tised by most school-book authors, avoided. 

The Illustrations, as may be Inferred from what has been said, are elegant 
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lowest to the highest This is the only series published of which this is true. 

The Type is semi-phonetic, the invention of Prof. Watson. By it every 
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without in any way mutilating or disguising the normal form of the letter t 

Elocution is taught by prefatory treatises of constantly advancing grade and 
completeness in each volume, which are illustrated by wood-cuts in the lower 
books, and by black-board diagrams in the higher. Prof. Watson is the first to 
introduce Practical Illustrations and Black-board Diagrams for teaching this 
branch. 

Foot Notes on every page afford all fhe incidental instruction which, the 
teacher is usually required* to impart Indices of words refer the pupil to the 
place of their first use and definition. The Biographies of Authors and others 
are in every sense excellent 

Economy. Although the number of pages in each volume is fixed at the 
minimum, for the purpose recited above, the utmost amount of matter available 
without overcrowding is obtained In the space. The pages are much wider and 
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any other series of the same type and number of pages. 

All the Great Features, Besides the above an the popular features of the 
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e National Series of Standard School-Socks. 

NATIONAL READERS. 



ORIGINAL AND 



'INDEPENDENT' 
TESTIMONIALS. 



SERIES, 



From D. H. HABKK, Supt. Puttie Schools, Hannibal, Mo. 
The National Series of Headers are now in use In our public schools, and I regard 
them tiu test that I nave ever examined or used. 

^WHON. J. K. Jnisos, Supt. tf Education. StoU tftogh Carittoa. 
I have carefully examined your new and beautiful Senee of Readers known as 
" The Independent Beadera,y and do not hesitate to recommend it aa the finest and 
moat excellent ever presented to the public. 






I would say that Parker &~W atebtfs Series of Beaders and'Bpdlers give the best 
satisfaction In our schools of any Series of Beaders and Spellers thathave ever been 
used. There is nothing published for which we would exchange them 
From PROP. H. SEEKS, ffew Brmmfds Academy, Tessas. 

eraving, and binding is excellent (S.) They contain choice selections from English 
Literature. &.) They inculcate good morals without any sectarian bias. (4) They 
are truly JSatkmal, because they teach pure patriotism and not sectional prejudice. 

We use no others, and have no desire to. Thegive entire satisfaction. We like 
the freshness and excellence of the selections, we like the biographical notes and 
the definitions at the foot of the page. We also like the white paper and clear and 
beautiful type. In short, we do not mow where to look for books which would be 
so satisfactory both to teachers and pupils. 

From PUBS. EOBBBT AXLTN, McKendree College, IB. 

Since my connection with this college, we have used in our preparatory depart- 
ment the Series of Headers known as the u National Headers," compiled by Parker 
& Watson, and published by Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. They are excellent: afford 
choice selections; contain the right system of elocutionary instruction, and are 
well printed and bound so as to be serviceable as well as interesting. I can com- 
mend them as among the excellent means used by teachers to make their pupils 
proficient in that noblest of school arts, GOOD EBADHW. * 

From W. T. Btoaas, Supt PuMic JScluxh, St. Louts, lo. 
I have to admire these excellent selections in prose and verse, and the careful 
arrangement which places first what is easy of comprehension, and proceeds g ' 
ally to what is difficult I find the lessons so arranged as to bring together o 
ent treatments of the same Topic, thereby throwingmuch light on the pupil's i 
audldoubt not adding greatly to his progress. The proper variety of sub: 
chosen, the concise treatise on elocution, tue beautiful typography and substantial 
binding-all these I find still more admirable than in the former series of ~ ' ' 
Headers, which I considered models in these respects. 

Fnm H. T. PmpFs, EM., tffte Bwrt tfWueation. Atlanta, Go. 
.TheBoard of Education of tids city have selected for use Jn the public schools 



s of National 



of Atlanta the entire series of your 

( Jhemistry and Philosophy. As a me , 

Textbooks, the subject of Headers was referred to me for examination. 



the entire series of your Independent Headers, together with Steele's 
and Philosophy. As a member of the Board, and of the Committee on 
s, the subject of Headers was referred to me for examination. I .gave a 



examination to ten (10) d 

_ at a decision upon the sole ( 
it of any extraneous influence, I very 
This verdict was approved by the ' 



. . 
es of Readers, ttdta 



don of merit, and entirely inde- 

y recommended the Independent 

and adopted by the Board. 



Pram sep&rt Qf HEV. W. T. BBAKTLT, D.D., late 




to ie\nown SfcSSeltion with 



The National Series of Standard School-Sooks. 

WATSON'S CHILD'S SPELLER. 

THE INDEPENDENT CHILD'S SPELLER, 

Price 35 Cents. 

This unique boot, published in 1873, is the flret to be consistently printed i* 
Imitation of writing; that is, it teaches orthography as we use it. It IB for the 
smallest class of learners, who Boon become familiarized 'with words by their forms, 
and learn to read writing while they epeJL 

EXTRACT FROM THE PREFACE. 

Success In teaching English orthography is etill exceptional, and it mast BO con- 
tinue until the principles involved are recognized in practice. Form IB foremost: 
the eye and the hand must be trained to the formation of words ; and since spelling 
is a part of writing, the written form only should be used. The laws of mental 
association, also especially those of resemblance, contrast, and contiguity in time 
and place should receive such recognition In the construction of the text-book as 
snan insure, whether consciously or not, their appropriate use and legitimate re* 
suits. Hence, the spelling-book, properly arranged, is a necessity from the first ; 
and, though primers, readers, and dictionaries may serve as aids, It can have no 
competent ftbstitute. 

Consistently with these views, the words used in the Independent Child's Speller 
have such original classifications and arrangements In columns In reference to 
location, number of letters, vowel sounds, alphabetic equivalents, and consonant 
terminations as exhibit most effectively their formation and pronunciation. The 
vocabulary is strictly confined to the simple and significant monosyllables in com- 
mon use. He who has mastered these may easily learn how to spell and pronounce 
words, of more than one syllable. 

The introduction is an illustrated alphabet in script, containing twenty-six pic- 
tures of objects, and their names, commencing both with capitals and small letters. 
Part First embraces the words of one, two, and three letters; Part Second, the 
words of four letters ; and Fart Third, other monosyllables. They are divided Into 
short lists and arranged In columns, the vowels usually in line, eo as to exhibit In- 
dividual characteristics and similarity of formation. The division of words into 
paragraphs is shown by figures In the columns. Each list is immediately followed 
by sentences for reading and writing, in which the same words are again presented 
with irregularities of form and sound. Association ia thus employed, memory 
tested, and definition most satisfactorily taught 

Among.the novel and valuable features of the lessons and exercises, probably the 
most prominent are their adaptedness for youngebldren and their being printed In 
exact imitation of writing. The author IwiieroK that hands large enough to spin a 
top, drive a hoop, or eaten a ball, are not too email to use a crayon, or a slate and 
pencil; that the child's natural desirw to draw and write should not be thwarted, 
but gratified, encouraged, and wisely directed; and that since the written form Is 
the one actually used in connection with spelling in after-life, the eye and the hand 
of the child should be trained to toat form from the first He hopes that thin little 
work, designed to precede all other spelling-books and conflict with none, may 
satisfy the need so universally recognized of a fit introduction to orthography, pw 
1 composition. 

5 



The. National Series of Standard School-Soot*. 

The National Headers and Spellers, 

THBIB BECOED. 

These books have been adopted by the School Boards, or official anthorily, of 
Che following important States, cities, and towns-in most cases tor exclusive no* 
K State of Minnesota, The State of Texas. 

The State of Missouri. 

The State of Alabama. 

The State of North Carolina* 

The State of Louisiana. 

Hew York. Illinois. Indiana. 

New York Ci1y. 



Troy. 




New Albany. 
Port Wayne. 






Erie. 

Scranton. 

Carlisle. 

Carbondale. 

Weetchester. 

Schuylkfll Haven. 

WUliamsport 

Norrifitown. 

Befiefonte. 

Wilkesbarre. 



Bock Island. 
&c., &c. 

Wisconsin. 





New Brunswick. 
Fbfllipsbnre. 
Orange, 
(fee., Ac. 

Delaware. 
Wilmington. 

D. 0. 



&c.,&c. 



Petersburg. 

Lynchbnrg. 

&c. 

South Carolina 

Columbia. 

Charleston. 

Georgia* 
Savannah. 

Louisiana. 
New Orleans. 

Tennesse^ 



the Wucattonat BuBettn records perloolcally an new points gained 



J5T%g National Series of Standard Schoot~&oofa. 

SCHOOL-ROOM CARDS. 



Baade's Beading Case, .**io oo 

A tonne containing movable cards, with arrangement for showing 
one sentence at a time, capable of 28,000 transpositions. 

Eureka Alphabet Tablet ....... .*i 5rf 

Presents the alphabet upon the Word Method System, by which the 
child will learn the alphabet la nine days, and make no small progress in 
reading and Gpelling in the same time. * * 

National School Tablets, 10 Nos. *8 oo 

Embrace reading and conversational exercises, object and moral les- 
sons, form, color, Ac. A complete set of these large and elegantly illus- 
trated Cards will embellish the school-room more than any otLer article 
of furniture. 



READING. 



Fowle's Bible Reader $J oo 

The narrative portions of the Bible, chronologically and topically ar- 
ranged, judiciously combined with selections from the Psalms, Proverbs, 
and other portions which inculcate important moral lessons or the great 
truths of Christianity. The embarrassment and difficulty of reading the 
Bible itself, by course, as a class exercise, are obviated, and its uaexnade 
feasible, by this means, 

North Carolina First Reader 40 

North Carolina Second Reader 65 

North Carolina Third Reader 1 oo 




Parker's Rhetorical Reader I oo 

Bed to familiarize Readers with the panses and other marks In 
use, and lead them to the practice of modulation and inflection of 



Introductory Lessons in Reading and Elo- 
cution .75 

Of similar character to the foregoing, fox less advanced chases. 

High School Literature 3 50 

Admirable selections from a long list of the world's best writers, for ex- 
erdse in reading, oratory, and composition. Speeches, dialogues, and 



Zhe National Series of Standard School-Books* 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

SMITH'S SERIES 

i, and comprises the most <MXB- 
* --- *-r and its companion 

1. Smith's Little Speller ........ $20 

First Bound in the Ladder of Leaning; 

2. Smith's Juvenile Deflner ....... 45 

Lessons composed of familiar words grouped with reference to similar 
signification or use, and correctly spelled, 'accented, and defined. 

3. Smith's Grammar-School Speller so 

Familiar words, grouped with reference to the sameness of sound of syl- 
lables different!? spelled. Also definitions, complete rules for spelling and 
formation of derivatives, and exercises in false orthography. 

4. Smith's Speller and Defmer's Manual 90 

A complete School Dictionary containing 14,000 words, with rations 
other useful matter in the way of Bales and Exercises. 

5. Smith's Etymology Small, 75; Complete . 1 25 

The flnrt and only Etymology to recognize the Anglo-Saoon our motto 
tongue,- containing also full lists of derivatives from the Latin, Greek, 
Gaelic, Swedish, Norman, Ac,, &c ; being, in fact, a complete etymology 
of the language for schools. 

Sherwood's Writing Speller ....... is 

Sherwood's Speller and Defmer ..... 15 

Sherwood's Speller and Pronouncer ... 15 

The Writing Speller consists of properly ruled and numbered blanks 
to receive the words dictated by the teacher, with space for remarks and 
corrections. The other volumes maybe used for the dictation or ordinary 
class exercises. 

Price's English Speller i ....... *15 

A complete spelling-book for all grades, containing more matter than 
"Webster," manufactured in superior style, and sold at a lower, price 
consequently the cheapest speller extant 

Northern's Dictation Exercises ..... 63 

Embracing valuable information on a t 



, 

in such a manner an at once to relieve the exercise of spelling of its 
tedium, and combine it with instruction of a general character calculated 
to profit and ""?<*- 

Wright's Analytical Orthography .... 25 

This standard work is popular, because it teaches the elementary sounds 
' In a plain and philosophical manner, and presents orthography and or- 
thoepy in an easy, uniform system of analysis or parsing. 

Fowle's False Orthography ....... 4a 

Exercises for correction. 

Page's Normal Chart ......... *a 75 

The elementary sounds of the langnago for the school-room walls. 
8 



2%e National Series of Standard School-Hooks* 

ORTHOGRAPHY-Continued, 

Barber's Critical Writing Speller 

u The Student's Own Band-Book of Orthography, Definitions, and Sentences, 
consisting of Written Exercises in the Proper Spelling, Meaning, and Use oj 
Words." (Published 1878.) This differs from Shewrood'a and other Writing 
Spellers in its more comprehensive character. Its blanks are adapted to writing 
whole sentences instead of detached words, with the proper divisions for number- 
ing, corrections, etc. Such aids as this, like Watson's Child's Speller and Sher- 
wood's Writing Speller, find their Teuton cTstre in the postulate that the art of cor- 
rect spelling is dependent upon written, and not upon spoken language, for its utifr 
}ty, if not for its very existence. Hence the indirectness of purely oral instruction. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Smith's Complete Etymology, ...... $1 25 

Smith's Condensed Etymology, ...... 75 

e Anglo-Saxo 
, Italian, Lati 
ately spelled, a 



Containing the Anglo-Saxon, French, Batch. German, Welsh, Danish. Gothic, 
Swedish, Gaelic, Italian, Latin, and Greek Boots, and the English words derived 
therefrom accurately spelled, accented, and defined. 



Prom Ho*. JNO. G. Mcltaw, late State Superintendent tf Wbconsin. 
I wish every teacher In the country had a copy of this work. 

From Rmsr. WH. F. PHMUPS, Mm. State Normal. 
The book is superb just what is needed in the department of etymology and 

From PBOT. C. H. VOTCLL, Pa. State Normal School. 

The Etymology (Smith's) whicVwe procured of you we like much. It IB the 
best work for the class-room we have seen. 

From HON. EDWABD BAT.T.AKD, Supt. of Common Schools, State of Maine. 

Many a teacher who has tamed his attention to the derivation of words has 
rejoiced In the helps famished by dictionaries and smaller "hand-book*," where 
his taste could be gratified, and the labors of patient students hare been available 
to his own improvement A treatise on this subject, called "A Complete Ety- 



The author, WVW. Smith"!* evidently a lover of this branch of study, and has fur- 
nished a manual of singular utility for its purpose. 



DIOTIONAEY. 



The Topical Lexicon, 

This work is a School Dictionary, an , 

a manual of general information. It differs from the t 

arranged by topics instead of the letters of the alphabet thus re 
paradox of a 'Tteadable Dictionary." An cnuflnaUy valuable B 

9 



y%g National Series of Standard School-Books. 

ENGLISH GEAMMAR. 



CLARK'S, DIAGRAM SYSTEM. 



Clark's Easy Lessons in Language, - - - W 35 

Published 1874. Contains illustrated object-lessons of the most attractive charac. 
ter, and is couched In language freed as much as possible from toe dry technicalities 
of the science. 

Clark's Brief English Grammar, ..... 60 

Published 1873. Fart I. IB adapted to youngest learners, and the whole forms a 
complete u brief course" in one Tolmne, adequate to the wants of the common 
school 

Clark's Normal Grammar, ........ l oo 

Published 1870, and designed to take the place of Prof. Clark's veteran "Prac- 
tical" Grammar, though tile latter is still famished upon order. The Normal le- 
an entirely new treatise. It is a fall exposition of the system as described below, 
with an the most recent improvements. Some of its peculiarities are A happy 
blending of SYNTHESES with ANALYSES; thorough Criticisms of common errors 
in the use of our Language; and important improvements in the Syntax of Sen- 
tences and of Phrases. 

Clark's Key to the Diagrams, - * l oo 
Clark's Analysis of the English Language, eo 
Clark's Grammatical Chart, ....... *3 75 

The theory and practice of teaching grammarHn American schools is meeting 
with a thorough revolution from the use of this system. While the old method! 
offer proficiency to the pupil only after much weary plodding and dull memorizing, 
this affords from the Inception the advantage of practical Object Teaching, address! 
ing the eye by means of illustrative figures ; furnishes association to the memory. 
its most powerful aid. and diverts the pupil by taxing his ingenuity. Teachers 
who are using Clark's Grammar uniformly testify that they and their pupils find it 
the most interesting study of tho school course. 

JOike all great ana radical improvem 



much unreasonable opposition. It has not only outlived the {greater part of this 
opposition, but finds many of its warmest admirers among those who could not 
at first tolerate so radical an innovation. All it wants is an impartial trial to con- 
vince the most skeptical of its merit. No one who has fairly and intelligently 
tested it in the school-room has ever been known to go back to the old method. 
A great success is already established, and it is. easy !o prophecy that the day is 



. 

A great success is already established, and it is easy to prophecy that the day is 
not far distant when It will be the only system qf teaching MglW Grammar. As 

e this obvious ant 




Welch's Analysis of the English Sentence, l 25 

.Remarkable for Its new and simple classification, its method of treating conneo 
tires, its explanations of the idioms and constructive laws of the language, etc. 
10 



The National Series 'of Standard Softool-Books. 

Clark's Diagram English Grammar, 

TESTIMONIALS. 
From J. A. T. Dmnris, Principal Dutoque R. C. Academy, Iowa. 

In my opinion, it Is well calculated by Its system of analysis to develop those rational 
Acuities which in the old systems were rather left to develop themselves, while th 
memory was overtaxed, and the pupils discouraged. 

From, B. A. Cox, School Commissioner, Warren Comfy, JZHnois. 

I have examined 160 teachers in the last year, and those having studied or taught 
Clark's System have universally stood fifty per cent better examinations than those 
having studied other authors. 

From M. II. D. BUBKEX, Principal Maaontc Inrtttwfc, Georgetown, Tennessee. 

I traveled tiro years amusing myself in instructing (exclusively) Grammar classes 
with Clark's system. The first class I instructed fifty days, but found that this was 
more time than was required to impart a theoretical knowledge of the science. 
During the two years thereafter I Instructed classes only thirty days each. Invariably 
[ proposed that unless I prepared my classes for a more thorough, minute, and accu- 
rate knowledge of English Grammar than that obtained from the ordinary books and 
In the ordinary way in from one to two years, I would make no charge. I never 
foiled in a solitary case to fer exceed the hopes of my classes, and made money and 
character rapidly as an instructor. 

From A. B. DOUGLASS, School Commissioner, Delaware County, New York. 

I have never known a class pursue the study of it under a live teacher, that haa not 
succeeded ; I have never known it to have an opponent in an educated teacher who 
had Wwrow/AJt/ investigated it; I have never known tn ignorant teacher to examine 
it ; I have never known a teacher who has used it, to try any other. 

From J. A. Down, Teacher and Lecturer on Englith Grammar, Kentucky. 

We an tempted to assert that it foretells the dawn of a brighter age to oar mother- 
tongue. Both pupil and teacher can fare sumptuously upon its contents, however 
highly they may have prized the manuals into which they may have been initiated, 
and by which their expressions have<been moulded. 

Prom W. T. CHAPMAN, Superintendent Public Schools, Wellington, OMo. 

I regard Clark's System of Grammar the best published. For teaching the analysfe 
of the Engfrh Language, It surpasses any I ever used. 

From F. 8. LYW, Principal South Jforwalk Union School, Connecticut. 

During ten years 1 experience in teaching, I have used six different authors on the 
ubject of English Grammar. I am fully convinced that Clark's Grammar is better 
calculated to make thorough grammarians than any other that I have seen. 
From CATALOGUE or ROHBEB'B COXMKBOIAL COLLSOB, St. Louis, Missouri. 

We do not hesitate to assert; without fear of successful contradiction, that a better 
knowledge of the English language can be obtained by this system in six weeks than 
by the old methods in as many mouths. 

From A. PICKETT, President of the State Teaeherf Association, Wisconsin. 

A thorough experiment in the use of many approved autho/s upon the subject of 
English Grammar has convinced me oi the superiority of Clark* When the pupil has 
completed the course, he Is left upon a foundation of principle, and not upon the <B 
nmi of the author. 

From G>a F. HOFAXLAVD, JPWn. McAVtobrvitte Academy, Junta* Co., Penn. 

At the first examination of public-school teachers by the county saperintendent, 
when one of our student teachers commenced analyzing a sentence according to Clark, 
the superintendent listened in mute astonishment until he had finisheoVthen asked 
what that meant, and finally, with a very knowing look, add such work wouldn't do 
taere, and asked the applicant to parse the sentence right, and gave the lowest certffi- 
oates to all who barely meuti<medClark. Afterwards, I presented him with-a copy, 
and the next fall he permitted it to be partially used, while the third last fall, he 
openly commended the system, and appointed three of my best toachenr to explain It 
at the two Institutes and one County Convention held since September, 

SP- For further testimony of equal force, see the Publisher*' Bpeda> CtywJtt. a 
current numbers of the Educational Bulletin, 

11 



fke National Series of Standard School-Soofa. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

*>. 

NATIONAL QEOQBAPHIGAL SYSTEM, 

THE SERIES. 

I. MonteitfTs First Lesson* in Geography, . . ' . $ 35 

II. Monteith's New Manual of Geography, . . . 1 10 
II. McNally's System of Geography, 2 00 

INTERMEDIATE OB ALTEBNATE "VOLUMES. 

I*. Monteith's Introduction, to Geography, 63 

Z*. Monteith's Physical and Political Geography, ... 1 88 



ACCESSORIES. 

Monteith's Wall Maps 3 sets (see page 15), $*30 00 and *35 00 

Monteith's Manual of Map-Drawing (Allen's System) . 25 

Monteith's Map-Drawing and Object-Lessons, . . 75 

' Monteith's Map-Drawing Scale, *25 

1, PRACTICAL OBJECT TEACHING-, The infent scholar is first Introduced 
to a picture whence lie may derive notions of the shape of the earth, the phenom- 
ena of day and' night, the distribution of land and water, and the great natural 
divisions, which mere worde would fell entirely to convey to the nntutored mind. 
Other pictures follow on the same plan, and the child's mind is called upon to grasp 
no idea without the aid of a pictorial illustration. Carried on to the higher 
books, this System culminates in Physical Geography, where such matters as 
climates, ocean currents, the winds, peculiarities of the earth's crust, clouds and 
rain, are plctoriaQy explained and rendered apparent to the most obtuse. The 
inustrations used for this purpose belong to the highest grade of art 

2, OLEAB, BEAUTIFUL, AND CORRECT MAPS, la the lower Hunters the 
maps avoid unnecessary detail, while respectively progressive, and affording the 
pupa new matter for acquisition each time he approaches in the constantly en. 
larging circle the point of coincidence with previous lessons in the moreete 
mentary books. In the Physical and Political Geography the maps embrace many 
new and striking features. One of the most effective of these is the new plan fin 
displaying on-each map tte relative sizes of countries not represented; thus obvt 
ating much confusion which has arisen from the necessity of presenting maps In 
toe same atlas drawn on different scales. The maps of " McNally" have long been 
celebrated for their superior beauty and completeness. This is the cnjy school- 
book in which the attempt to make a complete atlas also clear and dfcSnd, has 
been successful. The map coloring throughout the series Is also noticeable,, 
Delicate and subdued tints take the place of the startling glare of Inharmonious 
polore which too frequently in such treatises dazzle the eyes, distract the atten- 
tion, and serve to overwhelm the names of towns and the natural features of the 

12 



The National Series of Standard School-Books. 

r i ii 'i - 

GEOGRAPHY-Continued. 

3, THE VA2TETT 01 EAP E2EEOISE, Stertog each time from a different 
basis, the pupil in many instances approaches the game fact no less than sfa 
times, thus indelibly impressing it upon his memory. At the same time this syfr 
tern is not allowed to become wearisome the extent of exercise on each subject 
being graduated by its relative importance or difficulty of acquisition. 

4, TEE OMRAOTEB AHD ABMNGEMERT OF THE DESGBIPnVE 
TEXT, The cream of the science has been carefully culled, unimportant matter 
rejected, elaboration avoided, and a brief and concise manner of presentation cul- 
tivated. The orderly consideration of topics has contributed greatly to simplicity. 
One attention is paid to the facts in history and astronomy which are inseparably 
connected with, and important to the proper understanding of geography and 
euch only are admitted on any terms, fa a word, the National System teaches 
geography as a science, pure, simple, and exhaustive. 

5, ALWAYS UP TO THE TIMES. The authors of these boots, editorially 
peaking, never sleep. No change occurs in the boundaries of countries, or of 
counties, no new discovery is made, or railroad built, that is not at once noted 
and recorded, and the next edition of each volume carries to every school-room 
the new order of things. 

6, SUPEEIOE GRADATION, This is the only series which furnishes an avail- 
able volume for every possible class in graded schools. It is not contemplated 
thatapnpil must necessarily go through every volume in succession to attain 
proficiency. On the contrary, two will suffice, but three are advised ; and if the 
course will admit, the whole series should be pursued. At all events, the books 
are at hand for selection, and every teacher, of every grade, can And among them 
one exactly suited to his class. The beet combination for those who wish to. 
abridge the course consists of NOB. 1, 3, and 8, or where children are somewhat ad' 
vanced in other studies when they commence geography, Nos. 1*, 2, and 8. Where 
but two books are admissible, NOB. I*and3*, orUos. 9 and 8, are recommended. 

7i P02M OP 'A'-tfjB VflT.TTTirRfl ATTD MEOHABIQAIi EXECFUTIOlTi ^he maps 
nd text are no longer unnaturally divorced In accordance with the time-honored 
practice of making text-books on this subject as inconvenient and expensive as 
ossible. On the contrary, all map questions are to be found on the page opposite 
.jie map itself, and each book is complete in one volume. The mechanical execu* 
tfon is unrivalled. Paper and printing are everything that could be desired, and 
the binding Is A. 8. Barnes and Company's. 

8, MAP-DBATOTGh In 1869 the system of Map-Drawing devised by Professor 
JBBOHB Aiiisr was secured exclusively for this series. It derives its claim to 
originality and usefulness from the introduction of a fixed, unit qf measurement 
applicable to every Map. The principles being so few, simple and comprehensive, 
the subject of Map-Drawing is relieved of all practical difficulty. (In NOB. 2, 2% 
and 8, and published separately.) 

8, AmOGOTTS OUTLINES, At the same time with Map-Drawing was also in. 
traduced (in 'No. 2), a new and ingenious variety of Object Lessons, consisting of a 
comparison of the outlines of countries with familiar objects pjctorially represented. 
13 



The National Series of Standard School-ooks* 

QEOGRAPHY-Continued. 

MONTEITH'S INDEPENDENT COURSE. 
Elementary Geography (published 1874) . . $o so 
Comprehensive Geography (with 103 Maps) . 1 60 

TEST These volumes are not revisions of old works-Dot an addition to any 
series but are entirely new productions each by itself complete, independent, 
comprehensive, yet simple, brief, cheap, and popular ; or, taken together, the most 
admirable "series" ever offered for a common-school course. They present the 
Mowing features, skillfully interwoven the student learning all about one country 
at a time. 

LOCAL GEOGRAPHY, or the Use of Maps. Important features of 
the Maps are the coloring of States as objects, and the ingenious system for laying 
down a much larger number of names for reference than are found on any other 
Maps of same sizer-ond -without crowding. 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, or the Natural Features of the Earth, 
illustrated by the original and striking Relief Maps, being bird's-eye views or 
photographic pictures of the Earth's surface, 

DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY, including the Physical ; with some 
account of Governments, and Races, Animals, etc. 

HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY, or a brief summary of the salient 
points of history, explaining the present distribution of nations, origin of geo- 
graphical names, etc. 

MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY, including ASTBONOMICAL. 
which describes the Earth's position and character among planets ; also the Zones, 
Parallels, etc, 

COMPARATIVE GEOGRAPHY, or a system of analogy, con- 
meeting new lessons with the previous ones. Comparative sizes and latitudes aro 
shown on the margin of each Map, and all countries are measured in the u frame 
qf Kansas." 

TOPICAL GEOGRAPHY, consisting of questions for review, and 
testing the student's general and specific knowledge of the subject with sugges- 
tions for Geographical Compositions, 

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. A section devoted to ibis subject, with 
Maps, win be appreciated by teachers. It is seldom taught in our common schools 
because it has heretofore required the purchase of a separate book. 

GRAPHIC GEOGRAPHY, or MAP-DBAWDW by Allen's "Unit of 
Measurement" system (now almost universally recognized as without a rival) U 
introduced throughout the lessons, and not as an appendix. 

CONSTRUCTIVE GEOGRAPHY, or QLOBE-MAKINO. With eacb 
took a set of Map Segments is furnished, with which each student may make bis' 
own Globe by following the directions given. 

RAILROAD GEOGRAPHY, with a grand Map illustrating routes 
of travel in the United States. Also, a "Tour in Europe." 
14 



The National Series of Standard School-Books* 

The National % System of Geography, 

BY MONTETTH & MoNALLT. 
ITS EECOED. 

These popular textbooks hare been adopted, 117 official authority, for the 
schools of the following States and Cities -In most cases for exclusive and 
uniform use. 

STATES. 

California, Vermont, Florida, 

Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, 

Alabama, Louisiana, North Carolina, 

Tennessee, Oregon* Kansas, 

Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi. 

CITIES. 



New Tork Citj, 


Louisville, 


Nashville, 


Portland, 


Brooklyn, 


Newark, 


TTtica, 


Savannah, 


New Orleans, 


Milwaukee, 


Wilmington, 


Indianapoli&j 


Buffalo, 


Charleston, 


Trenton, 


Springfield, 


Richmond, 


Rochester, 


Norfolk, 


Wheeling, 


Jersey City, 


Mobile, 


Norwich, 


Toledo, 


Hartford, 


Syracuse; 


Lockport, 


Bridgeport, 


Worcester, 


Memphis, 


Dubuque, 


St Paul, 


Ban Francisco, 


Salt Lake City, 


Galveston, 


Vtekebnrg, 


Ac. 


Ac. 


&C. 


<c. 



STANDARD WALL MAPS. 

By JAMES -MONTBITH. 

fflonteith's School Haps, 8 Numbers, per set *$20 00 

The " School Series inclndea the Hemispheres (2 Maps), United States, North 
America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa.-Price. $2.50 each. 

Each Map is 28 x 34 inches, beautifully colored, has the names all hid down, and 
is substantially mounted on canvas with rollers. 

Monteith's Grand Haps, ? Numbers, per set 

(in locked box) *35 00 

The " Grand Series rt includes the Hemispheres a Map), United States; South 
America, Europe, Asia, Africa, The World on Mercator's Projection. Price, $5.00 
each. Size 42 x 53 inches, named laid down, colored, mounted, Ac., like the School 
Series. 

15 



National Series of Standard Schoot-Sooks. 

Monteith & McNally's National Geographies, 

CRITICAL OPINIONS. 
From B. A* Aiuus, Member qf Board of Education^ New TorL 

I have found, fcy examination of the Book of Supply of our Board, that consld' 
rablytfce largest number of any series now used in our public schools is the 
National, by Monteith and Mctf ally. 

From BBO. PATRICK, CMtf PrwtousM qf th Vast IMucafomal Society tf the 

dnasTUX BBOTHTBEB in the United States. 

i Having been convinced for some tizae past that the series of Geographies to 
Use in our schools were not giving satisfaction, and came far short of meeting 
our most reasonable expectations, I have felt it my imperative duty to examine 
Into this matter, and see if a remedy could not be found. 

Copies of the different Geographies published in this country have been place* 
at our command for examination. On account of other pressing: duties we hard 
not been able to giveaa much time to the investigation of all these different series 
as we could have desired ; yet we have found enough to convince us that there are 
many others better than those we are nowusing; but we cheerfully give our most 
decided preference, above all others, to the National Series, by Monteith & MeNally. 

Their easy gradation, their thoroughly practical and independent character, 
their comprehensive completeness as a mil and accurate system, the wise dls- 
crimination shown in the selection of the subject matter, the beautiful and copious 
Illustrations, toe neat cut type, the general execution of the works, and offier a\ 
ceKencteS) will commend them to the Mends of education everywhere. , 

From the "Hojo MONTHLY," Nashville, Tenn. 

MOKTETTH'S AND HoIfcxxT's GEOCUUPBTJS. Geography is so closely con- 
nected with Astronomy, History, Ethnology, and Geology, that it is difficult to 
define its limits in the construction of a text-book. If the author confines himself 
strictly to a description of the earth's surface, his book will be dry, meager, and 
unintelligible to a child* If, on the other hand, he attempts to give information 
on the cognate sciences, he enters a boundless field, and may wander too far. It 
seems to us that the authors of the series before us have hit on the happy medium 
between too much and too little. The First Lessons^ by applying- the system of 
object-teaching, renders the subject so attractive that a child, just able to read, 
may become deeply interested in it The second book of the course enlarges the 
view, but stffl keeps to the maps and simple descriptions. Then, in the third 
book, we have Geography combined with History and Astronomy. A general 
view of toe solar system is presented, so that the pupil may understand the 
earth's position on the map of the heavens. The first part of the fourth book 
teats of Physical Geography, and contains a vast amount of knowledge com- 
pressed into a small space. It is made bright and attractive by beautiful pictures 
and suggestive ffluatrations, on the principle of object-teaching. The maps in 
the second part of this volume are remarkably clear, and the map exercises are 
copious and judicious. In the fifth and last volume of the series, the whole sub* 
ject is reviewed and systematized. This Is strictly a Geography. Its maps are 
beautifully engraved and clearly printed. The map exercises are fun and com- 
prehensive. la all these books the maps, questions and descriptions are given in 
the same volume. In most geographies there are too many details and minute 
descriptions more than any child out of purgatory ought to be required to learn. 
The power of memory is overstrained ; there is confusion no clearly defined idea 
b forms! & the child's mind. But in these books, in brief, pomted descriptions, 
and constant nee of crigtt, Accurate maps, the whole subject is photographed oit 
wemind. \ 



The National Series of Standard School-Books. 

MATHEMATICS. 



DAVIES' NATIONAL COURSE. 

AEITHMETIC. 

BLATBD 

1. Davies' Primary Arithmetic, $ 25 $ 82 

2. Davies' Intellectual Arithmetic, . 40 4$ 

3. Davies' Elements of Written Arithmetic, . . , . 50 60 

4. Davies 1 Practical Arithmetic, 90 1 00 

Key to Practical Arithmetic 90 

5. Davies' University Arithmetic,. 140 150 

Key to University Arithmetic, *1 40 

ALGEBRA. 

1. Davies' New Elementary Algebra, *1 25 1 85 

Key to Elementary Algebra, *1 25 

2. Davies' University Algebra, 1 50 1 60 

Key to University Algebra, *1 50 

3. Davies' New Bourdon's Algebra, 2 25 2 88 

Key to Bourdon's Algebra, *2 25 

GEOMETRY. 

1. Davies' Elementary Geometry and Trigonometry, 1 40 1 50 

2. Davies' Legendre's Geometry 2 25 2 88 

3. Davies' Analytical Geometry and Calculus, ... 2 50 2 63 

4. Davies' Descriptive Geometry, 2 75 2 88 

5. Davies' New Calculus, 2 00 

ME3ST3URATIOK 

1. Davies' Practical Mathematics and Mensuration, . 1 50 1 60 

2. Davies' Elements of Surveying, 2 50 2 63 

3. Davies' Shades, Shadows, and Perspective,. , . 3 75 3 88 

MATHEMATICAL SCIENCE. 

Davies 7 Grammar of Arithmetic, * 50 

Davies' Outlines of Mathematical Science, *1 00 

Davies' Nature and Utility pf Mathematics, 8vo, *2 00, 12mo, *1 50 

Davies' Metric System, *1 50 

Davies & Peck's Dictionary of Mathematics, *5 00 

Davies' Foundations Mathematical Science, ..,.,.* 25 
17 



tte National Series 0j" Standard 

MATH EM ATlCS-Coirttnued. 

ARITHMETICAL EXAMPLES. 
Reuck's Examples in Denominate Numbers $ so 
Reuck's Examples in Arithmetic * oo 

These volumes diffei from the ordinary arithmetic in their peoolii 
practical character. They are composed mainly of examples, and afl 
the most eerere and thorough discipline for the mind. While a b 



which should contain a complete treatise of theory and practice would ba 
too cumbersome for erery-aay use, the insufficiency of practical example* 
AS* been a source of complaint. 

HIGHER MATHEMATICS. 
Church's Elements of Calculus ..... 2 50 

Church's Analytical Geometry ...... 2 50 

Church's Descriptive Geometry, with Shades, 

Shadows, and Perspective ....... 4 00 

These volumes constitute the "West Point Coarse 1 * in their several 
departments. 

Courtenay's Elements of Calculus .... a oo 

A Trtrk especially popular at the South. 

Hackley's Trigonometry ........ 2 50 

With applications to navigation and surveying, nautical and practical 

Peck's Analytical Geometry ...... i 75 

Peck's .Practical Calculus ........ 175 

APPLIED MATHEMATICS. 
Peck's Ganot's Popular Physics ..... l 75 

Peck's Elements of Mechanics ..... 2 oo 

Peck's Practical Calculus ....... l 75 

Peck's Analytical Geometry, ...... l 75 

Prof. W. Q-. Peck, of Columbia College, has designed the first of these works fox 
the ordinary wants of schools in the department of Natural Philosophy. The 
other volumes are the briefest treatises on those subjects now published. Their 
methods are purely practical, and unembarrassed by the details which ra&tr con- 
fuse ^ nr> simplify science. 

SLATED ARITHMETICS. 




, 

detached. When folded up, the slate preserves ezaxnples and memoranda til' 
needed. The material usedis as durable as the stone sMe. The additional coot 
9f books thus improved is trifling. 

18 



National Series of Standard School-Books. 

Davies' National Course of Mathematics, 

TESTIMONIALS. 

From L. YAK BOKHELEN, State Superintendent PuWfc Instruction, Maryland. 

The series of Arithmetics edited by Prof. Davies, and published by your firm, 
aave been used for many years in the schools of several counties, and. the city oJ 
Baltimore, and have been approved by teachers and commissioners. 

Under the law of 1865, establishing a uniform system of Tree Public Schools, 
these Arithmetics were unanimously adopted by the State Board of Education, 
after a. careful examination, and are nowused in all the Public Schools of Mary- 
land. 

These facts evidence the high opinion entertained by the School Authorities ol 
the value of the series theoretically and practically. 

From HORACE WEBSTER, President of the College of New York. 
The undersigned has examined, with care and thought, several volumes of Da- 
Ties 1 Mathematics, and is of the opinion thac, as a whole, it is the most complets 
and best course for Academic and Collegiate instruction, with which lie is ao 

From DAVID N.Cim?, State Supsrintwdent of C<mmm' Schools, Connecticut. 

I have examined Davies 1 Series of Arithmetics with some* care. The language 
is clear and precise each principle is thoroughly analyzed, and the whole so at 
ranged as to facilitate the work of instruction. Having observed the satisfaction 
and success with which the different books haver been used by eminent teachers, 
it gives me pleasure to? commend them to others. 

FnmS. 0. Wnsosr, Cliairman, GommMteion ZfecWtooifes, Washington,:). & 
I consider Davies' Arithmetics decidedly superior to any other series, and in 
this opinion I am sustained, I believe, by the entire Board of Education and Corps 
of Teachers in this city, where they have been used for several years past. 

From JOHN L. CAMTOECI, Professor of Mathematics, Waoash Coflege, Indiana. 
A. proper combination of abstract reasoning and practical illustration Is the 
chief excellence in Prof. Davies' Mathematical works. I prefer his Arithmetics, 
Algebras, Geometry and Trigonometry to all others now in use, and cordially re- 
commend them to all who desire the advancement of sound learning. 

ffrm MAJOB J. H. WnrmEror, Gowrmertf Inspector of MUttcry &&>(&> 
Be assured, I regard the works of Prof. Dodes, with which I am acquainted, as 
by for the best text-books in print on the subjects which they treat 1 shall cer- 
tainly encourage their adoption wherever a word from me may be of any avail. 

From T. 3oC. BAUOAMTINB, Prof. MaShemctfica Cumberland Cofleye, JEemtue&y. 
\ have long taught Prof. Davies' Course of Mathematics, and I continue to like 
iheir working. 

From JOHN MoLoAS BEIJJ, B. A., Prlrt. f Lwer Canada College. 
I have used Daviea 1 Arithmetical and Mathematical Series as text-books in the 
schools under my charge for the last six years. These I have found of great effi- 
cacy in exciting, invigorating, and concentrating the intellectual faculties of the 



ii treatise serves as an introduction to the next higher, by the similarity of 

Its reasonings and methods ; and the student is earned forward, by eacy and 
gradual steps, over tho whole Held of mathematical inquiry, find that, too, in a 
shorter time than is usually occupied in mastering a single department. I sincere- 
ly and heartily recommend them to the Attention of my Sallow-teachers in Canada. 

From D. W. Sraaaai, Prln. FMMtoAan Academy, CM Springs, Texas. 
I have used Daviea 1 Arithmetics tin I know them nearly by heart A better 
Series of school-books never were published. I have recommended them until 
they are now used in all this region of country. 



A large mass of similar " Opinions " may be obtained by fiddveesm? the pub. 
ttthers for special circular for Davies' Mathematics, New recommendations an 
d in current numbers of the Educc^mi JBufietin. 

19 



National Series of Standard School-Soote. 

DAVIES' HATIOlfAL OOUESE of MATHEMATICS, 

ITS RECORD. 

In claiming for ibis series the flist place among American text-books, of what 
ever class, the Publishers appeal to the magnificent record* which its volume* 
have earned during the Wrty-Jtoe years of Dr. Charles Davies' mathematical 
labors. The unremitting exertions of a life-time have placed Ms modern series on 
the same proud eminence among competitors that each of its predecessors hat 
successively enjoyed in a course of constantly improved editions, now rounded ttf 
their perfect fruition for It seems almost that this science is susceptible of no 
farther demonstration. 

During the period alluded to, many authors and editors in this department havs 
started into public notice, and by borrowing ideas and processes original with Dr. 
Davies, have enjoyed a brief iopularl1y, but are now almost unknown. Many of 
the series of to-day, built upon a similar basis, and described as " modern books," 
are destined to a similar fete ; while the most far-seeing eye will find it difficult to 
flx the time, on the basis of any data afforded by thoir past history, when these 
books wiH cease to increase and prosper, and fix a still firmer told on the affection 
of every educated American. 

One cause of this unparalleled popularity is found in the fact that the enterprise 
of the author did not cease with the original completion of his books. Always a 
practical teacher, he has incorporated in his text-books from time to time the ad- 
vantages of every Improvement in methods of teaching, and every advance in 
science. During all the years in which he has been laboring, he constantly sub- 
mitted Ma own theories and those of others to the practical test of the class-room. 
approving, rejecting, or modifying them as the experience thus obtained might 
suggest In this way he has been able to produce an almost perfect series of 
class-books, m which every department of mathematics has received minute and 
xhausttve attention. 

Nor has he yet retired from the field. Still in the prime of life, and enjoying a 
ripe experience which no other living mathematician or teacher con emulate, his 
pen is ever ready to carry on the good work, as the progress of science may de- 
mand. Witness his recent .exposition of the "Metric System," which received 
the official endorsement of Congress, by its Committee on Uniform Weights and 
Measures. 



_ 

SYBTBH is THE AOXNOWUEDGXD HA.TIOKAI. STANDARD BOB TUB 
UNITED STATUS, for the following reasons: 

1st It is the basis of instruction in the great national schools at West Point 
and Annapolis. 

2d. It has received the quasi endorsement of the National Congress. 

3d. It is exclusively used in the public schools of the National Capital 

4th. The officials of the Government use it as authority in an cases involving 
mathematical questions. 

6th. Our great soldiers and sailors commanding the national armies and navies 
were educated in this system. So have been a majority of eminent scientists hi 
this country. All these refer to " Davies " as authority. 

6th. A larger number of American citizens have received their education from 
this than from any other series. 

7th. The series has a larger circulation throughout the whole country tfcan any 
other, being extensively wed in every State in me Unicm, 
20 



The National Series of Standard 

MATHEMATICS-Continued. 

PECK'S ARITHMETICS. 

Bj the Prof, of Mathematics at Colombia College, New York. 

1. Peck's First Lessons in Numbers, - to 25 

Embracing all that is usually Included in what are called Primary and Intel- 
lectual Arithmetics; proceeding gradually from object lessons to abstract num- 
bers; developing Addition and Subtraction simultaneously: with other attrac- 
tive novelties. 

2. Peck's Manual of Practical Arithmetic, - so 

An excellent " Brief" course, conveying a sufficient knowledge of Arithmetic 
for ordinary business purposes. 

It Is thoroughly " practical," because the author believes the Theory cannot be 
studied with advantage until the pupil has acquired a certain facility in combin- 
ing numbers, which can only be had by practice. 

3. Peck's Complete Arithmetic, 90 

The whole subject-theory and practice presented within very moderate 
limits. This author's most remarkable faculty of mathematical treatment IB 
comprehended in three words: System, Conciseness, Lucidity. The directness 
and simplicity of this work cannot be better expressed than in the words of a 
correspondent who adopted the book at once, because, as he said, it is "free 
from that juggling with numbers" practiced by many authors. 

From, tM " Galaxy" N&w Tori. 

In the u Complete Arithmetic" each part of the subject is logically developed, 
first are given the necessary definitions ; second, the explanations of such signs 
(If any) as are used; third, the principles on which the operation depends; 
fourth, an exemplification of the manner in which the operation is performed, 
which is so conducted that the reason of the rule which is immediately thereafter 
deduced is made perfectly plain; after which follow numerous graded examples 
and corresponding practical problems. All the parts taken together are arranged 
in logical order. The subject is treated as a whole, and not as if made up of 
segregated parts. It may seem a simple remark to make that (for example) addi- 
tion is in principle one and the same everywhere, whether employed upon simple 
or compound numbers, fractions, etc., the only difference being in the unit in- 
volved; but the number of persons who understand this practically, compared to 
the number who have studied arithmetic, is not very great. The student of the 
"Complete Arithmetic 1 ' cannot fail to understand it. AH the principles of the 
science are presented within moderate limits. Superfluity of matter to supple- 
ment defective definitions, to make dear faulty demonstrations and rules ex- 
pressed either inaccurately or obscurely, to make provision for a multiplicity of 
cases for which no provision is requisite has been carefully avoided. The 
definitions are plain and concise ; the principles are stated clearly and accurately ; 
the demonstrations are foil and complete ; the rules are perspicuous and compre- 
hensive ; the illustrative examples are abundant and well fitted to familiarize th 
student with the application of principles to the problems of science and of 
every-daylife. 

g&* The Definitions constitute the power of the book. We hare never seen 
them excelled for clearness and exactness. Snoa School Journal, 
SI 



The National Series of Standard School-Books. 

PENMANSHIP~ 

Beers' System of Progressive Penmanship. 

Per dozen $1 68 

This "round hand 1 * system of Penmanship in twelve numbers, com- 
mends itself by its simplicity and thoroughness. The first four numbers 
are primary books. Nos. 5 to 7, advanced books for boys. NOB. 8 to 10, 
advanced books for girls. NOB. 11 and 12, ornamental penmanship. 
These books are printed from steel plates (angrared by Melees), and are 
unexcelled in mechanical execution. Large quantities are annually sold. 

Beers' Slated Copy Slips, per set *50 

AH beginners should practice, for a few weeks, slate exercises, familiar- 
izing them with the form of the letters, the motions of the hand and arm, 

&c7&B. These copy slips, 32 in number, r ---- 

complete series of v^*" 

on,I 

e National System of Penmanship, iu three distinct series (1> Com- 

School Series, comprising the first; six numbers ; (2) Business Series. 

Nos, 8, 11, and IS ; (3) Ladies' Series, Nos. 7, 9, and 10. 

Fulton & Eastman's Chirographic Charts,*3 75 

To embellish the school room walls, and furnish class exercise in the 
elements of Penmanship. 

PaySOn'S Copy-Book Cover, per hundred .*4 00 

Protects every page except the one in use, and furniflhea " Hues" with propel 
lope for the penman, under. Patented. 

National Steel Pens, Card with aU kinds . . . *15 

Pronounced by competent judges the perfection of American-made pens, u4 
superior to any foreign article. 



SCHOOL SERIEa 
School Pen, per gross, . .$ 60 
Academic Fen, do . . 3 
Fine Pointed Pen, per gross 70 

POPULAR SERIES. 

Capitol Pen, per gross, . . 1 00 

do do pr.boxofSdoz. S3 

Bullion Pen (imit. gold) pr. gr. 75 

Ladies'Pen *do 63 



Index Pen, per gross 



Albata Pen, per gross, 
BankPen, do . 

Empire Pen, do 
Commercial Von, per gross 



Express Pen, 
Falcon Fen, 
Elastic Pen, 



do 
do 
do 



ft 

40 
TO 
TO 
60 
75 
W 
T5 



Stimpson's Scientific Steel Pen, per gross .*2 oo 



gross in twelve contains a 

Stimpson's Ink-Retaining Holder, per doz. *2 oo 

A simple apparatus, whic^ does not get out of order, withholds at a, 
single dip as much ink as the pen would otherwise realize from a dozen 
trips to the Inkstand, which it supplies with moderate and easy flow. 

Stimpson's Gold Pen, $3 00; with Ink Retainer** 60 
Stimpson's Penman's Card, . . . \ . . .* 50 

One dozen Steel Pens (assorted polnte) and patent Ink-retaining Pen 



Jfalionat Series of Standard ScJiooi- Books. 

HISTORY. 



Bonteith's Youth's History, I 76 

A History of the United States for beginners. It is arranged upon the 
catechetical plan, with illustrative maps and engravings, review questions, ( 

dates in parentheses (that their study may be optional with the younger 
class of learners), and interesting Biographical Sketches of nil persona 
, who have been prominently identified with the history of our country. 

'Willard's United States, School edition, ... i 40 

Do. do. University edition, . 2 25 

The plan of this standard work is chronologically exhibited in front of 
the title-page; the Maps and Sketches are found useful assistants to the 
memory, and dates, usually BO difficult to remember, are so systemathally 
arranged as in a great degree to obviate the difficulty. Candor, impar- 
tiality, and accuracy, are the distinguishing features of the narrative 
portion. 

timiard's Universal History, 2 25 

The most valuable features of the " United States" are reproduced in 
this. The peculiarities of the work are its great conciseness and the 
prominence given to the chronological order of events. The margin 
marks each successive era with great distinctness, so that the pupil re- 
tains not only the event hut its time, and thus fixes the order o" " " ' 
firmly and usefully in his mind. Mrs. Willard's books are o. 
revised, and at all times written up to embrace important 1 
events of recent date. 



1 7 



Berard's History of England, .... 

By an authoress well known for the success of her History of the United 
States. The social life of the English people is felicitously interwoven, 
as in fact, with, the civil and military transactions of the realm. 

Ricord's History of Rome, 1 75 

Possesses the charm of an attractive romance. The Fables with which 
this history abounds are introduced in such a way as not to deceive the 
inexperienced, while adding materially to the value of the work as a reli- 
able index to the character and institutions, as well as the history of *hg 
Roman people. 

Banna's Bible History, 1 25 

The only compendium of Bible narrative which affords a connected and 
chronological view of the important events there recorded, divested of all 
superfluous detail. 

Nummary of History, Complete 60 

American History, $0 40. Iftench and Eng. Hist. 35 

A veil proportioned outline of leading events, condensing the substance of flu 
. ^ . ,. , . a use Into a series of statements so brief, that 



more extensive text-book in common t 

every word may be committed to memory, and yet BO comprehensive that it 

presents an accurate though general view of the whole continuous life of nation*. 

Marsh's Ecclesiastical History, 2 oo 

Questions to ditto, 75 

Affording the History of the Church In all agos, with accounts of tho 
pagan world during Biblical periods, and the character, rise, and progress 
of all Religions, as well as the various sects of the worshipers of Christ. 
The work, is entirely non-sectarian, though strictly cutliolio. 

Mill's History of the Jews, 1 75 

23 



The National Series of Standard School- Books. 

HISTORY-Continued. 

BARNES' ONE-TERM HISTORY. 
A Brief History of the United States, .$1 eo 

This ia probably the MOST ORIGINAL SCHOOL-BOOK published for many yean, 
in. any department. A few of its claims are the following: 

1. Brevity, The test is complete for Grammar School or intermediate 
classes, in 390 12mo pages, large type. It may readily be completed, if desired, in 
one term of study. 

2. Comprehensiveness,- Though. BO brief, this book contains the pith of ai3 
the wearying contents of the larger mann^ia, and a great deal more than the mem- 
ory usually retains from the latter. 

3. !nt$r0st has been a prime consideration. Small books have heretofore 
been bare, mil of dry statistics, unattractive. This one ia charmingly written, 
replete with, anecdote, and brilliant with illustration. 

4. Proportion Of Events. It is remarkable for tho discrimination with, 
which the different portions of our history are presented according to their im- 
portance. Thus the older works being already large books when tho civil war 
took place, give it less space than that accorded to the Revolution. 

5. Arrangement. In six epochs, entitled respectively, Discovery and Settle- 
ment the Colonies, the Revolution, Growth of States, the Civil War. and Current" 
Events. 

6. Catch Worfis. Each paragraph is preceded by its leading thought in 
prominent type, sending in the student's mind for the whole paragraph. 

7. Key Not9S. Analogous with this' is Ihe idea of grouping battles, etc., 
about some central event, which relieves the eameness BO common in such de- 
scriptions, and renders each distinct by some striking peculiarity of its own. 

& Foot Notes. These are crowded with interesting matter that is not 
strictly a part of history proper. They may be learned or not, at pleasure. They 
are certain in any event to be read. 

9. Biographies of aH the leading characters are given in full in foot-notes. 

10. Maps. Elegant and distinct Maps from engravings on copper-plate, and 
beautifully colored, precede each epoch, and contain all the places named. 

11. Questions are at the back of the book, to compel a more independent use 
i ! the text Both text and questions are o worded that the pupil must give in- 
t dligent answers DT HIS OWN WORDS. " Yes " and * l No " win not do. 

12. Historical EecreationS, These are additional questions to test the stu- 
dent's knowledge, in review, as: "What trees are celebrated in our history?" 
" When did a fog save our army ? " M What Presidents died in office f " " When 
was the Mississippi our western boundary?" ' l Who said, 'I would rather be 

13. T&3 Illustrations, about seventy in number, are the work of our best 
artists and engravers, produced at great expense. They are vivid and interest, 
ing, and mostly upon subjects never oefore illustrated in a school-book. 

14. ])ates. Only the leading dates are given in the text, and these are so 
associated as to assist the memory, but at the head of each page is the date of the 
event first mentioned, and at the rfoae of each epoch a summary of events azid dates. ' 

15. Th3 Philosophy Of History is studiously exhiblted-the causes and 
effects of events being distinctly traced and their interconnection shown. 

16. Impartiality. AH sectional, partisan, or denominational views are 
avoided. Tacts are stated after a carefiu comparison of all authorities without 
the least prejudice or favor. 

17. IndeZ.-A verbal tadez at the close of the book perfects it as ft work of 
reference. 

It will be observed that the above are all particulars in which School Histories 
b*ve been signally defective, or altogether wanting. Many other claims to favor 
<f shares in common with its predecessors. 

24 



The National Series of Standard School-Books . 

HtSTORY-Contmued. 

Hunter's Historical Games, ^th cards . . . w 76 

An invaluable accompaniment for the textbook, by way of stimulating Interest 
in the Glass ; affording, at once, Amusement and Instruction. 

SOME TESTIMONIALS FOR BARNES' BRIEF HISTORY. 

From HON. J. M. McEmraiE. Supt. Pub. Inst., Nebraska. 
I have examined your " Brief History of the United States," and like it real ioeU; 
and were I teaching a graded school, I think I should use it as a text-took. 

From, HON. H. B. WILSON. Burnt. Pub. lust., Minnesota. 

I have read with much interest the u One-Term History of the United States." I 
am much pleased with it. In my judgment, it contains all of the United States his- 
tory that the majority of pupils* In our common schools can spare time to study. 

From, PEBS. EDWABD BROOKS, MiXermWe State Normal School, Pa. 
It is a worV that will be a fevorite with teachers and pupils. Its scope and style 
especially adapt it for use in our public schools. I cordially commend it to teachers 
desiring to introduce an interesting and practical text-book upon this subject. 

JProm PBB?. BAKEEK, Sttffalo State Normal Stfiool. N. Y. 

In the copy of your " Brief History," before me, the important items to "be learned 

in history seem most ingeniously brought out and kept in the foreground. These 

items arc Hint, persons, places, and events. It has the appearance of an exceedingly 

fresh and systematic work. I think I shall put it into my classes 

From PBOF. WM. F. AIXBK, State Vhiv. of Wisconsin. 

I think the author of the new " Brief History of the United States " has been very 
successful in combining brevity with sufficient fullness and interest. Particularly, 
be has avoided the excessive number of names and dates that most histories con- 
tain. Two features that I like very muck are the anecdotes at the foot of the page 
and the " Historical Recreations " m the Appendix The latter, I think, is quite a 
new feature, and the other la very well executed. 

From S. G. WEIGHT, Assist.-Svpt. Pub, Inst., Kama*. 

It is with extreme pleasure we submit our recommendation of the " Brief History 
of the United States.* It meets the needs of young and older children, combining 
concision with perspicuity, and if "brevity is the BOU! of wit," this "Brief His- 
tory M contains not only that well-chosen ingredient, but wiedom sufficient to en- 
lighten those students wbo arc wearily longing for a "-new departure" from certain 
old and uninteresting presentations of fossilized writers. We congratulate a pro- 
gressive public upon a progressive book. 

From HON. NEWTOST BATEMAJT, Supt Pub Inst., IMncis. 
Barnes 1 One-Term History of the United States is an exceedingly attractive and 
spirited little book. Its claim to several new and valuable features seems well 
fonnded. Under the form of six well-defined Epochs, the History of the United 
States is traced tersely, yet pithily, from the earliest times to the present day. A 
good map precedes each epoch, wbereby the history and geography of the period 
may be studied together, as they always should be. The syllabus of each paragraph 
is made to stand in such, bold relief; by the use of large, heavy type, as to oe of 
much mnemonic value to the student The book is written in a sprightly and 

From the " Chicago Schoolmaster" (JBaiforidt). 

A thorough examination of Barnes' Brief History of the United States brings the 
examiner to the conclusion that it is a superior book in almost every respect. The 
book is neat In form, and of good material. The type is clear, large, and distinct. 
Tha dots and dates are correct Th arrangement of topics is just the thing needed 
In a history text-book. By this arrangement the pupil can see at once wfint he is 
expected to do. The topics are well selected, embracing the leading ideas or prin- 
cipal events of American history. . . . The book as a whole is much superior 
to any I have examined. So much do I think this, that I have ordered it for my 
class, and shall use it in my school. (Signed) B. W. BAKKB. 

Baker's Brief History of Texas, & 25 

25 



The National Series of Standard Sckoot-Boofa. 

DRAWING. 



Chapman's American Drawing Book, . . -*$6 oo 

The standard American text-book and authority m all branches of art. A com- 
Dilation of art principles. A manual for the amateur, and basis of study for the pro* 
* - - - - y - - --' ----rlvata instruction. 



"CONTENTS. "Any one who can Learn to Write can Learn to Draw." Primary 
Instruction in Drawing. Rudiments of Drawing the Human Head. Rudiments in 
Drawing the Human Figure. Rudiments of Drawing. The Elements of Geometry. 
Perspective.-0f Stadtfng and Sketching from Nature. Of Painting. Etching and 
Engraving Of Modeling. Of Composition Advice to the American Art-Student, 
The work is of course magnificently illustrated with all the original designs. 

Chapman's Elementary Drawing Book, . . 1 so 

A Progressive Course of Practical Exercises, or a text-book for the training of the 
eye andtand. It contains the elements from the larger work, and a copy should 
be in the hands of every pupil; while a copy of the "American Drawing Book," 
named above, should be at hand for reference D7 the class. 

The Little Artist's Portfolio, *50 

35 Drawing Cards (progressive patterns), 25 Blanks, and a fine Artist's Pencil, 
all in one neat envelope. 

Clark's Elements of Drawing, *i oo 

A complete course in this graceful art, from the first rudiments of outline to the 
finished sketches of landscape and scenery. 

Fowle's Linear and Perspective Drawing, *GO 

For the cultivation of the eye and band, with copious illustrations and direc- 
tions for the guidance of the unskilled teacher. 

Monk's Drawing Books Six Numbers, per set, *2 35 

Each book contains deaen large patterns, with opposing blanks. No. 1. Elemen- 
tary Studies. No. 3. Studies of Ullage. No. 3. Landscapes. No. 4. Animals, I. 
No. 5. Animals, IL No. 6. Marine Views, etc. 

Allen's Map-Drawing, . . . 25cts.; Scale, 25 

This method introduces a new era in Map-Drawing, for the following reasons :- 
1. It is a system. This is its greatest merit. 2. It is easily understood and taught 
--3. The eye is trained to exact measurement by the use of a scale. 4. By no spe- 
cial effort of the memory distance and comparative size are fixed in the minu.^ 
5. It discards useless construction of lines. 61 It can be taught by any teacher even 
though there may have been no previous practice in Map-Drawing. 7. Any pupil 
old enough to study-Geography can learn by this System, in a short time, to draw 
accurate maps. 8. The System is not the result of theory, but comes directly from 
the school-room. It hat? been thoroughly and successfully tested there, with all 
grades of pupils 9. It is economical, as it requires no mapping plates. It gives 
the pupil the ability of rapidly drawing accurate maps. 

Bipley's Map-Drawing, 1 25 

Based on the Circle. One of the most efficient aids to the acquirement of a 
knowledge of Geography is the practice of map-drawing. It is usefcl for the same 
reason ffiat the best exercise In orthography is the twitinff of difficult words. 
Sight comes to the aid of hearing, and a double impression is produced upon the 
memory. Knowledge becomes loss mechanical and more intuitive. The student 
who has sketched the outlines of a country, and dotted the important places, is little 
likely to forget either. The impression produced may be compared to that of a 
tracer who has been over the ground, wmle more comprehensive and accurate in 
detfldL 



National Series of Standard School-Books. 

BOOK-KEEPING. 



Folsom's Logical Book-keeping, tsoo 

Folsom's Blanks to Book-keeping, .... *4 50 

This treatise embraces the interesting and important discoveries 
of Prof. Polsom (of the Albany " Bryant & Stratton College"), the par- 
tial enunciation of which in lectures and otherwise has attracted 60 
much attention in circles interested in commercial education. 

After studying business phenomena for many years, he has arrived 
at the positive laws and principles that underlie the whole subject of 
Accounts : finds that the science ia based in Value as a generic term* 
that value divides into two classes with varied species ; that all the 
exchanges of values are reducible to nine equations ; and that all the 
results of all these exchanges are limited to thirteen in number. 

As accounts have been universally taught hitherto, without setting 
out from a radical analysis or definition of values, the eciei.ee has 
been kept in great obscurity, and been made as difficult to impart as. 
to acquire. On the new theory, however, these obtf acles are chiefly 
removed. In reading over the first part of it, In which the governing 
laws and principles are discussed, a person with ordinary intelligence 
will obtain a fair conception of the double entry process of accounts. 
But when he comes to study thoroughly these laws and principles as 
there enunciated and works out the examples and memoranda which 
elucidate the thirteen results of business, the student will neither fail 
in readily acquiring the science as it is, nor in becoming able intelli- 
gently to apply it in the interpretation of business. 

Smith & Martin's Book-keeping, 25 

Smith & Martin's Blanks, "60 

This work is by a practical teacher and a practical book-keeper. 
It is of a thoroughly popular class, and will be welcomed by every 
one who loves to see theory and practice combined in an easy, con- 
cise, and methodical form. 

The Single Entry portion is well adapted to supply a want felt in 
nearly all other treatises, which seem to be prepared mainly for the 
use of wholesale merchants, leaving retailers, mechanics, farmers, 
etc., who transact the greater portion of the business of the country, 
without a guide. The work is also commended, on this account, for 
general use in Young Ladies 1 Seminaries, where a thorough ground- 
lag in the simpler form of accounts will be invaluable to the future 
housekeepers of the nation. 

The treatise on Double Entry Book-keeping combines all the ad- 
vantages of the moat recent methods, with the utmost simplicity of 
application, thus affording the pupil an the advantages of actual ex- 
perience in the counting-house, and giving a clear comprehension of 
the entire subject through a judicious course of mercantile trans- 
actions. 

The shape of the book is such that the transactions can be pre* 
rented as in actual practice ; and the simplified form of Blanks- 
three in. number adds greatly to the ease experienced in acquiring 
, 



The National Series of Standard School-Bootes. 

NATURAL SCIENCE. 



FAMILIAR SCIENCE. 
Norton & Porter's First Book of Science, II 75 

By eminent Professors of Tale College. Contains the principles of Natural 
Philosophy, Astronomy, Chemistry, Physiology, and Geology. Arranged on the 
Catechetical plan for prunaiy classes and bscinners. 

Chambers' Treasury of Knowledge, .... i 35 

Progressive lessons upon-; -first, common things which lie most immediately 
aroundus, and first attract the attention of the young mind ; second, common objects 
from the Mineral, Animal, and Vegetable kingdoms, manufactured articles, and 
miosellaneoTis substances; third, a systematic view of Nature under the various 
sciences. May be need as a Reader or Test-book. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. 
Norton's First Book in Natural Philosophy, 1 oo 

anKe* ^ Profhseiylunsteatea 

Peck's Ganot's Course of Nat. Philosophy, . 1 75 



The standard text-book of Prance, Americanized and popularized by Prof. PECS. 
of Columbia College. The most magnificent system of illustration ever adopted in 
an American school-book is here found. For intermediate classes. cinuui>Msam 

Peck's Elements of Mechanics, ...... 2 oo 

A suitable introduction to Bartlett'a higher treatises on Mechanical Philosophy, 
and adequate in itself for a complete academical course. ""waupuy, 

Bartlelt's SBTEETIG, m mm, Mechanics, - each 5 oo 
Bartlelt's Acoustics and Optics, ..... 3 50 

Academ tem f Colleglate PMloso P n y> 1>J Prof- BAMMUS, of West Point JjHUtary 

Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Philos. (see P .34> i 50 
Steele's Philosophical Apparatus, .... *125 oo 

wiMSs^^ Ttowade ' 

GEOLOGY. 
Page's Elements of Geology, ....... 1 25 



Emmons' Manual of Geology, ...... 1 25 

tatSf to * GeologlBt: of the comti y ^ lwre Prodded a work worthy of his repu- 

Steele's 14 Weeks Course (seep. 34) ..... i 50 
Steele's Geological Cabinet, ........ *40 OG 

Infonrparts. Sold Beparately, if 



The National Series of SSanttard School-Bootes. 

Peck's Ganofc's Popular Physics. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

From PBOF. ALONZO Cotus, Cornell Cotieg^ Znoct. 
I am pleased with it I have decided to introduce it as a text-book. 

from H. F. JOHNSON, President Madison College, Sharon, jtfta. 
I am pleased with Peck's Ganot, and think it a magnificent book. 

from PBOF. EDWABD BEOOKS, Pennsylvania State Normal &ool. 
So eminent are its merits, that it will be introduced as the text-book upon ela 
meutary physics in this institution. 

Fro, JI. H. LOCKWOOD, Professor Natural Philosophy U. 8. Nanal Academy. 
1 am so pleased with it that I will probably add it to a cogrse of lectczee. given ttf 
the midshipmen of this school on physics. 

From GEO. S. MAOKIB, Professor Natural Ebtory CtoSwrsify tfKasMOe, Tenn. 

I have decided on the introduction of Peck's Ganot's Philosophy, as I am satis- 
fied that it is the best book for the purposes of my pupils that I hare seek, coo* 
bining simplicity of explanation with, elegance of illustration. 

From W. S. McBAB, Superintendent Vway Public Schools, Indiana. 
Having carefully examined a number of test-books on natural philosophy, I da 
not hesitate to express my deckled opinion in favor of Peck's Ganot. The matter, 
style, and illustration eminently adapt tho woxk to the popular wants. 

From BEV. SAMUEL McKnranBT, D.D., Preset Austin CoSsge, HmtsaAtie, Tastes. 

It gives me pleasure to commend it to teachers. I have taught some classes with 
It as our text, and must say, tor simplicity of style and clearness of illustration, I 
have found nothing as yet published of equal value to the teacher and pupil. 

Frwn C. Y. SFZAE, Principal MapUwooa Institute, Pittefald. Mass. 

I am much pleased with its ample illustrations by plates, and its clearness and 

simplicity of statement It covers the ground usually gone over by our higher 

classes, and contains many fresh illustrations from life or daily occurrences, and 

new applications of scientific principles to such. 

From J. A. BAOTIEID, Superintendent XarshaU PuMc Schools, Michigan. 
I have used Feck's Ganot since 1868, and with increasing pleasure and satisfao 
tion each term. I consider it superior to any other work on physics in its adapta- 
tion to our high schools and academies. Its illustrations are superb bettor 
than three times their number of pages of fine print* 

From A. SoHxmjas, Prof, of Mathematics in Bcddwin University, Sena, Ohio. 

After a careful examination of Peck's Ganotfs Natural Philosophy, and an actual 
rest of its merits as a text-book, I can heartily recommend it as admirably adapted 
to meet the wants of the grade of rtadents for which it is intended. Its diagrams 
and illustrations are unrivaled. We use it in the Baldwin University. 

From D, 0. YAK NOKOAH, Principal Van Norman JSwtf fete, New York. 

The Natural Philosophy of M. Ganot edited by Prof. Peck, is, in my opinion, 

the best work of .its kind, for the use intended, ever published in this country. 

clearness ofits definitions, or the fullness and beauty of its liluBtrationB, It Is cor 1 
tainly, I think, an advance.. 



^jjf For many similar testimonlftlBa see current numbers of the Zltuci rated Ed 
ttoationa 



tional BoB 

29 



The National Series of Standard School-jBooks. 

NATURAL SCIENCE-Continued. 

CHEMISTRY. 

Porter's First Book of Chemistry, . . . . tt oo 
Porter's Principles of Chemistry, ..... 2 oo 

The above are widely known as the productions of one of the most eminent scien- 
tific men of America. The extreme simplicity in the method of presenting the 
science, while exhaustively treated, has excited universal commendation. 

Darby's Text-Book of Chemistry, ..... 1 76 

Purely a Chemistry, divesting the subject of matters comparatively foreign to it 
(euch as heat, light, electricity, etc.), but usually allowed to engross too much atten* 
tion rn ordmary school-books. 

Gregory's Organic Chemistry, ...... 3 so 

Gregory's Inorganic Chemistry, ..... 2 50 

The science exhaustively treated. For colleges and medical students. 

Steele's Fourteen Weeks Course, ..... 1 so 

A successful effort to reduce the study to the limits of a single term, thereby 
making feasible its general introduction in institutions of every character. The 
anther's felicity of style and success in making the science pre-eminently interest- 
ing are peculiarly noticeable features. (See page 84.) 

Steele's Chemical Apparatus, ....... *20 oo 

Adequate to the performance of all the important experiments. 

BOTANY. - 
Thinker's First Lessons in Botany, .... 40 

For children. The technical terms arc largely dispensed with in favor of an 



Wood's Object-lessons in Botany, .... i so 
Wood's American Botanist and Florist, . . 2 50 
Wood's New Class-Book of Botany, .... 3 50 

* " TT -" i - J eij ~ i -- *-"-*- ---* - - - 




Wood's Plant Record, ........ 

A simple form of Blanks for recording observations in the field. 

Wood's Botanical Apparatus, ...... *8 oo 

A portable Trunk, containing Drying Press, Knife, Trowel, Microscope and 
4 a COP7 f W 0d " PJmt ^ord-Uomosm a wStoS 



Young's Familiar Lessons, 2 oo 

Darby's Southern Botany, 2 oo 

Tftn,K ._., , ^ ., a Physiological Botany, with vegetable products, 
" ind a comDlete Flora of tho feuihorn States/ 

30 



^ 27te National Series of Standard School-Books. 

WOOD'S BOTANIES, 



From Pass. E. B. BUELESON, Waco University, Twos, 
Wood's Botanies books that meet every want in their Una. 

From PHOT. J. G. RAXBTOK, Norristown Seminary, Fa. 
We find the " Class-Book " entirely satisfactory. 

From PBES. D. F. BITTLB, Romoke College, Va. 
Your text-books on Botany are the best for students. 

From PBOP. W. C. PnmoE, -Baldwin University, Ohio. 
his Flora the best we nave. His method of analysis is excellent. 

From PBOF. BLAKESLBB, State Normal School, Potsdam, N. Y. 
Tt is admirably concise, yet it does not seem to be deficient or obscure. In paper; 
print, and binding, the book leaves little to be desired. 

From PBEB. J. M. GBBQOET, State Agricultural College, HI. 
I find, myself greatly pleased with the perspicuity, compactness, and complete- 
ness of the book (Wood's Botanist and Florist). I shall recommend it freely to my 
Mends. 

ffivm PBOF. A. WINOHELL, University ofMichiffan. 

I am free to say that I had been deeply impressed, I may say almost astonished, 
at the evidences which the work bears of skillful and experienced authorship in 
this field, and nice and constant adaptation to the wants and conveniences oi 
students of Botany. I pronounce it emphatically an admirable tort-book. 

From PBOF. BICHABD OWEN, University of Indiana. 

I am well pleased with the evidence of philosophical method exhibited in the 
general arrangement, as well as with the clearness of the explanations, the ready 
intelligibility of the analytical tables, and the Illustrative aid furnished by the 
numerous and excellent wood-cuts. I design using the work as a text-book with 
my next class. 

From PBIN. B. B. ANDERSON, C&wibus Union School, Wisconsin. 

I have examined several works with a view to recommending some good test- 
book on Botany, but I lay them all aside* for " Wood's Botanist and Florist. 11 The 
arrangement of the book is in my opinion excellent, its style fascinating and attrac- 
tive, its treatment of the various departments of the science is thorough, and last, 
but far from, unimportant, I like the topical form of the Questions to each chapter. 
It seems to embrace the entire science. In fact, I consider it a complete, attractive, 
and exhaustive work. 

From M. A. MATMTHTAT.T., yew Haven Mffft S&fuxtf, Conn. 
It has all the excellencies of the well-known Class-Book of Botany by the same 
author in a smaller book. By a judicious system of condensation, the size of the 
Flora is reduced one-half, while no species are omitted, and many new ones are 
added. The descriptions of species are very brief, yet sufficient to identify the 
plautj and, when taken in connection with the generic description, form a complete 
description of the plant The book as a whole will suit the wants of classes better 
than anything I have yet seen. The adoption of the Botanist and Florist would 
not require the exclusion of the ClasB-Book of Botany, as they are so arranged that 
both might be used by the same class. 



I can truly say that the more I e , 

wo with it. In its illustrations, especially of particulars not easily observed by t 
student, and the clearness and compactness of its statements, as well as in the ter- 
ritory its flora embraces, it appears to me to surpass any other work I know of. 
The whole science, so far as it can be taught in a college course, is well presented, 
and rendered unusually easy of comprehension. The mode of analysis is excellent, 
avoiding as it does to a great extent those microscopic characters which puzzle tho 
beginner, and using those that are obvious as far as possible. I regard the work a 
a most admirable one, and shall adopt it as a text-book another year. 

31 



The National Series of Standard School-Boobs. 

NATURAL SCIENCE-Continued. 

PHYSIOLOG-Y. 

Jarvis' Elements of Physiology, $75 

Jarvis' Physiology and Laws of Health, - 1 65 

The only boofcs extant which approach this subject with a proper vieTT 
of the trua object of teaching Physiology in schools, viz., that scholars 
may know how to take care of their own health. la bold eontrast with 
the abstract Anatomies, which children learu as they would Greek or 
Latin (.and forget as soon), to discnpliJie the mind, are these text-books, 
using the science as a secondary consideration, and only so far as is 
necessary for the comprehension of the laws of health. 

Hamilton's Vegetable & Animal Physiology, l 25 

The two branches of the science combined in one volume lead the stu- 
dent to a proper comprehension of the Analogies of Nature. 

Steele's Fourteen Weeks Course (see p. 34), . i 50 

ASTRONOMY. 
Steele's Fourteen Weeks 1 Course, l so 

Reduced to a single term, and better adapted to school nse than any 
work heretofore published. Not written for the information of scientific 
men, but for the inspiration of youth, the pages are not burdened with a 
multitude of figures which no memory could possibly retain. The whole 
subject is presented in a clear and concise form. (See p. 34.) 

Willard's School Astronomy, 1 oo 

By means of dear and attractive illustrations, addressing the eye in 
many cases by analogies, careful definitions of all necessary technical 
terms, a careful avoidance of verbiage and unimportant matter, particular 
attention to analysis, and a general adoption of tho simplest methods, 
Mrs-Willard has made the best and most attractive elementary Astron- 
omy extant 

Mclntyre's Astronomy and the Globes, . i 50 

A complete treatise for intermediate classes. Highly approved. 

Bartlett's Spherical Astronomy, 5 oo 

The West Point course, for advanced classes, with applications to the 

NATURAL HISTORY. 
Carirs Child's Book of Natural History, . . o 50 

Illustrating the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Kingdoms, wfifc appli- 
cation to the Arts. For beginners. Beautifully and copiously illustrated. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Chambers' Elements of Zoology, . . . 1 so 



A complete and comprehensive system of Zoology, adapted for aca- 
demic instruction, presenting a systematic view of the Animal Kingdom 
as a portion of external Nature. 

32 



National Series of Standard School-Books* 

Jarvis' Physiology and Laws of Health. 

TESTIMONIALS. 

From SAMUEL B. MCLANB, Superintendent Public Schools, KtoTotk, Iowa. 
I am glad to see a really good text-book on this much neglected branch. Thii ii 
dear, concise, awurate, and eminently adapted to the class-room. 

From TILLIAM F. WTEES, Principal of Academy, West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

A thorough examination has satisfied me of its superior claims as a text-book to tfee 
Ittention of teacher and taught I shall inti-odaca it at once. 

From H. R. SANTOSD, Principal of East Qenesee Conference Seminary, ST. T. 
"Jarvis' Physiology 11 is received, and fully met our expectations. Wft immediately 
adopted it 

From ISAAC T. Goomrow, State Superintendent of Kansas vuttisJud in connection 
with the "School Law." 

41 Jarvis' Physiology,* 1 a common-sense, practical work, with Just enoufc of anat- 
omy to understand the physiological portions. The last six pages, on Man's Respon 
sibuity for his own health, are worth the price of the book. 

From D. W. STEVBNS, Superintendent Public Schools, Fall Jttver, MM* 

I have examined Jams' Physiology and Lavs of Health," which yon had the 

kindness to send to me a short time ago. In my judgment it is far the best work of 

the kind within my knowledge, It has been adopted as a text-book hi our public 

schools. 

From Hsvrxur G, DHNWY, Chairman Book Commute*, Boston, Mass. 
The very excellent * Physiology "of B.. Jarvis I bad Introduced Into our High 
School, where the study had been temporarily dropped, believing it to be by for the 
best work of the kind that had come under uiy observation; indeed, the reintroduc- 
tion of the study was delayed for some months, because Dr. Jarvis 1 book could not be 
had, and we were unwilling to take any other. 

From PROF. A. P. PBAUODT, IXD M LL.D., Harvard University. 
* I have been in the habit of examining school-books with great care, and I 
hesitate not to say that, of all the text-books on Physiology which have been given to 
the public, Dr. JTarvis 1 deserves the first place on the score of accuracy, thoroughness, 
method, simplicity of statement, and constant reference to topics of practical interest 
and utility. 

From JAMES N. Tovjronn^ Superintendent Public Schools, Hudson, Y. 
Every human being is appointed to take charge of his own body; and of all books 
written upon this subject, I know of none which will so well prepare one to do this as 
'Jarvis' Physiology "that IB, in so small a compass of matter. It considers the 
pnre, simple laws of health paramount to science: and though the work is thoroughly 
scientific, it is divested of all cumbrous technicalities, and presents the subject of phy- 
sical life in a manner and style really charming. It is unquestionably the best text- 
book on physiology I have ever seen. It is giving great satisfaction in the schools ol 
thja city, where it has been adopted us the standard. 

from, L. J. SAXIFOKD, M.D., Prof. Anatomy and Physiology in Yale CoUgje 
Books on human physiology, designed for tho nse of schools, are more generally a 
failure perhaps than are school-books on most other subjects. 

The great want iu this department is met, we think, in the well-written treatise of 
Dr. Jarvis, entitled " Physiology and Laws of Health," - The work is not too 
detailed nor too expansive in any department, and is dear and concise in all It is 
not burdened with an excess of anatomical description, nor rendered discursive by 
imany zoological references. Anatomical statements are made to the extent of Qitali 
'fying the student to attend, understanding^, to an exposition of those functional pro. 
eesses which, collectively, make up health; thus the laws of health are enunciated, 
and man? suggestions are given which, if heeded, will tend to its preservation. 



1 For farther testimony of similar character, see current numbers of flap aim- 
Rdueational Bulletin. 



27ie National Series of Standard Sckool-Boo&s. 



NATURAL 



"POUETEEN WEEKS" ffl EACH BEMOH, 

By J. DORMAN STEELE, A. M. 

Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Chemistry g* $1 so 
Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Astronomy 1 so 
Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Philosophy . 1 so 
Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Geology. . 1 so 
Steele's 14 Weeks Course in Physiology 1 50 

Our TexMBooks in these studies arc, as a general thing, dull and uninteresting. 
They contain from 400 to COO pages of dry focts and unconnected details. They 
abound in that which the student cannot learn, much less remember. The pupa 
commences the study, is confused by the fine print and coarse print, and neither 
knowing exactly what to learn nor what to hasten over, is crowded through the 
single term generally assigned to each branch, and frequently comes to the close 
Without a definite and exact idea of a single scientific principle. 



person should know, while all that which concerns only the professional scientist 
is omitted. The language is dear, simple, and interesting, and the illustrations 
bring the subject within the range of home life and daily experience. They give 
such of ifce general principles and the prominent flwts as a pupil can make fiimil- 
iar as household words within a single term. The typo Is large and open ; there 
is no fine print to annoy; the cuts are copies of genuine experiments or natural 
phenomena, and are of fine execution. 

In fine, by a system of condensation peculiarly his own, the author reduces each 
branch to the limits of a single term of study, while sacrificing nothing that is es- 
sential, and nothing that is usually retained from the study of the larger manuals 
in common use. Thus the student has rare opportunity to economise his time, or 
wther to employ that which he has to the best advantage. 

A notable ieatnre is the author's charming" style," fortified by an enthusiasm 
ever his subject ia which the student will not fliil to partake. Believing that 
Natural Science Is full of lascination, ho has moulded it into a form thafattracts 



The recent editions contain the author's "Praetbal Questions" on a plan never 
before attempted in scientific toHxxflo. These are questions as to the nature 
and cause of common phenomena, and are not directly answered in the text, the 
design being to test and promote an intelligent use of the student's knowledge of 
the foregoing principles. 

Steele's General Key .to his Works- . . . *i so. 

This work is mainly composed of Answers to the Practical Questions and Solu- 
tions of &e Problems in Hie author's celebrated "Fourteen Weeks Copses in 
the several sciences, with many hints to teachers, minor Tables, &c Should bo 
on every teacher's desk. 

34 



$he National Series of Standard School-Books. 

Steele's 14 Weeks in each Science, 

TESTIMONIALS. 

FromL. A.B, PwA&ntN. C. College. 
I have not been disappointed. Shall take pleasure in Introducing this series* 

From, J. F. Cor, Prest. Southern Female College, Qa. 
I am much pleased with these books, and expect to introduce them. 

From J. R. BBJLNHAM, Prin, EwumsvWe Female College, Tern. 
They are capital little books, and are now in use in our institution. 

From W. H. GOODALE, Professor Beadvffle Seminary, La. 
We are using your 14 Weeks Coarse, and are much pleased with them. 

From W. A. BOLES, SupL ShelbyvWe Graded School, Ind. 
They are as entertaining as a story book, and much more improving to the frid. 

From S. A. SNOW, Principal of Sigh School, Ua&ridge, Mass. 
Bteele's 11 Weeks Courses in the Sciences are a perfect success. 

From JOHN W. DOTOHTT, Ifaoourg Free Academy, N. T. 

T was prepared to find Prof. Steele's Course both attractive and instructive. My 
highest expectations have been folly realized. 

From J. S. BLACKWELL, Prest Ghent College, JSy. 

Prof. Steele's unexampled success in providing for the wants of academic classes, 
has led me to look forward with high anticipations to his forthcoming issue. 

From J. F. Coos, Prest. Za Grange College, Mo. 

I am pleased with the neatness of these books and the delightful diction. I have 
been teaching for years, and have never seen a lovelier little volume than the As- 
tronomy. 

From M. W. SMITH, Prin. of High MooZ, Morrison, fit. 

They seem to mo to be admirably adapted to the wants of a public school, con- 
taining, as they do, a sufficiently comprehensive arrangement of elementary prin- 
ciples to excite a healthy thirst for a more thorough knowledge of those sciences. 

From J. D. BABTOBY, Prin. of Sigh School, Contort, If. K 

Thsy are just such books as I have looked for, viz., those of interesting style, 
not cumbersome and filled up with things to be omitted by the pupil, and yet suf- 
ficiently fall of facts for the purpose of most scholars in these sciences in our high 
schools; there is nothing but what a pupil of average ability can thoroughly 
master. 

From ALOJTZO NOEEO* LEWIS, Principal of Parker AcaOmy, Conn. 

I consider Steele's Fourteen Weeks Courses in Philosophy, Chemistry, &c., the 
test school-books that have been issued in this country. 

As an introduction to the various branches of which they treat, and especially 
for that numerous class of pupils who havo not the time for a more extended 
course, I consider them invaiwtote. 

From EDWARD BROOKS, Prin. State Formal School, Miflersvifle, Pa. 

At the meeting of Normal School Principals, I presented the following resolu- 
tion, which was unanimously adopted: " Resolved, That Steele's 14 Weeks 
Courses in Natural Philosophy and Astronomy, or an amount equivalent to what 
id containdMjLjjhem, be adopted for use in the State Normal Schools of Pennsyl- 
vania," j^^HPte themselves will be adopted by at least three of the schools, 
and, I pJ^^^IPy them all. 



National Series of Standard School-3iooks. 

LITERATURE/ 

Cleveland's Compendiums .... each, 8*2 50 

ENGLISH LITERATURE. AMERICAN LITERATURE. 

ENGLISH LITERATURE OP THE XIXTH CENTURY. 
In these volumes are gathered the cream of the literature of the English speak, 
Ing people for the school-room and the general reader. Their reputation is 
national. More than 135,000 copies have been sold. 

Boyd's English Classics each, *1 25 

MILTON'S PARADISE LOST. THOMSON'S SEASONS. 

YOUNG'S NIGHT THOUGHTS. POLLOK'S COURSE OP TDIE. 

COWPER'S TASK, TABLE TALK, &c. LORD BACON'S ESSAYS. 

This series of annotated editions of great English writers, in prose and poetry, 
is designed for critical reading and parsing in schools. Prof. J. K. Boyd proves 
himself an editor of high capacity, end the works themselves need no encomium. 
As auxiliary to the study of Belles Lettres, etc., these works have no equal. 

Pope's Essay on Man *20 

Pope's Homer's Iliad *so 

The metrical translation of the great poet of antiquity, and the matchless 
'* Essay on the Nature and State of Man," by ALBXAKDBB POPE, afford euperict 
exercise in literature and parsing. 

AESTHETICS. 



Huntington's Manual of the Fine Arts - -*i 75 

A view of the rise and progress of Art in different countries, a brief 
account of the most eminent masters of Art, and an analysis of the prin- 
ciples of Art It is complete in itself, or may precede to advantage tho 
critical work of Lord Eames. 

Boyd's Kames 1 Elements of Criticism' - -*i 75 

The best edition of this standard work; without the study of which 
none may be considered proficient m the science of the Perceptions. No 
other study can be pursued with so marked an effect upon the taste and 
refinement of the pupil. 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. 



Champlin's Lessons on Political Economy 1 28 

An improvement on previous treatises, being shorter, yet containing 
- <-* MNrtd, with a view of ncent questions m^finauce, ote! 
ti elBcwnere found. 



27te National Series of Standard School-$ooks. 

CLEVELAND'S COMPENDIUMS. 



From tlw New Mnglander. 
This ia the very best book of the kind we have ever examined. 

From GEOBWB R EMBBSON, Esq., Boston, 

The Biographical Sketches are last and discriminating: the selections are admir- 
able, and fhave adopted the work as a text-book for my first class. 

From PROF. MOSES Coir Tram, of the Michigan University. 
I have given your book a thorough examination, and am greatly delighted with 
it ; and shall have great pleasure in directing the attention or my classes to a wane 
which affords so admirable a bird's-eye view of recent "English Literature. 1 ' 

From the Saturday Review. 

It acquaints the reader with the characteristic method, tone, and quality of all tha 
chief notabilities of the period, and will give the carefnl student a better idea of the 
recent history of English Literature than nine educated Englishmen in ten possess. 

' From the Meitodist quarterly Review. New York. 

This work is a transcript of the bost American mind ; a vehicle of the noblest 
American spirit No parent who would introduce his child to a knowledge of our 
country's literature, and at the same time indoctrinate his heart in the purest prin- 
ciples, need fear to put this manual in the youthful hand. 

Frvm REV. C. PECRCB, Principal, West Newton, Mass. 

1 do not believe the work is to be found from which, within the flame limits, so 

much interesting and valuable information in regard to English writers and English 

literature of every age, con be obtained; and il deserves to find a place in all our 

high schools and academies, as well as in every private library. 

The work of selection and compilation requiring a perfect familiarity with the 
whole range of English literature, a judgment dear and impartial, a tasto at once 
delicate and severe, and a most sensitive regard to purity of thought or feeling has 
been better accomplished in this than in any kindred volume with, which wo are 
acquainted. 

From tfo Christian Examiner. 

To form such a Compendium, good taste, fine scholarship familiar acquaintance 
with English literature, unwearied industry, tact acquired by practice, an interest 
in the culture of the young, a regard for truth, purity, philanthropy, religion, an tho 
highest attainment and the highest beauty, all these wore needed, and they aro 

CHAMPLIN'S POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

From S. L. BormraLL, Prin, F'Ublic Mod! No. #, Albany, Jf. T. 
I have examined Champlin'a Political Economy with much pleasure, and Rhall bo 
pleased to pnt it into the hands of my pupils. In quantity and quality I think it 
superior to anything that I have examined. 

From PKES. 3ST. E. COBLEIGH, Eal Tennessee W&sl&yan Untoerfiity. 

An examination of Champlin's Political Economy has safiflfled mo that it Is the 

book X want. For brevity and compactness, division of tho subject, and clear state- 

ment, and for appropriateness of treatment, I consider it a better text-hook than 

any other in the market. 

From the Miming M^ Nm York. 

A new interest has been Imputed to ihc science of political economy since we 
have been necessitated to raise such vast sums of money for the support of tho gov- 
ernment. The time, therefore, is favorable for tho Introduction of works like tho 
above. This little volume of two hundred pages fa intended for beginners, for the 
It is intended as a 



. , 

common school and academy. It is intended as a baris upon which to rear a more 
elaborate superstructure. There ia nothing in the principles of political economy 
above the comprehension of average scholars, when they are < Iciarly sot forth. This 
rams to have boon done by President Ohamplin in an easy and graceful m*an<jr. 

37 



The National Series of Standard School-BooKs. 

ELOCUTION. 



Taverner Graham's Reasonable Elocution, $1 25 

Based upon the belief that true Elocution is the right interpreta- 
tion of THOUGHT, and raiding the student to an intelligent appre- 
ciation, instead of a merely mechanical knowledge, of its rules. 

Zachos' Analytic Elocution ...... 1 50 

All departments of elocution such as the analysis of the voice and the 
sentence, phonology, rhythm, expression, gesture, Ac, are here arranged 
for instruction in classes, illustrated by copious examples. 

Sherwood's Self Culture ........ 1 oo 

Self-culture in reading, speaking, and conversation a very valuable 
treatise to those who would perfect themselves in these accomplishments. 



P E 



Northend's Little Orator, *60-Child's Speaker*'60 

Two little works of the same grade but different selections, containing 
simple and attractive pieces for children under twelve years of age. 

Northend's Young Declaimer ...... *75 

Northend's National Orator ....... *i 25 

Two vqjumes of Prose, Poetry, and Dialogue, adapted to inter- 
mediate and grammar classes respectively. 



Northend's Entertaining Dialogues - - - -*i 25 

Extracts e 
as entertaic a 



Extracts eminently adapted to cultivate the dramatic faculties, as well 
as entertaic an audience. 



Swett's Common School Speaker . . . .*l 25 

Selections from recent literature. 

Raymond's Patriotic Speaker ...... *2 oo 

A snpero comDflaHon of modern eloquence and poetry, with original 
dramatic exercises. Nearly every eminent living orator is represented, 
without distinction of place or party. 

COMPOSITION, &cT 

Brookfleld's First Book in Composition ^o 

Making the cultivation of this Important art feasible for the smallest 
child. By a new method, to induce and stimulate thought. 

Boyd's Composition and Rhetoric - . . . l 50 

Ibis work furnishes all the aid that is needful or can be desired In 
the various departments and styles of composition, both inprcse and verse. 

Day's Art of Rhetoric ......... l & 

Noted for exactness of definition, clear' limitation, and philosophical 
development of subject; the large share of attention riven to Invention, 
a a branch of Bnetorfc, and the unequalled analyste ofi style 

38 



Xhe National Series of Standard School-Books* 

MENTAL PHILOSOPHY. 

Mahan's Intellectual Philosophy tt 75 

The subject exhaustively considered. The author has evinced learning, candor, 
and independent thinking. 

Mahan's Science of Logic 2 oo 

A profound analysis of the laws of thought. The system possesses the merit of 
being intelligible and self consistent. In addition to the author's carefully elabo- 
rated views, it embraces resulta attained by the ablest minds of Groat Britain, Ger- 
many, and France, in this department 

Boyd's Elements of Logic 1 85 

A systematic and philosophic condensation of the subject, fortified with additions 
from Watts, Abercromble, Whately, &c. 

Watts on the Mind so 

The Improvement of the Mind, by Isaac Watts, is designed as a guide for the 
attainment of useful knowledge. As a textbook it is unparalleled; and the disci- 
pline it affords cannot be too highly esteemed by the educator. 

MORALE 

Peabody's Moral Philosophy 1 36 

A shoJ course ; by the Professor of Christian Morals, Harvard University -for 
the Freshman Class and for High. Schools. 

Alden's Text-Book of Ethics . 60 

For young pupils. To aid in systematizing the ethical teachings of the Bible, 
and point out the coincidences between the instructions of the sacred volume and 
the sound conclusions of reason. 

Willard's Morals for the Young 76 

Lessons in conversational style to inculcate the elements of moral philosophy. 
The study is made attractive by narratives and engravings. 

GOVERNMENT! 

Howe's Young Citizen's Catechism .... 75 

Explaining the duties of District, Town, City, County, State, and United States 
Officers, with rules for parliamentary and commercial business that which every 
future u sovereign" ought to know, and so few arc taught 

Young's Lessons in Civil Government - 1 25 

A comprehensive view of Government, and abstract of the laws showing the 
rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens. 

Mansfield's Political Manual ...... 1 25 

This Is a complete view of the theory and practice of the General and State Gov- 
ernments of the United States, designed as a textbook. The author is an esteemed 
and able professor of constitutional law, widely known for his sagacious utterances 
in matters of statecraft through the public preps. Recent events teach with em- 
phasis the vital necessity that the rising generation should comprehend the no~ble 
polity of the American government, that they may act intelligently when endoired 
with a voice in it. 

39 



National Series of Standard Sckool-Boofa. 

MODERN LANGUAGE. 



French and English Primer, * 10 

German and English Primer, 10 

Spanish and English Primer, 30 

The names of common objects properly illustrated and arranged in easy 



Ledru's French Fables, 75 

Ledru's French Grammar, 1 00 

Ledru's French Reader, - - - * 1 oo 

The author's long experience has enabled him to present the most thor- 
oughly practical text-hooks extant, in this branch. The system of pro- 
nunciation (by phonetic illustration) is original with this author, and trill 
commend itself to all American teachers, as id enables their pupils to se- 
cure an absolutely correct pronunciation without tha assistance of a native 
master. This feature is peculiarly valuable also to " self-taught" students. 
The directions for ascertaining the gander of French nouns also a great 
stumbling-block are peculiar to this work, nnd will bs found remarkably- 
competent to the end proposed. Ths criticism of teachers and tha test of 
tke school-room is invited to this excellent sorta*, vita coanMeace. 

Worman's French Echo, 1 25 

To teach conversational French by actual practice, Ort an entirely new- 
plan, which recognizes the importance of tho student learning to think in 
the language which he speaks. It furnishes an extensive vocabulary of 
words and expressions in common use, and suffices to free the learner 
from the embarrassments which the peculiarities of his own tongue aro 
likely to be to him, and to make him thoroughly familiar with tho use 
of proper idioms. 

Woman's German Echo, 1 %* 

On the stone plan. See Woman's German Series, paga 4S. 

Pujol's Complete French Class-Book, ... 2 25 

Offers, In one volume, methodically arranged, a complete French couree 
usually embraced in series of from five to twelve books, including tha 
bulky and expensive Lexicon. Here are Grammar, Conversation, and 
choice Literatureselected from the best French authors. Each branch. 
Is thoroughly handled ; and the student, having; diligently completed tho 
course as prescribed, may consider himself, \rtthout further application* 
ecu/oft in the most polite and elegant languages of modern, times. 

Haurice-Poitevin's Grammaire Francaise, l oo 

American schools are at last supplied with an American edition of this 
famous text-book. Many of our best institutions havu for yean been pro- 
curing It from abroad rather than forego the advantages it offers. The 
policy of putting students who have acquired some proficiency from the 
ordinary text-books, into a Grammar written In the vernacular, can not 
be too highly commended. It affords an opportunity for finish and review 
at once ; while embodying abundant practice of its own rules. 

Joynes' French Pronunciation, 30 

Wiilard's Historia de los Estados Dnidos, - 2 oo 

The History of the United States, translated by Professors TOLOX and 
DB TOBNOS, will be found a valuable, instructive, and entertaining read- 
ing-book fur Spanish closaei f - 



National Series of Standard School-Books. 

PujoUs Complete French Class-Book. 

TESTIMONIALS. 
From PROF. ELIAS PEZBSXTEB, Union College. 

I take great pleasure In recommending Pujol and Van Norman's French Class* 
Book, as tbere is no Jrench grammar or class-book which can be compared with 
It in completeness, system, clearness, and general utility. 

From EDWARD NORTH, President of Hamilton College. 
I have CBTrfUly examined Fnjol and Van Norman's French Clasu-Book, and am 
satisfied 'of Its superiority, for college purposes, over any other heretofore used, 
We shall rot fail to use it with our next class in French. 

J7fc0A. dram, Preset of (Xndnntil Literary and Sdenttyc Institute, 
I am confident that it may be made an instrument in conveying; to the student, 
fa frjm six months to a year, the art of speaking and writing the French with 
almost native fluency and propriety. 

From TTTTCA-nr OECUTT, A. M., Prin. Gflmwood and Widen Ladies' 1 Seminaries. 

I have used Pujol 1 a French Grammar in my two seminaries, exclusively, for 
snore than a year, and have no hesitation in saying that I regard it the best text- 
book in this department extant And my opinion ia confirmed by the testimony 
of Prof. F. Be Launay and Mademoiselle Marindin. They assure me that the 
book is eminently accurate and practical, as tested in the school-room. 

From PBOP. THUO. 3J 1 . DE FUMAT, Hebrew Educational Institute, Memphis, Tenn. 
M. Pujol's French Grammar is one of the best and most practical works. The 
French language is chosen and elegant in style modern ana, easy. It is far su- 
perior to the other French class-books In this country. The selection of the con- 
versational part is very good, and AY ill interest pupils ; and being all completed in 
only one volume, it is especially desirable to have it introduced in our schools. 

From PBOIT. JAMES n. WOBMAN, Bordentown JFtmate College, N". J. 
The work ia upon the same plan as the text-books for the study of French and 
English published in Berlin, ior the study of those who have not the aid of ft 
teacher, and these books are considered, by the first authorities, the best books. 
In most of our institutions, Americans teach the modern languages, and hereto- 
fore the trouble has been to give them n text-book that would dispose of the 
difficulties of the French pronunciation. This difficulty is successfully removed 
by P. and Van K, and I have every reason to believe it will soon make its way 
into most of our best schools. 

From PBOF. CHATTT.TJS S. BOD, Ann Smith Academy, Lexington, Va. 
I cannot do better than to recommend " Pujol and Tan Norman." For compre- 
hensive and systematic arrangement, progressive and thorough development of 
all grammatical principles and idioms, Trim a duo admixture of theoretical knowl- 
edge and practical exercise, I regard it &s superior to any (other) book of the kind. 

From A. A. JToxsGTEB, Prin. Pindiurst Belied, Toronto, 0. W. 
I have great satisfaction in bearing testimony to M. Pujol's System of French 
Instruction, as given in hi? complete class-book. For clearness and comprehen- 
siveness, adapted for all classes of pupils, I have found it superior to any other 
work of the kind, and have now used it for somo years in my establishment with 
great success. 

From PBOF. OTTO FBTODICB, Maplwood ZistiMe, PUUtfdd, Mast. 
The conversational exercises will prove an immonee saving of the hardest kind 
of labor to teachers. There is scarcely any thing more trying in the way of 
teaching language^ than to rack your brain for short and easily intelligible bits 
of conversation, and to repeat them time and again with no better result than 
extorting at long intervals a doubting " oui," or a hesitating " DOB, monsieur " 

|^- For further testimony of a similar character, sec speck) circular, and 
current numbers of the Educational Bulletin. 

41 



The National Series of Standard School-Eoote. 

GERMAN. 



A COMPLETE COUBSE HI TEE GEEMAU, 

By JAMES H. WORMAN, A. M. 

Worman's Elementary German Grammar $! so 
Worman's Complete German Grammar - 2 oo 

t These volumes are designed for Intermediate and advanced classes respectively., 
* Though following the same general method with "Otto 11 (that of l Gaspey> 
our author differs essentially in its application. He is more practical, more ty* 
tematic, more accurate, and besides introduces a number of invaluable feature* 
which have never before been combined in a German grammar. 

Among other things, it may be claimed for Prof. VTorman that he has been 
the first to introduce in an American test-book for learning German, a nystem 
of analogy and comparison -with other languages. Our best teachers are also 
enthusiastic about Ms methods of inculcating the art of speaking, of understanding 
the spoken language, of correct pronunciation; the sensible and convenient origi* 
ml classification of nouns (in four declensions), and of irregular verbs, alto do- 
serves much praise. We also note the use of heavy typo to indicate rtyxnoli vtai 
changes in the paradigms* wd, in ilie exercises, the parts which t-pcdully illubtrato 
precodbg rules. 

Worman's Elementary German Reader - - 1 25 
Worman's Collegiate German Reader - - 2 oo 

The finest and most judicious compilation of classical and standard German 
Literature. These works embrace, progressively arranged, selection* from the 
masterpieces of Goethe, Schiller, Komer, Seumfe, XJbland, Freiligrath, Heine, 
Sctlegel, Holty, Lcnau, Wieland, Herder, Leasing, Kant, FIchte, Sehelliog, Win- 
kelmann, Humboldt, Ranke, Kauiaer, Menzel, Gervinus, &c., and contains com- 
plete Goethe's "IpLigenie," Schiller's " Jungfrau;" also, for instruction in mod- 
ern conversational German, Benedix's "Eigensinn." 

There are besides, Biographical Sketches of each author contributing, Notes, 
explanatory and philological (after the text), Grammatical References to all lead- 
tug; grammars, as well as the editor's own, and an adequate Vocabulary. 

Worman's German Echo 1 25 

Consists of exercises in colloquial stylo entirely in the German, with an ade- 
quate vocabulary, not only of words but of idioms. The object of the eystcm de- 
Teloped in this work (and its companion volume In the French) is to break up the 
laborious and tedious habit of translating th thought*, which is the student's 
most effectual bar to fluent conversation, and to lead him to tMnlc in the language 
in which he speaks. As the exercises illustrate eccnes in actual life, a considera- 
ble knowledge of the manners and customs of the German people is alao acuuirod 
from the use of this manual 

Worman's German Copy-Books, 8 Numbers, each 15 

On the same plan as the most approved systems for English penmanship vita 
progressive copies. 



The National Series of Standard Sckool-Hooto* 

Woman's German Grammars, 

TESTIMONIALS, 

from, Prof. E. W. JONES, Petersbvry female GoReffe, Yet. 
From what I have seen of the work it is almost certain 7 sluill introduce it into 

From Prof. G-. CAMPBBLI, University of Minnesota. 
A valuable addition to our school-books, aad will find many friends, and do great 
good, 

from Pro/. 0. II P. COBPBW, Mary Military Inst , Md. 
I am better pleased with them than any I have ever taught I have, already ordered 
through, our booksellers. 

From Prof. TL S. KENDALL,- TVo Academy, Gown. 
I at once put the Elementary Grammar into tha hands of a class of beginners, and 
have used it with great satisfaction. 

From Prof. D. E. HOLMES, Berlin Academy, Wia. 
Woman's German works are superior. I shall use them hereafter in my Gorman 



From Prof. MAGKCTS BacnnoLxz, Hir&m College, 07do. 
I hare examined tho Complete Grammar, and find It oseeflent. You may rely that 
it trill be used here. 

From Prin. Tnos. "W. TOQET, Poducah Female Seminary, y. 
The Complete German Grammar is worthy of an extensive circulation. It Is ad* 
iptrubly adapted to tho class-room. I shall use it 

From Prof. ALBS. ROSENSPITZ, Houston Academy, Texas. 
Bearer Till take and pay for 3 dozen copies. Mr. "Woman deserves the approbation 
and esteem of the teacher and the thanks of the student. 

From, Prof. Or. MALMENTS, Augusta Seminary , Maine. 

The Complete Grammar cannot fail to givs great satisfaction by the simplicity 
of its arrangement, and by its completeness. 

From Prin. OVAL PIAXSY, Christian University, Hfo. 

Just such (t series as is positively necessary. I do hope the author trill succeed as 
veil in the French, &c., as ho has in the German. 

From Prof. S. D. HOLMAN, Dickinson CoOtfa Pa. 

The class have lately commenced, and my examination thus far -warrants me in say- 
ing that I regard it as the bust grammar for instruction in the German. 

JFrom Prin. SILAS LrvEEMorjs, Moomjield Seminary, Mo. 
I have found a classically and scientifically educated Prussian gentleman -whom I 
propose to make German instructor. I have shown him both your German grammars. 
He has expressed his approbation of them generally. 

From, Prof. Z. TBST, JTvwland Softool for Yomff Ladies^. 7. 
I shall introduce the books, From a cursory examination I have no hesitation In 
pronouncing the Complete Grammar a decided improvement on the text-books at 
present ia use in this country. 

From Prof. LEWIS Exsrasn, tfortliwestern University, JU. 
Having looked through the Complete Grammar with some care I must say that you 
have produced a good book; you maybe awarded with this gratification that your 
grammar promotes the facility of learning the German language, and of becoming 
acquainted with its rich literature. 

From Pros. 3. P. Rons, Stock-well OoUegiate Iiu., Ind. 
I supplied a class with the Elementary Grammar, and it gives complete satisfac- 
tion The conversational and reading exercises are well calculated to illustrate the 
principles, and lead the student on an easy yet thorough coureo, I think the Com 
plate Grammar equally attractive, 

48 



T'he National Series of Standard School-Books. 

SEARING'S VIRGIL. 



SPECIMEN FRAGMENTS OF LETTERS. 

*I adopt it gladly." Para. V. DABOY, Louctovn School, Va. 

"I like Searing's VkgiL"~PBOF. BMSTOL, JMpon College, Wls. 

"Meets my desires very thoroughly. "-PRO*. CLASH, Berea CoUege, Ohio. 

" Superior to any other edition of Virgil." PEES. HAIL, Macon College, Mo. 

" Shall adopt It at once." FEIN. B. P. BAKEB, Searcy Female Institute, Ark. 

"Tour Virgil is a oeavty." PBO*. W. H. DB MOTTB, JUinois female College. 

" After use, I regard it the best" PRQT. G. H. BARTON, Rome Academy, N. 7. 

We like it better every day." PBIN. R. K. BOBBBOE, .4tontow Academy, Pa. 

" I am delighted with your Virgfl." PBOT. W. T. LEONARD, fierce Academy, Mass. 

"Stands well the teat of class-room." Para. F. A. CHASE, Lyons Col Inet.. Iowa. 

" I do not see how it can he improved." PKOT. N. F. D. BROWNE, CJiarl. HoH, Md. 

44 The most complete that I have seen.' 1 PHUT. A, B&owsr, Columbus High StfLOOl, 
Ohio. 

"Our Professor of Language very highly approves." Smer. J. G. JAMES, Tfecas 
JifllUary Institute. 

"It responds to a want Ions felt "by teachers. It is beautiful and complete." 
PBOF. BBOOKS, University of Minnesota. 

44 The ideal edition. We want a lew more classics of the same sort. 1 ' PHUT. C. F. 
P. BAHCBOFT, Lookout Mountain Institute, Tenn. 

"I certainly have never Been an edition so complete with important requisites for 
a student, nor with such flue text and general mechanical execution." PJKEB. J. B. 
PARK, University of Deseret, Utah. 

" It is charming both in its design and execution. And. on the whole, I think it 
K B the hest thing of the kind that I have seen." PBOF. J. BE F. EICHARDS, Pres. 
pro tern, of University of Alabama, 

41 In beauty of execution, in judicious notes, and in nn adequate vocabulary, it 
merits all praise. I shall recommend its Introduction." PBES. J. K. PATTEEBOJT, 
Kentucky Agricultural ana Mechanical College. 

" Containing a good vocabulary and judicious note?, it will enable the industrious 
student to acquire an accurate knowledge of the most interesting part of Virgil's 
works." PEOF. J. T. DUNKUN, 28a\t Alabama College. 

41 It wonts no element of completeness. It is by far the hest classical test-hook 
with which I am acquainted. The notes are Just right. They help the student 
when he most needs help." Panr. C. A. BHNKEH, Caledonia Grammar School, Vt. 

"T have examined Searing's Virgil with interest, and flnd that it more nearly 
meets the wants of students than that of any other edition with which I am ac- 
quainted. I am able to introduce it to some extent at once." PJEON. J. EASTEB, 
Mist Genesee Conference Seminary. 

44 1 have been wishing to get a sight of it, and it exceeds my expectations. It is 
a beautiful book in every respect, and bears evidence of careful and critical study. 
The engravings add instruction as well as interest to the work. I shall recommend 
it to my classes." Paw. CBAS. H. CEAHDLEE, Glemeood Ladies'' Seminary. 

"A. 3. Barnes &> Co. have published an edition of the first sir books of Virgil's 
JEneid, which is superior to its predecessors ia several respects. The publishers 
have done a good service to the cause of classical education, and the book deserves 
a large circulation." PEOF. GEORGE w. COLLOBD, Brooklyn, Polytechnic, N. T. 

My attention was called to Searing's Virgil by the fcct of Its containing a voca- 
bulary which would obviate the necessity of procuring a lexicon. But n*e in th6 
class-room has impressed me most favorably with the accuracy and just proportion 
of its notes, and the general excellence of its grammatical suggestion*. The gen- 
eral character of the book in its paper, its typography, and its engravings in highly 
commendable, and the fac-simile manuscript la a valuable feature. I fake great 

' asure in commending the book to all who do not wish a complete edition of 
sch001 coarseB admirably." HESBT L. BOLTWOOD, Master 

45 



National Series of Standard School-Boo&s. 

THE CLASSICS. 



LATIN. 
Silber's Latin Course, $1 25 

The book contains an Epitome of Latin Grammar, followed by Reading Exercises, 
with explanatory Notes and copious References to the leading Latin Grammars, and 
also to the Epitome which precedes the work. Then follow a Latin-English Vocabu- 
lary and Exercises in Latin Prose Composition, being thus complete in itself, and a 
Tery suitable work to put in the hands of erne about to study the language. 

Searing's Virgil's .ffineid, 2 25 

It contains only tho first six books of the JSneicl. 9. A very carefully constructed 
Dictionary. 3. Sufficiently copious Notes. 4. Grammatical references to four load- 
ing Grammars. 5. Numerous Illustrations of tho highest order, 6 A superb Map 
of the Mediterranean and adjacent countries. 7. Dr. S. II. Taylor's "Questions on 
the .tEneid." 8. A Metrical Index, and au Essay on the Poetical Style. 9. A photo- 
graphic foe simile of a<i early Latin M.S. 10. The text according to Jahn, but para* 
graphed according to Ladewig. 11. Superior muchanical execution. 

Blair's Latin Pronunciation, 10 

An inquiry into tho proper sounds of the Language during the Classical Period. 
By Prof. Blair, of Hampclen Sidney College, Ya. 

Andrews & Stoddard's Latin Grammar, *i 50 

Andrews' Questions on the Grammar, - *o 15 

Andrews 1 Latin Exercises, *i 25 

Andrews' Viri Bomae, *i 25 

Andrews' Sallust's Jugurthine War, &c. *i so 

Andrews' Eclogues & Georgics of Virgil, *1 so 

Andrews' Caesar's Commentaries, . . . . *i 60 

Andrews' Ovid's Metamorphoses, . . . *i 25 

O-REEK. 

Crosby's Greek Grammar, 2 oo 

Crosby's Xenophon's Anabasis, 1 25 



Searing's Homer's Iliad, 



MYTHOLOGY. 
Dwight's Grecian and Roman Mythology. 

School edition, $1 25; University edition, *3 00 

A knowledge of the fables of antiquity, (has presented in a systematic form, is as 
indispensable to the student of general literature as to him who would peruse intelli- 
gently the classical authors. The mythological allusions so frequent in. litoratuxo are 
xeadily understood Trith such n Soy &s this. 

44 



tte National Series of Standard School-Sootes* 

RE C O E D S. 

1 

Cole's Self-Reporting Class-Book, . . . . *$o so 

For saving: the Teacher's labor in averaging. At each opening are a foil set of 
Tables showing any scholar's standing at a glance and entirely obviating the neces- 
sity of computation. 

Tracy's SchOOl-ReCOrd, *0 75. Pocket edition, *0 65 

For keeping a simple "but exact record of Attendance, Deportment, and Scholar- 
ship. The larger edition contains also a Calendar, an extensive list of Topics for 



Brooks' Teacher's Register, 



*i oo 

Presents at one view a record of Attendance, Recitations, and Deportment for the 
whole term. 

Carter's Record and Roll-Book, *i so 

This is the most complete and convenient Record offered to the public. Besides 
the usual spaces for General Scholarship, Deportment, Attendance, etc., for each 
name and day, there is a space in red lines enclosing six minor spaces in blue for 
recording Recitations, " 

National School Diary, Per dozen, *i oo 

A little hook of blank forms for weekly report of the standing of each scholar, 
from teacher to parent. A great convenience. 



REWARDS. 



National School Currency, 



Per set,*$l 50 



_ The most entertaining 

and stimulating system'of school rewards. ~ The~schoiar*is paid for his merits ana 
fined for his shortcomings. Of coarse the most faithful are the most successful in 
business. In this way the use and value of money and the method .of keeping 
accounts are also taught. One box of Currency will supply a school of fifty pupils. 



TACTICS. 



The Boy Soldier, 75 

Complete Infantry Tactics for Schools, with illustrations, for the use of those who 
would introduce this pleasing relaxation from the confining duties of the desk. 

46. 



3*he National Series of Standard School-Books^ 

CHARTS. 



McKenzie's Elocutionary Chart, *3 50 

Baade's Reading Case, - - - *io oo 

This remarkable piece of school-room furniture is a receptacle containing a num- 
ber of primary cards. By an arrangement of slides on the ftont, one sentence at a 
time is shown to the class. Twenty-eight thousand transpositions may be made, 
affording a variety of progressive exercises which no otter piece of apparatus 
offers. One of its best features is, that it is so exceedingly simple as not to get out 
of order, while it may be operated with one finger. 

fflarcy's Eureka Tablet, *i so 

A new system for the Alphabet, by which it may be taught without Ml in nine 



Scofield's School Tablets, ; . . *8 oo 

On Five Cards, exhibiting Ten Surfaces. These Tablets teach Orthography, 
Beading, Object-Lessons, Color, Form, etc. 

Watson's Phonetic Tablets, *s oo 

Pour Cards, and Eight Surfaces ; teaching Pronunciation and Elocution phonetic- 
any for class exercises. 

Page's Normal Chart, -. . . . *3 75 

The whole science of Elementary Sounds tabulated. By the author of Page's 
Theory and Practice of Teaching. 

Clark's Grammatical Chart, *3 75 

Exhibits the whole Science of Language in. one comprehensive diagram. 

Davies' Mathematical Chart, ........ *75 

Mathematics made simple to the eye. 

Monteith's Reference Maps (School Series), . ,*20 oo 

Eight Numbers. Mounted on Boilers. Names all laid down in small type, so 
that to the pupil at a short distance they are Outline Haps, while they serve as 
tMr (mm fey to the teacher. 

Willard's. Chronographers, Each, *2 oo 

Historical. Pour Numbers. Ancient Chronographer; English Ohronogiapher; 
American Chronographer; Temple of Time (general). Dates and' Events repre. 
tented to the eye. 

APPARATUS. 

Harrington's Geometrical Blocks, * - .*&o oo 

These patented blocks are hinged, so that each form can be dissected. 

Harrington's Fractional Blocks, ..... *8 oo 
Steele's Chemical Apparatus, . . *20 00 

Steele's Philosophical Apparatus, (eep.28)*i35 oo 
Steele's Geological Cabinet, (seep.38) . . . *40 oo 
Wood's Botanical Apparatus, (see p.so ) . . *8 oo 
Bock's Physiological Apparatus, .... 175 oo 

4:7 



The National Series of Standard School-Books. 

MUSIC. 



. Each, 75 cts, 



Jepson's Music Readers, Svols. 



smar os empoye n eacng m o 
Any teacher, however ignorant of music, pro- 
simply sound the scale, may teach it without 
" 



smpy e, my eac wou 

by being a good ringer himself. The " Ele- 
or first volume, heretofore issued by another 




, . 

mentary Music Reader," or first volume, heretofore issued by another 
publisher, has attained results in the State of Connecticut, where only 
it has been known, entirely unprecedented in the history of teaching 
music The two companion volumes carry the same method into the 
higher grades. 



higher grades. 

Nash & Bristow's Cantara. No.i,$U5; 



every g 
The au 
City, in which these books are the standard of instruction. 

Curtis' Little Singer, .......... &> 60 

Curtis' School Vocalist, ......... 1 oo 

Kingsley's School-Room Choir, ..... eo 

Kingsley's Young Ladies 1 Harp, ..... 1 oo 

Hager's Echo, ...... .- ...... 75 

Perkins' Sabbath Carols (for Sunday-schools), . . 35 

Phillips' Singing Annual do. do. . . 25 

DEVOTION. 



Brooks' School Manual of Devotion, . so 75 

This volume contains daily dev 
hymn, selections of Scripture for aernae re 
pupils, and ft prayer. Its value for opening 

Brooks' School Harmonist, *75 

6 iwnffl ' foreacltlh y mnlllthe "Manual of Devo- 



National Teachers 9 Zibrary* 



THE 

TEACHEES' LIBEAEY. 



Object Lessons-Welch . . . .*tt oc 

This is a complete exposition of the popular modern system of 
"object-teaching," for teachers of primary classes. 

Theory and Practice of Teaching-Page *i 60 

This volume has, without doubt, been read by two hundred thousand 
teachers, and its popularity remains undiminished large editions 
being exhausted yearly. It was the pioneer, as it is now the patri- 
arch of professional works for teachers. 

The Graded School-Wells *i 25 

The proper way to organize graded schools is here illustrated. The 
author has availed himself of the best elements of the several systems 
prevalent in < Boston,_NewYork, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
and other cities. 

The Normal Holbrook *i so 

Carries a working school on its visit to teachers, showing the most 
appioved methods of teaching all the common branches, including the 
technicalities, explanations, demonstrations, and definitions intro- 
ductory and peculiar to each branch. 

The Teachers' Institute Fowle *i 25 

This is a volume of suggestions inspired by the author's experience 
at institutes, in the instruction of young teachers. A thousand points 
of interest to this class are most satisfactorily dealt with. 

Schools and Schoolmasters Dickens - - . *i 85 

Appropriate selections from the writings of the great novelist 

The Metric System Davies *i so 

Considered with reference to its general introduction, and embrac- 
ing the views of John Quincy Adams and Sir John Herschel. 

The Student 1 The Educator Phelps eabh,*i so 
The Discipline of Life-Phelps ....... *i 75 

The authoress of these works Is one of the most distinguished 
writers on education ; and they cannot fall to prove a valuable addi- 
tion to the School and TeacHers' Libraries, being in a high degree 
.both interesting and instructive, 

& Scientific Basis of Education Hecker . . *2 so 



The National Teachers* 



American Education-Mansfield ..... *i 60 

A treatise on the principles and elements of education, as practiced la 
s country, with, ideas towards distinctive republican and Christian edu- 



American Institutions De Tocqueville **i 50 

A valuable Index to the genius of our Government. 

Universal Education Mayhew . . . . .*i 75 

The subject is approached with the clear, keen perception of one who 
has observed its necessity, and realized its feasibility and expediency ' 
alike. The redeeming and elevating power of improved common schools 
constitutes t&e inspiration of the volume. 

Higher Christian Education Dwight - -*i #> 

A treatise on the principles and spirit, the modes, directions, and ra- 
suits of all true teaching {showing Out right education should appeal to 
every element of enthusiasm in the teacher's nature. 

Oral Training Lessons Barnard . . . . *i oo 

The object of this very useful work is to furnish material for instruc- 
tors to impart orally to their classes, in branches not usually taught in 

much general knowledge. 

Lectures on Natural History Chadbourne * 75 



JUBoroing many tnemes for oral instruction in tnu interesting science 
especially ID schools where it is not pursued as a class exercise. 

Outlines of Mathematical Science-Davies *i po 

A manual suggesting the best methods of presenting mathematical hi. 
strnction on the part of the teacher, with that comprehensive view of the 
whole which is necessary to the Intelligent treatment of a part, in science. 

Nature & Utility of Mathematics-Davies - -*i 60 

An elaborate and lucid exposition of the principles which lie at the 
foundation of pure mathematics, with a highly ingenious application of 
their results to the development of the essential idea of the different 
branches of the science. 

Mathematical Dictionary Davies & Peck *& oo 

This cyebpadia of mathematical science demies with completeness, 
precision, and accuracy, every technical term, thus constituting a popular 
treatise on each branch, anda general view of the whole subject 

School Architecture-Barnard ..... .*2 as 



Attention is here called to the vital connection between a good school. 
house and a good school, with plans 
form* in the most eoonomical and s 

50 



house and a good school, with plans and specifications to securing the 
d satisfactory manner, 



The National Teachers 9 Library* 

Liberal Education of Women Orton . **i so 

Treats of "the demand and the method ;" being a compilation of the best and 
most advanced thought on this subject, by the leading writers and educators in 
England and America. Edited by a Professor in Yassar College. 

Education Abroad Northrop *i so 

A thorough discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of sending American 
children to Europe to be educated; also, Papers on Legal Prevention of Illiteracy; 
Study and Health, Labor as an Educator, and other kindred subjects. By the Hon. 
Secretory of Education for Connecticut, 

The Teacher and the Parent Northend - . *i so 

A treatise upon common-school education, designed to lead'tSachers to view their 
calling in its true light, and to stimulate them toldeliiy. 

The Teachers' Assistant-Northend .... *i so 

A natural continuation of the author's previous work, more directly calculated for 
daily use in the administration of school discipline and instruction. 

School Government- Jewell *i so 

Full of advanced ideas on the subject which its title indicates. The criticisms 
upon current theories of punishment and schemes of administration have excited 

Grammatical Diagrams Jewell *i 

The diagram system of teaching grammar explained, defended, and improved. 
The curious in literature, the searcher for truth, those interested in new inventions, 
as well as the disciples of Prof. Clark, who would see their favorite theory feirly 
treated, an want this book. There are many who would like to be made familiar 
with this system before risking its use in a class. The opportunity to here afforded. 

The Complete Examiner Stone *i 25 

Consists of a series of questions on every English branch of school and academic 
instruction, with reference to a given page or article of leading text-books where 
the answer may be found in mil. Prepared to aid teachers in securing certificates, 
pupils in preparing for promotion, and teachers in selecting review questions. 

School Amusements Root *i so 

To assist teachers in making the school interesting, with hints upon the manage- 
ment of the school-room. Bules for military and gymnastic exercises are included. 

Institute Lectures-Bates *i so 

These lectures, originally delivered before institutes, are based upon various 
topics in the departments of mental and moral culture. The volume IB calculated 
to prepare the will, awaken the inquiry, and stimulate the thought of the zealous 
teacher. 

Method of Teachers' Institutes-Bates . . . *75 

Sets forth the best method of conducting institutes, with a detailed account of the 
object, organization, plan of instruction, and true theory of education on which 
such instruction should be based. 

History and Progress of Education .... *i so 

The systems of education prevailing in all nations and ages, the gradual advance 
to the present time, and the bearing of the past upon the present in ibis regard, are 
worthy of the carefol investigation of all concerned in education. 

51 



National School Zibrary. 



THE SCHOOL LIBRARY. 

The two elements of instruction and entertainment were never more happily com- 
bined than in this collection of standard hooks. Children and adults alike will here 
nd ample food for the mind, of the sort that is easily digested, while not degener- 
ating to the leverof modern romance. 

LIBRARY OP LITERATURE. 
Milton's Paradise Lost. Boyd's Illustrated Ed v ti 60 
Young's Night Thoughts . . . . do. . . 1 60 

Cowper's Task, Table Talk, &c. . do. . . 1 eo 
Thomson's Seasons ...... do. . . 1 60 

Pollok's Course of Time . . . . do. . . i eo 

(These works, models of the beet and purest literature, are beautifully illustrated, 
and notes explain all doubtful meanings. 

Lord Bacon's Essays (Boyd's Edition) ... 1 60 

Another grand English classic, affording the highest example of purity in lan- 
guage and style. 

The Iliad Of Homer. Translated by PQPE. . . 80 

Those who are unable to read this greatest of ancient writers in the original, 
should not fall to avail themselves of this metrical version. 

Compendium of Eng, Literature Cleveland, 2 50 
English Literature of XlXth Century do, % so 
Compendium of American Literature do. 2 50" 

Nearly one hundred and fifty thousand volumes of Prof. CLETBLATTD'S inimitable 
compendiums have been sold. Taken together they present a complete view of 
literature. To the man who can afford hut a few hooks these will supply the place 



. 

of an extensive library. From commendations of the very highest authorities the 
following extracts will give some idea of the enthusiasm with which the works are 
regardedoy scholars : 

With the Bible and your volumes one might leave libraries without very painful 
regret. The work cannot be found from which in the same limits so much hiterort- 
ing and valuable information may be obtained. -Good taste, fine scholarship, 
iamfflar acquaintance with literature, unwearied industry, tact acquired by practice! 
an interest in the culture of the young, and regard for truth, purity, philanthropy 
and religion are united in Mr. Cleveland. A judgment clear and impartial, a taste 
at once delicate and severe. The biographies are just and discriminating. An 
admirable bird's-eye view.-AcquMnts the reader with the characteristic method, 
tone, and quality of each writer.-Succmct, carefully written, and wonderfully com- 
prehensive in detail, etc., etc. 

Milton's Poetical Works CLEVELAND . . . 2 60 

This is the very best edition of the great Poet It includes a fife of the author, 
notes, dissertations on each poem, a fruitless text, and is the only edition of Milton 
with a complete verbal Index, 

52 



National School Library. 



LIBRARY OP HISTORY. 
History of Europe Alison $2 so 

A reliable and standard work, which cowers with clear, connected, 
and complete narrative, the eventful occurrences transpiring from 
A. D. 1789 to 1815,. being mainly a history of the career of Napoleon 
Bonaparte. 

History of England Berard 1 75 

Combining a history ol the social life of the English people with that 
of the civil and military transactions of the realm, 

History of Rome Ricord 1 co 



Possesses all the charm of an attractive romance. The fables Trith 
TT nich this history abounds are Introduced in such away as net to deceive 
the inexperienced reader, while adding vastly to the interest of th& work 
and affording a pleasing index to the genius of the Roman peopK Ulus- 



The Republic of America Willard - . . 2 25 
Universal History in Perspective-Willard 2 25 

From these tiro comparatively brief treatises the intslHgent mind may 
obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the history of the world in both 
hemispheres. Mrs. Wizard's reputation as aa historian is wide as the 
land. Illustrated. 

Ecclesiastical History-Marsh ...... 2 oo 

A history of the Church In all ages. *ith a comprehensive review of all 
forms of religion from the creation of the world. No otnr source affords, 
In the same compass, the information here conveyed. 

History of the Ancient Hebrews Mills 1 75 

The record of " God's people" from the call of Abraham to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem ; gathered from sources sacred and profane. 



The Mexican WarMansfield ...... 1 so 

A history of its origin, and a detailed account of its victories ; with 
official despatches, the treaty of peace, and valuable tables. Illustrated. 

Early History of Michigan Sheldon ... 2 so 

A work of value and deep interest to the people of the West. Com- 
piled under the supervision of Eon. Lewis Case. Portraits. 

History of Texas Baker ........ 1 & 

A pithy and interesting resume*. Copiously illustrated. The. State 
constitution and extracts from the speeches and writings of eminent 
Terans are appended. 



National School Library. 



LIBRARY OF BIOGRAPHY. 
Life of Dr. Sam. Johnson-Boswell -$2 25 

This work has been before the public for seventy years, with increasing 
approbation. Boswell is known as " the prince of biographer*" 

Henry Clay's Life and Speeches Mallory 

2 vols. ' * 50 

This great American statesman commands the admiration, and Ids 
' r and deeds solicit the study of every patriot 



Life & Services of General Scott-Mansfield 1 76 

The hero of the Mexican war, who was for many years the most promi- 
nent figure In American military circlet, should not be forgotten in the 
whirl of more recent events than those by which he signalized himseli 
Illustrated. 

Garibaldi's Autobiography ....... 1 50 

The Italian patriot's record of his own life, translated and edited by his 
Mend and admirer. A thrilling narrative of a romantic career. With 
portrait 



Lives of the Signers Dwight ...... 1 50 

The memory of the noble men who declared our country free at the 
peril of their own "lives, fortunes, and sacred honor." should be em- 
balmed in every American's heart 

Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds Cunningham 1 50 

A candid, truthful, and appreciative memoir of the great painter, with 
a compilation of his discourses. The volume is a text-book for artists, as 
well as those who would acquire the rudiments of art With a portrait 

Prison Life . ....... "... .75 

Interesting biographies of celebrated prisoners and martyrs, designed 
especially for the instruction and cultivation of youth. ^^ *= 

54 



National School Library. 



LIBRARY OP NATURAL SCIENCE. 
The Treasury of Knowledge tt w 

A cyclopedia of ten thousand common things, embracbg the widest 
range of subject-matter. Illustrated. 

Ganot's Popular Physics i 75 

The elements of natural philosophy for both student and the general 
reader. The original work is celebrated for the magnificent character of 
its illustrations, all of which are literally reproduced here. 

Principles of Chemistry Porter 2 oo 

A work which commends itself to tne amateur in science by its extreme 
simplicity, and careful avoidance of unnecessary detail. Illustrated. 

Class-Book of Botany Wood 3 60 

Indispensable as a work of reference. Illustrated. 

The Laws of Health Jarvis 16$ 

This Is not an abstract anatomy, but all its teachings are directed to the 
best methods of preserving health, as inculcated by an intelligent know- 
ledge of the structure and needs of the human body. IlluFtrated. 

Vegetable & Animal Physiology Hamilton l 25 . 

An exhaustive analysis of th conditions of life In all animate nature, 
Illustrated. 

Elements of Zoology Chambers 1 so 

A complete view of the animal kingdom as a porlion of external nature. 
Illustrated. 

Astronography Willard l 

The elements of astronomy In a compact and readable form. Illus- 
trated. 

Elements of Geology Page ..--... 1 25 

The subject presented in its two aspects of Interesting and* important 

lectures on Natural History Chadbourne 75 

The subject Is here considered in its relations to intellect, taste, health, 



National School 



LIBRARY OF TRAVEL. 
Life in the Sandwich Islands Cheever - -$i 50 

The " heart of the Pacific, as it was and is,' 1 shows most vividly the 
contrast between the depth of degradation and barbarism, and the light 
and liberty of civilization, so rapidly realized in these islands under the 
humanizing influence of the Christian religion. Illustrated. 

The Republic of Liberia Stockwell, - 1 2o 

This volume treats of the geography, climate, soil, and productions 
of this interesting country en toe coast of Africa, with a History of 
ita early settlement Onr colored citizens especially, from whom the 
founders of the new State went forth, should read Mr. StockwelTs 
account of it. It is so arranged as to be available for a Sob ool Reader, 
and in colored schools is peculiarly appropriate as an instrument of 
education for the young. Liberia is likely to bear on important part 
in tliaihtnie of their race. 

Ancient Monasteries of the East Curzon 1 so 

The exploration of these ancient seats of learning has thrown much 
light upon the researches of tin historian, the philologist, and the theo- 
logian, as \rell as the general student of antiquity. Illustrated. 

Discoveries in Babylon & Nineveh Layard 1 75 

Valuable alike for the information imparted with regard to these most 
interesting ruins, and the pleaaint adventures and observations of the 
author in regions that to most men seem like Fairyland. Illustrated. 

A Run Through Europe-Benedict 2 oo 

A work replete with instruction and interest. 

St. Petersburgh Jermann 1 oo 

Americans are less familiar with the history and social customs of the 
Russian people than those of any other mtfdern civilized nation. Oppor- 
tunities such as this took affords are not, therefore, to be neglected. 



The Polar Regions Osborn 



A thrilling and intensely Interesting narrative of one of the famous ex- 
peditions in search of Sir John Franklin unsuccessful in its main object, 
but adding many facts to the repertoire of science. 

Thirteen Months in the Confederate Army 75 

The author, a northern man conscripted into the Confederate service, 
and rising from the ranks by soldierly conduct to positions of responsi- 
bility, had remarkable opportunities for the acquisition of facts respect- 
ing the conduct of the Southern armies, and the policy and deeds of their 
leaders. He participated in many engagements, and his book is one of 
tie most exciting narratives of adventure over published. Mr. Steven- 
son takes no around as a partisan, but views the whole subject as with the 
eye of a neutral only interested in suDserving the ends of history by fho 
contribution of impartial facts. Illustrated, 

56 



National School Library. 



LIBRARY OF REFERENCE. 
Home Cyclopaedia of Literature & Fine Arts *3 oo 

A complete iudex to all terms employed In belles lettres, philosophy, theology, 
law, mythology, pointing, music, sculpture, architecture, and all kindred arts. 

The Rhyming Dictionary Walker .... 1 25 

A serviceable manual to composers, being a complete Index of allowable rhymes. 

The Topical Lexicon- Williams 175 

The useful terms of the English language classified by subjects zn& arranged ac- 
cording to their affinities of meaning, with etymologies, definitions and illustra- 
tions. A very entertaining and instructive work. 

Mathematical Dictionary Davies & Peck . 5 oo 

A thorough compendium of the science, with illustrations and definitions. 

RELIGIOUS LIBRARY. 
The Service of Song Stacy Ji so 

A treatise on Singing, in public and private devotion. Its history, office, and 
importance considered. 

True Success In Life Palmer 81 so 

Earnest words for the young who are just about to meet the responsibilities and 
temptations of mature life. 

"Remember Me" Palmer 1 so 

Preparation for the Holy Communion. 

Chrysostom, or the Mouth of Gold Johnson 1 oo 

An entertaining dramatic sketch, by Rev. Edwin Johnson, illustrating the life 
and times of St. Ohrysostom. 

The Memorial Pulpit Robinson, a Tok, each i so 

A series of wide-awake sermons by the popular pastor of the Memorial Presby- 
terian Charch, New York. 

Responsive Worship Budington ..... GO 

An argument in favor of alternate Scripture reading by Pastor and Congregation. 

Lady Willoughby 1 oo 

Ths diary of a wife and mother. An historical romance of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. At once beautiful and pathetic, entertaining and instructive. 



Favorite Hymns Restored-Gage 1 25 

Most of the standard hymns have undergone modification or abridgment by com- 
pilers, but this votcme contains them exactly as mitten by the authors. 

Poets' Gift of Consolation 1 50 

A beautiful selection of poems referring to the death of children. 
57 



National School Library. 



VALUABLE LIBRARY BOOKS. 
The Political Manual-Mansfield $1 ^ 

Every American youth should be familiar with the principles of the government 
under which he lives, especially as the policy of this country will one day oall upon 
him to participate in it, at least to the extent of his ballot 

American Institutions De Tocqueville . . 1 50 
Democracy in America De Tocqueville . - 2 50 

The views of this distinguished foreigner on the genius of out political institu- 
tions are of unquestionable value, as proceeding from a standpoint whence wo sel- 
dom have an opportunity to hear. 

Constitutions of the United States . . . . 8 5 

Contains the Constitution of the General Government, and of the several State 
Governments, the Declaration of Independence, and other important documents 
relating to American history. Indispensable as a work of reference. 

Public Economy of the United States a 25 

A rail discussion of the relations of the United States with other nations, espe- 
cially the feasibility of a free-trade policy. 

Grecian and Roman Mythology Dwight . 3 oo 

The presentation, in a systematic form, of the Fables of Antiquity, affords moat 
entertaining reading, and is valuable to all as an index to the mythological allusions 
so frequent in literature, as well as to students of the classics who would peruse in- 
telligently the classical authors. Illustrated. 

General View of the Fine Arts Huntington 1 75 

The preparation of this work was suggested by the interested inquiries of a 
group of young people concerning the productions and styles of the great masters 
of art, whose names only were familiar. This statement is sufficient index of its 
character. 

The Poets of Connecticut-Everest . . . . i w 

With the biographical sketches, this volume forms a complete history of the 
poetical literature of the State. 

TheSonofaGenius-Hofland 75 

A juvenile daesic which never weare out, and finds many interested readers in 
every generation of youth. 

Sunny Hours of Childhood ' 75 ' 

Interesting and moral stories for children. 

Morals for the Young-Willard 75 

A series of moral stories, by one of the most experienced of American educators, 
lutistratea. 

Improvement of the Mind-Isaac Watts so 

^ A classical standard, No young pereon should grow up without having perused 
58 



Church Music, etc. 



PUBLIC WORSHIP. 



Songs for the Sanctuary, 



Hymns of the Church, - 

(Undenominational.) By REV. DBS. ' 



By RET. C. S. Bosixsov. 1344 Hymns, with Tunes. The most successful modern 
.. *, slagtafr More than goo no) copies have 



been sold. Separate editions ftr Presbyterian, Congregational, and Ba 

Churches. Editions without Tunes, $1.75; in large type, $3.50. Abridged ed. 

? Songs for Christian Worship "), 859 Hymns, will Tunes, $1.60. Chapel edition, 
607 Hymns, with Tunes, $1.40. 

International Singing Annual, 25 

Metrical Tune Book, l 00 

To be used with any hymn-book. By PHILDP Pmmps. 

Baptist Praise Book, 3 50 

By RET. DBS. FULLBB.LEYT, PHELPS, FISH, ABKITAOB. WINKLER, EVABTS, Lou- 
OCEB and MASLY. and J. P. HOLBBOOK, Esq.. 1311 Hymns, with Tunes, Edition 
without Tunea, $1.75. Chapel edition, 650 Hymns, with Tunes, -$1,26. 

Plymouth Collection, '. . a 60 

(Congregational.) By RET. HENBY WABD BEIOHBE. 1874 Hymns, with Tones. 
Separate edition for Baptist Churches. Editions without Tunes, $1.25 and $175. 

2 75 

, . _ ... THOHDPBOUT, VBBMILTB, and Era>r. 1007 

Hymns, with Tunes. The use of this book is required in all congregations of the 
Beformed Church in America. Edition without Times, $1.75. Chapel edition 
("Hymns of Prayer and Praise ") 820 Hymns, with Tunes, 75 cts. 

Episcopal Common Praise, 2 75 

The Service set to appropriate Music, with Tunes for all the Hymns in the Book 
of Common Prayer. 

Hymnal, with Tunes, 1 36 

(Episcopal) By HAH, & WnraBiar. The new Hymnal, set to Music. Edition 
with Tchants, $160. Edition of Hymns only ("Companion'* Hymnal), 60cts. 

Quartet and Chorus Choir, 3 oo 

By J. P. HOLBBOOK. Containing Music for the Unadapted Hymns in Songs for 
the Sanctuary. 

Christian HelodieS. BTGEO.B.CH^YEE. Hymns and Tones. 1 00 
Mount ZlOn Collection. ByT.E.PnonKs. PortheChoir. 1 25 
Selah. ByTK08.HAsrnr. Forthe Choir. 1 25' 

Public Worship (Partly Responsive) .... $1 00 

Containing complete services (not Episcopal) for five SaVbathe : for nsein schools, 
public institutions, summer resorts, churches -without a settled pastor; in short, 
wherever Christians desire to worship-no clergyman being present 

The Union Prayer Book, ' 2 so 

A Manual for Public and Private Worship. With those features which are ob- 
. Jectionable to other denominations of Christians than Episcopal eliminated or 
modified. Contains a Service for Sunday Schools and Family Prayers. 

The Psalter, I6mo, eo cts.; 8vo, 90 

Selections from the Psalms, for responsive reading. 

59 



School Furniture* 



FURNITURE. 



(SUPPLIED BY THE NATIONAL SCHOOL FURNITURE CO.) 

PEARD'S PATENT FOLDING DESK AND SETTEE. 

This great improvement for the school-room lias come already into such, astonish- 
ing demand as to tax the utmost resources of the company's two factories to sup- 
ply it. By a simple movement the desk-lid is folded away over the back of the 
settee attached in front, making a false "back, and at once convertiug the school- 
room into a lecture or assembly-room. When the seat also is folded, the whole 
occupies only ten inches qf space, leaving room for gymnastic exercises, marching, 
etc., or for the janitor to clean the room effectively. 

NATIONAL STUDY DESK AND SETTEE. 

When not in use for -writing, the desk-lid slides back vertically into a chamber, 
leaving in front an " easel," with clamps, upon which thp student places his book 
and studies in an erect posture. As a folding-desk this offers many of the same 
advantages as the "Peard." J 

THE GEM DESK AND SETTEE. 

Fixed top, and folding seat. This is the neatest pattern of the Standard Schoo) 
Desk, and the strongest in. use. 

THE ECONOMIC DESK AND SETTEE. 

1MB IB the ctuapest gooS desk, with rtattoimy lid and folding seat 
AS description!! of 

HIGH SCHOOL DESKS, SCHOOL SETTEES, 

TEACHERS' DESKS, CHURCH SETTEES, 

BLACKBOARDS, PEW ENDS, 

CHAIRS, . LECTERNS, Etc. 

Abo, 



CLASS AND LECTURE CHAIR. 



The Peabody Correspondence. 

NEW YOKE, April S9, 186T. 

TO THE BOABD OF TBUSTEBS OF THE PBABODT EDUCATIONAL FUND : 

GENTLEMEN Having been for many years intimately connected with the educa- 
tional interests of the South, we are desirous of expressing our appreciation of the 
noble charity which yon represent. The Peabody Fuucf, to encourage and aid 
common schools in these war-desolated States, cannot fail of accomplishing a great 
and good work, the beneficent results of which, as they will be exhibited in the 
future, not only of the stricken population of the South, but of the nation at large, 
seem almost incalculable. 

It is probable that the nsc of meritorious text-books will prove a most' effective 
agency toward the thorough accomplishment of Mr. Peabody' s benevolent design. 
As we publish many which, are considered such, wo have selected from our list 
some of the most valuable, and ask the privilege of placing them in your hands for 
gratuitous distribution in connection with the fund or which you hare charge, 
among the teachers and in the schools of the destitute South. 

Observing that the training of teachers (through the agency of Normal Schools 
and otherwise) is to be a prominent feature of your undertaking, we offer you for 
this purpose 5,000 volumes of the "Teachers' Library," a series of professional 
works designed for the efficient self-education of those who are in their turn to 
teach others as follows: 

600 Page's Theory and Practice of Teach- 250 Bates 1 Method of Teachers 1 Institutes 
ing. 250 De Tocqueville's American Instifns 

600 Welches Manual of Object-Lessons. 250 Dwightfs Higher Christian Edncat'n. 
ftOODavies 1 Outlines of Mathematical 350 History of Education. 

Science. 259 Mansfield on American Education. 

350 Holbrooke Normal Methods of 859 Mayhew on Universal Education. 
Teaching. 950 NorthencTe Teachers' Assistant 

550 Wells on Graded Schools. 250 Northend's Teacher and Parent. 

350 Jewell on School Government 230 Boot on School Amusements. 
350 Fowled Teachers 1 Institute. 250 Stone's Teachers' Examiner. 

In addition to these we also ask that you mil accept 25,000 volumes of school- 
books for intermediate classes, embracing 
5,000 The National Second Reader. 6,000 Beers' Penmanship. 
6,000 Davies' Written Arithmetic. COO First Book of Science. 

5,000 MoEteith's Second Book in Geog- 500 Jams' Physiology and Health. 

raphy. 500 Peck's Ganot's Natural Philosophy. 

8,000 MonteWs United States History. 500 Smith & Martin's Book-keeping. 

Should your Board consent to undertake the distribution of these volumes, we 
filial! hold ourselves in readiness to pack and ship the same in such quantities and 
to such points as you may designate. 

We farther propose that, should you find it advisable to use a greater quantity of 
our publications in the prosecution of your phns, we will donate, for the benefit 
of this cause, twenty-five per cent, of the usual wholesale price of the books needed. 

Hoping that our request will r eet with your approval, and that we may have 
the pleasure of contributing in this way to wants with which we deeply sympa- 
thizo, we are, gentlemen, very respectfully yours, A. S. BARNES & CO. 

BOSTON, May 7, 1807. 
MESSRS. A. S. BAENES & Co., PUBLISHERS, NEW YOKE: 

GENTLEMEN Your communication of the 29th ult,, addressed to the Trustees of 
the Peabody Education Fund, has been handed to me by our general agent, the 
Rev. Dr. Soars. I shall take the greatest pleasure in laying it before the board at 
their earliest meeting. I am unwilling, however, to postpone its acknowledgment 
so long, and hasten to assure you of the high value which I place upon your gift. 
Five thousand volumes of your "Teachers' Library," and twenty-five thousand 
volumes of " School-books for intermediate classes," make up a most munificent 
contribution to the cause of Southern education in which we are engaged. Dr. 
Sears is well acquainted with the books you have so generously offered us, and 
unites with me>in the highest appreciation of the gift. Yon will be glad to know, 
too, that your letter reached us in season to be communicated to Mr. Peabody, be- 
fore he embarked for England on the 1st inst., and that he expressed the greatest 
gratification and gratitude on hearing what you had offered. 

Believe me, gentlemen, with the highest respect and regard* yonr obliged and 
obedient servant, EOBT. C, WESTHEOP, Chairman. 

61 



National Series of Standard Sckool-Soofcs. 



GENERAL INDEX TO 

A S. BARNES & Co.'s DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE; 



ACOUSTICS .... 
AESTHETICS. < 

AXOBBRA 

ASTAXYSIS.... 

ANATOMY 

APTABATUS... 



PAGE 



ASTBONOUT i 

BELLES LETTBXS . 



47 

..17, 18, 21 
... M 38 



BlOGBAPHY 

BOOK-KEBPINQ-,. 

BOTANY 



,.7,83 
...84 
... 87 
... 80 



CALCULUS....... 

CABDS (tor Wall) 7, 47 

CHAIBB 60 

CHABTS 7, 8,10,83, 47 

OHBKICJLt.ArPABA.Tn8 80 

Oraanswj 80,34 

CHUBCH Music 59 

CIVIL GoTOSsocmrT 39, 68 

CLASSICS 44 

COMPOSITION 88 

COPT BOOKS 28 



DBVIKEBS 

DESKS 

DlSTOTIOIf . ..!... *..... 

DlALOOTTBS _- 

DICTATION 8 

DICTIONARIES 9, 17, 60, 57 

DBAWING- 96 




KKYB 10,17,84 



PAGE 

LATDT .............................. 44 

LEXICONS .................. 9,17,50, 67 

LIBBABT ....................... 49, 68 

LimsBATuras ................. 1,7,36, 62 

Loom ........................ !. .17, 88 

12,26 
15,47 
17,81 
S8 



MAPS 

MATHEMATICS 

MECHANICS 

MENTAL PHILOSOPHY 

MOUAU .......................... 39, 58 

Music ............................ 48< 59 

MYTHOLOGY ...................... 44, 58 



NATURAL HISTOBT 

NATUBAL PHILOSOPHY...,., 

NATUBAL SCIENCE 27-35 j 55 

NATIGATION 17 



OBJECT LESSONS., 

OPTICS 

OBTHOGBAPHT,... 



..1,8 



PENMANSHIP 22 

PJBNS 28 

PHILOSOPHY, INTELLECTUAL 39 

Do. NATUBAL 28,34 

PHTBIOLOQT 32 

POETBY 36, 52 

POLITICAL ECONOMY 36,58 

POLITICAL ScmNos. ............. 39, 58 

PBAYEB 48,69 

PRDOIBS 1 




TABLETS 7, 47 

TACTICS 46 

TEACHERS'* LIBBABT .49-61 

TEACHERS 1 MONTHLY. A 

TRAVEL 66 

TBieONOJOBIBY 17, 18 

44 

8,9,89 



. 83